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EN
The paper focuses on the analysis of the impact of technical, organizational and human factors on accident rate in small-sized enterprises. The research was carried out using the authors’ questionnaire. The results were verified using the method of direct interview with elements of observation. The results were compared with the trends prevailing in enterprises of EU countries. The respondents, i.e. production company workers, indicate technical factors as those which most significantly affect the occurrence of accidents at work. However, the assessment of the factors changes with the age of the respondents. Older workers, more often than younger employees, indicate the ones related to man or work organization as the most important factors affecting accidents at work and, consequently, the level of occupational safety. The presented results are a part of a larger whole project the authors of this paper are working on.
EN
Purpose: Develop a system of automated occupational health and safety management to improve the procedure for minimizing occupational risks and ensure comprehensive protection of employees from the impacts of negative factors of the systems "man - machine - environment". Design/methodology/approach: The following set of scientific methods was used in the study: analysis of normative-legal documents and scientific-technical literature in the field of building and functioning of occupational safety and health management systems, methods of system analysis, simulation methods, namely discrete-event simulation (DES) of random and dynamic processes, methods of decision theory and data mining. Findings: Based on the results of the research, a system of automated occupational health and safety management, which due to the connection the functionally independent elements (according to a certain scheme) allows to provide comprehensive protection of employees from the impacts of negative factors of the system "man - machine - environment" and reduce occupational injuries and diseases, was developed. This is done by constant monitoring and promt correcting of parameters of impact on the employee of the specified factors. The developed system was implemented in the occupational health and safety management system of the industrial enterprise "Stalkanat-Silur" (Odessa, Ukraine), resulting in reducing the number of accidents, in particular, in dangerous areas of production by 33.3%, increasing the economic efficiency of the enterprise through increasing the level of productivity by 5% and reducing in the number of social insurance payments by 11%. Research limitations/implications: The developed system can be implemented both within separate industrial premises and in the enterprise as a whole, but the number of its elements could be changed (increase / decrease) depending on the number of jobs and dangerous areas that need control. Practical implications: The implementation of the proposed system allows to increase the level of economic efficiency of the enterprise by increasing the level of labor productivity due to reducing the negative impact on the employee of harmful factors and compliance with rational mode of work and rest in each workplace, as well as by reducing the number of social insurance payments due to reducing the occupational injuries and diseases. Originality/value: For the first time the system of automated occupational health and safety, which, in contrast to existing automated occupational risk minimization systems and traditional occupational health and safety management systems, provides comprehensive protection of employees from the the impacts negative factors of the system "man - machine-environment", by constant monitoring the parameters of such impact and their prompt correction in case of deviation of the specified parameters from the set criteria, was developed and proposed for use at enterprises, institutions and organizations.
EN
Despite constant efforts to improve safety in the railway environment, various accidents and incidents happen, resulting in material damage and in the worst case, loss of human lives. This article emphasises the need for proper identification of risks, their constant monitoring, and evaluation of all causes that arise at railway crossings. Furthermore, this paper aims to apply the Reason model to the problems of railway crossings within the case study on the railway network in Slovakia. The timeliness of the problem lies in the possibility of preventing such issues in the operation of rail transport using this model. Prevention is an effective way of averting the serious consequences of accidents in the future.
PL
Obecne podejście do zagadnień bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem ochrony zdrowia pracowników musi wykraczać poza ramy uregulowań prawnych oraz rozwiązań technicznych i technologicznych. Współczesny świat pracy wymaga interdyscyplinarnego podejścia do badań nad bezpieczeństwem i uwzględniania czynnika ludzkiego w najwyższym wymiarze – przez podmiotowe traktowanie każdego pracującego. Ten kontekst badań wiąże się z analizą zachowań pracowniczych, a więc z behawioralnym aspektem problematyki bezpieczeństwa i zdrowia w pracy. Celem niniejszego opracowania jest zaprezentowanie możliwości wykorzystania analizy SWOT do identyfikacji kluczowych czynników wewnętrznych (sił i słabości) oraz zewnętrznych (szans i zagrożeń) wybranego przedsiębiorstwa w kontekście wdrażania koncepcji bezpieczeństwa behawioralnego (BBS).
EN
The current approach to the issues of occupational health and safety, with particular emphasis on the protection of employee health, must go beyond the framework of legal regulations and technical / technological solutions. The contemporary working world requires an interdisciplinary approach to safety research and taking into account the human factor to the greatest extent – by treating each worker as the subject of the research. This research context is related to the analysis of employee behavior, i.e., the behavioral aspect of safety and health at work. The aim of this study is to present the possibility of using SWOT analysis to identify the key internal (strengths and weaknesses) and external (opportunities and threats) factors of a selected enterprise in the context of implementing the behavioral safety concept (BBS).
EN
Purpose: The presented article deals with the analysis of the functioning of the work safety management system in hard coal mining in the example of a selected mine. The basic elements that make up the safety management system are presented, with particular emphasis on employee participation. Design/methodology/approach: Empirical research was conducted in the form of a questionnaire addressed to employees. Literature research of the subject was carried out. Findings: In a modern enterprise, all employees, at all levels, must be involved in creating the desired safety culture. Every regular employee must realistically see respect and compliance with OHS regulations by the supervision and the top management of the Mine. Practical implications: The issues raised in the article significantly affect the improvement of preventive methods related to work safety, including environmental conditions and work organisation, as well as attitudes and behaviour of employees. Originality/value: In safety management, the greatest attention should be devoted to man as the subject of all activities. Because it is the human factor that causes most accidents, and the other factors, often referred to as the work factor, lose their relevance when new technologies and materials are used to provide greater safety.
EN
Purpose: The paper discusses a comprehensive approach to the phenomenon of mobbing within an organization. It shows its characteristics and the causes of this negative phenomenon in an enterprise. It presents the profile of both a mobber and a victim of mobbing. It outlines the course of mobbing, the tactics used in the process and its effects. Design/methodology/approach: Literature research of the subject was carried out. Findings: It also indicates the methods of mobbing prevention, with particular emphasis on the broadly understood prophylaxis, both on the level of organization and the employee. Research limitations/implications: (not applicable) Practical implications: Managerial staff should also develop (or delegate this task to HR or PR department) a program of anti-mobbing activities, taking into account the nature of the organization, improve their qualifications on the management of ethical conflicts, and promote ethical behaviour in the enterprise or institution: promote good practices, appreciate positive behaviour and strongly condemn unethical behaviour. Social implications: Mobbing is a phenomenon that has existed for a long time, but in recent years, in countries where human rights are respected, it was decided to fight this pathology. Originality/value: Mobbing prevention in an enterprise must be a systemic action. First and foremost, it concerns the employer, who should introduce anti-mobbing procedures and immediately react to unacceptable behaviour in the workplace. Employees can also protect themselves from mobbing.
EN
Authors in the article present an original method of risk assessment, taking “human errors" into account in its assumptions, filling an existing methodological gap in this field of study. This article presents a general concept of a method: estimating risk assessment and modeling human factors as the main cause of a road accident. Fuzzy logic techniques have been used to generate the value of the parameter characterizing the human factor. The authors „band” model is used in the calculation of the probability of a traffic accident in the transportation of hazardous products. Literary and original research has been conducted in the development of the model. This new approach to risk assessment takes into account in particular the effect of the human factor on the probability of an accident, as well as the diversity of the different segments making up the total route of a dangerous good. This method is useful for estimating the variability of risk, taking into account the human factor both on planned and existing routes depending on the categorization of road sections, the division into classes of dangerous goods, the effect of possible scenarios, and risks on transport safety.
EN
The small-sized enterprises, i.e. micro, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), constitute the basis of the Polish economy. They are considered as a key element among all economic entities, primarily driving economic growth by strengthening GDP, but also employment growth and social integration. Most of the Polish workers are employed in enterprises of "small size". Therefore, effective management of work safety in micro, small and medium-sized enterprises is essential. It is very important to ensure appropriate and safe working conditions for employees of "small size" economic entities, but also for their long-term functioning on the market. Unfortunately, the results of publicly available reports indicate a relatively low level of occupational health and safety in "small size" enterprises. Occupational safety is considered primarily through the analysis of the basic triad of factors, which are - "technical safety at work" (T), "organizational safety at work" (O) and "human factor" (L). The paper presents the results of research conducted in "small-sized" enterprises (micro and small enterprises), including the analysis of technical, organizational and human factors. The tools that were used to implement the research assumptions include a questionnaire for the identification of threats in "small-sized" enterprises and the assessment of factors that affect work safety - with statistical analysis.
PL
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie innowacyjności w różnych gałęziach polskiego przemysłu z uwzględnieniem produkcji artykułów spożywczych. Omówione zostały istota oraz znaczenie innowacji i innowacyjności, uwarunkowania działalności innowacyjnej przedsiębiorstw, rodzaje innowacji oraz czynnik ludzki w organizacjach innowacyjnych jak również działalność innowacyjna przedsiębiorstw w latach 2016–2018 w świetle analiz statystycznych przeprowadzonych przez Główny Urząd Statystyczny.
EN
The aim of the article is to present innovation in various branches of Polish industry, including the production of food products. The essence and significance of innovation and innovation, determinants of innovative activity of enterprises, types of innovation and human factor in innovative organizations as well as innovative activity of enterprises in 2016–2018 in the light of statistical analyzes carried out by the Statistics Poland were discussed.
EN
Introduction/background: The paper pointed out the main elements of the human risk factor procedures shows the complexity of human risk factor management. Aim of the paper: The aim of this paper is to analyze the human risk factor in open pit mining, especially on compliance with safety rules and regulations. Materials and methods: The presented survey, in the form of a questionnaire, was conducted in an open pit coal mine involving 476 mineworkers. The goals were to determine factors with the biggest influence on risk and to create a model for predicting the behavior of mining workers. Results and conclusions: The obtained results indicate that leadership plays an important role in worker behavior. A supportive leadership style results in more responsible employee behavior and a lower probability of deviation to rules and procedures. The result also indicates that the safe behavior of workers is strongly influenced by the difficult to control factor of "life satisfaction". It has also been found that riskier work and longer work experience increases the likelihood of breaking the rules. Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are partly influenced by national culture. Practical implications: The obtained results indicate the need for continuous improvement in the risk management process and the rules and procedures by applying worker feedback.
PL
Ostatnie 50 lat upłynęło pod znakiem postępu technologicznego dzięki pojawieniu się teleoperacji i automatyzacji w wielu aspektach procesu wydobywczego. Nadal istnieją jednak przeszkody, które utrudniają wprowadzenie automatyzacji i szybki postęp technologiczny w wielu kopalniach. Jedną z kluczowych przeszkód jest nadal czynnik ludzki.
EN
Positive effects of technological changes can be observed in the continual improvement of productivity, quality of life and enhanced safety, among others. However, their implementation is hampered by, i.a., worker’s reluctance to change, cultural issues, fear of staff cuts, differences between governmental and regional development plans, demand for new abilities etc. Mining plants deal with these problems in various ways, for instance by creating innovations including soft skills, establishing technological centres, introducing simulators.
EN
The problem considered in the paper is as follows. The patient with lumbal pain is coming to General Practitioner (GP). The undesirable result is GP’s decision to treat the patient by him/herself in spite of the patient should be directed to medical specialist or hospital. In order to find the ways how the adverse outcomes occur, a system approach called Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) has been applied. The examples of emerging the unwanted GP’s decision, as a consequence of functional resonance have been given. Proposals how to avoid unwanted outcomes have been suggested.
PL
W pracy podjęto zagadnienie podjęcia leczenia pacjenta przez lekarza podstawowej opieki zdrowotnej (POZ), mimo że pacjent powinien być skierowany do szpitala lub specjalisty. Do znalezienia sposobów zaistnienia niepożądanego skutku zastosowano jedno z podejść systemowych, a mianowicie metodę analizy rezonansu funkcjonalnego (FRAM). Przedstawiono dwa przykłady wyłaniania się błędnej decyzji w konsekwencji rezonansu funkcjonalnego i propozycje zapobiegania podjęciu takich decyzji.
13
Content available remote Fatigue risk management of the operator based on selected examples
EN
The article presents issues related to methods of risk management related to operator fatigue. An organization that wants to safely carry out operational tasks need effective methods and tools for risk assessment in safety system to increase the chances and likelihood of the organization achieving its goals. In this case, it is about identifying the risk of fatigue at work, controlling it and minimizing its negative effects. The article presents, on the example of a pilot, the possibilities of managing the risk of fatigue at work, both in the reactive, proactive and predictive dimensions, using selected examples of methods and tools. The summary emphasizes the need for a systemic risk management related to fatigue at work.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zagadnienia związane z metodami zarządzania ryzykiem związanym ze zmęczeniem operatora. Organizacja, która chce bezpiecznie realizować zadania operacyjne potrzebuje efektywnych metod i narzędzi do szacowania ryzyka w systemie bezpieczeństwa, aby zwiększyć szanse oraz prawdopodobieństwo osiągnięcia przez organizację celów. W tym przypadku chodzi o rozpoznanie ryzyka związanego ze zmęczeniem w pracy, sterowanie nim i zminimalizowanie jego negatywnych skutków. W artykule przedstawiono, na przykładzie pilota, możliwości zarządzania ryzykiem jego zmęczenia w pracy, zarówno w wymiarze reaktywnym, proaktywnym, jak i predyktywnym, wykorzystując wybrane przykłady stosowanych metod i narzędzi. W podsumowaniu podkreślono konieczność podejścia systemowego do zarządzania ryzykiem związanym ze zmęczeniem.
14
Content available remote Counteracting unmanned aerial systems in the operational area of airports
EN
Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are treated as an opportunity, a challenge and a threat to airports, but the author decided to focus on the last aspect, in particular on countering UAS in operational area of airports. Due to the above, this article aims to address the characteristics of systems used to counteract and combat (neutralize) UAV in the airport's operational area. There are used the following research methods: analysis, synthesis, inference, comparison, abstracting and expert interview. To achieve the assumed aim, the author performed two research tasks: presentation of the importance of unmanned aerial systems as well as identification and discussion of the selected threats to airports resulting from the use of unmanned aerial systems. The presented material shows that countering unmanned aerial systems is a complex issue which requires the use of a combination of different solutions.
PL
Bezzałogowe systemy powietrzne stanowią jednocześnie szansę, wyzwanie i zagrożenia dla lotnisk, przy czym autor postanowił skupić się na ostatnim aspekcie, głównie na przeciwdziałaniu BSP w rejonie operacyjnym lotnisk. W związku z powyższym, za cel artykułu przyjęto: charakterystykę systemów służących przeciwdziałaniu i zwalczaniu BSP w rejonie operacyjnym lotnisk. Przy opracowywaniu materiału autor posłużył się następującymi metodami badawczymi: analiza, synteza, wnioskowanie, porównanie, abstrahowanie oraz wywiad ekspercki. By zrealizować założony cel pracy, autor wykonał dwa zadania badawcze: przedstawienie istoty bezzałogowych systemów powietrznych oraz identyfikacja i omówienie wybranych zagrożeń dla lotnisk, powstałych w wyniku wykorzystania bezzałogowych systemów powietrznych. Z zaprezentowanego materiału wynika, że przeciwdziałanie bezzałogowym systemom powietrznym to złożony problem, wymagający stosowania kombinacji różnych rozwiązań.
15
Content available remote Analysis of the operation of the ground handling agent in the aspect of safety
EN
The role of the human factor in aviation is a critical element for the safety of flight operations. It is described by methods such as SHELL and BowTie, which propose solutions to minimize the risk of occurrence of aviation events. The work presents the development of these concepts by introducing the method of testing the predisposition of airport staff using a specialized system which is the Polipsychograph - a system dedicated to designing and carrying out psychological tasks testing human mental, cognitive and motor skills in connection with the assessment of his professional capabilities. The work contains the results of 40 tests performed on employees dealing with airport ground handling on a daily basis. Research has shown that the employee's predisposition depends on the quality of work entrusted to him. The paper presents a method of assessing the psychophysical predisposition of an employee allowing him to be directed to work corresponding to his qualifications.
PL
Rola czynnika ludzkiego w lotnictwie stanowi krytyczny element dla bezpieczeństwa operacji lotniczych. Opisują go takie metody jak SHELL oraz BowTie, które proponują rozwiązania w celu minimalizacji ryzyka występowania zdarzeń lotniczych. Praca przedstawia rozwinięcie tych koncepcji poprzez wprowadzenie metody badania predyspozycji personelu lotniskowego przy użyciu specjalistycznego sytemu, jakim jest Polipsychograf – przeznaczonego do projektowania i przeprowadzania psychologicznych zadań testujących sprawności umysłowe, poznawcze i motoryczne człowieka w związku z oceną jego możliwości zawodowych. Praca zawiera wyniki 40 testów wykonanych na pracownikach zajmujących się na co dzień obsługą naziemną portu lotniczego. Badania wykazały istnienie zależności predyspozycji pracownika od jakości wykonania powierzonej mu pracy. W pracy przedstawiono metodę oceny predyspozycji psychofizycznych pracownika pozwalającą na skierowania go do pracy odpowiadającej jego kwalifikacjom.
EN
Introduction: Pedestrians aged over 65 are known to be a critical group in terms of road safety because they represent the age group with the highest number of fatalities or injured people in road accidents. With a current ageing population throughout much of the developed world, there is an imminent need to understand the current transportation requirements of older adults, and to ensure sustained safe mobility and healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study is to capture and analyze the key components that influence the identification of design solutions and strategies aimed at improving the safety of pedestrian paths for elderly. Method: A survey was conducted in 5 different locations in Catania, Italy. The locations were specifically chosen near to attraction poles for elderly pedestrians (e.g. centers for the elderly, squares, churches). Participants were recruited in person, so as to select exclusively people over 70. The sample comprised 322 participants. Both Hierarchical and K-Means clustering were used in order to explore which solutions elderly pedestrian propose for improving the safety of pedestrian path. Results: The results show that the judgment expressed by the elderly on the solutions for improving pedestrian safety is linked to the gender, to the experience as road users, and to mobility and vision problems. All solutions proposed regard road infrastructure (improvement of pedestrian crossings and of sidewalks, implementation of traffic calming measures, improvement of lighting), except for police supervision. Conclusion: This study has identified the factors that influence the identification of the best solutions to increase the safety level of pedestrian paths for elderly people. The aspects related to human factors considered were the gender, the factors associated with the experience as road users and the factors related to age related problems (mobility, vision and hearing problems). The results of this research could support traffic engineers, planners, and decision-makers to consider the contributing factors in engineering measures to improve the safety of vulnerable users such as elderly pedestrians.
EN
In this article, the Crew Resource Management (CRM) is described as an important element of the flight safety system aimed at preparing and supplying the aircraft crews with the necessary knowledge and competencies in the area of personal and group performances and limitations (Human Factor – HF). It also presents the CRM training requirements for both flight and cabin personnel in commercial aviation, as well as selected issues regarding the training of the military aviation personnel in the field of human factors and CRM. This paper identifies the common CRM training areas in the field of civil and military, and also presents the fundamental differences and challenges faced by the military aviation in the area of CRM training, based on one of the five key factors of the “5M model” by James Reason influencing the aviation incidents – “Media” (Environment).
18
EN
The paper focuses on the issues related to motivating employees to work safely in the enterprise. The characteristics of the motivational process and definitions are presented. The general approach to the process of employee motivation is discussed, including the instruments used to stimulate work motivation, both pay and non-pay methods of motivation, e.g. the possibility of promotion, participation. The chosen model of activities shaping safe behavior of employees was also presented, as well as specific methods and means of motivating to work safely.
EN
This article looks at the role of flight training devices in the process of instruction and training pilots. It also examines the impact of pilot training using flight simulators on reducing the human factor in accidents.
EN
Today, every industry is striving for the highest efficiency and best economic results possible, with the greatest possible competitiveness. But in maritime affairs, human safety and environmental protection are the foundations of sustainability. To achieve this, marine systems must be reliable, high quality and easy to maintain. Because of this, reliability has become an important factor in safety, which remains relevant throughout the lifetimes of ship systems, including fire alarm systems. In this paper we address a number of issues connected with the reliability – and ‘availability’ of these systems. Firstly, ship fire alarm systems consist of various components whose individual reliability affect the system’s overall reliability. Discussions of reliability in ship fire alarm systems normally focus on the length of a system’s useful life or performance during design-based fire events. In addition to the reliability of systems, their availability for use is also crucial given the possibility that the system may need to operate at any point in time.
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