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EN
The conditions of use of the vehicle significantly affect the performance results. Traffic conditions in a specific city directly affect the consumption of energy, fuel and emissions of harmful compounds in exhaust fumes. Conduction of the measurements of a vehicle’s performance parameters in operating conditions is very troublesome and is often not possible to realize. An alternative is to use the simulation programs. Vehicle simulation programs offer options related to vehicle models or drive unit components and allow development of new models. Based on the results of simulation testing, it is possible to analyse the level of fuel and energy consumption as well as emissions of harmful compounds in exhaust gases and the operating effectiveness of the drive system in the speed profile. The paper presents the evaluation of the effectiveness of using hybrid electric drive system in passenger cars in medium-sized city traffic conditions using the Kielce example. The simulation tests were based on the speed profiles recorded during real-world test drives in various times of the day. The simulation results were used to conduct an analysis of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions recorded by conventional and hybrid vehicles.
PL
Warunki użytkowania pojazdu mają znaczący wpływ na parametry eksploatacyjne pojazdu. Warunki ruchu w określonym mieście bezpośrednio wpływają na zużycie energii, paliwa i poziom emisji szkodliwych związków zawartych w spalinach. Przeprowadzenie pomiarów parametrów eksploatacyjnych pojazdu w warunkach rzeczywistych jest kłopotliwe i często niemożliwe do zrealizowania. Alternatywą jest wykorzystanie symulacji komputerowych. Programy do symulacji pojazdów oferują, między innymi, modele pojazdów lub komponentów układu napędowego oraz pozwalają na opracowanie nowych modeli. Na podstawie wyników badań symulacyjnych możliwa jest analiza poziomu zużycia paliwa, energii, emisji szkodliwych związków zawartych w spalinach oraz efektywności pracy układu napędowego w profilu prędkości. W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono ocenę efektywności zastosowania napędów hybrydowych w samochodach osobowych w warunkach ruchu miasta średniej wielkości na przykładzie Kielc. Do badań symulacyjnych wykorzystano profile prędkości, zarejestrowane podczas rzeczywistych przejazdów w różnych porach dnia. Na podstawie wyników symulacji przeprowadzono analizę zużycia paliwa oraz emisji zanieczyszczeń, zarejestrowanych dla pojazd z napędem konwencjonalnym oraz pojazdów z napędem hybrydowym.
2
EN
The purpose of the paper was to analyse the trends observed at air monitoring stations in the Malopolska Province - one of the most polluted regions in Poland. The study was carried out on the basis of long-term measurement data registered at five selected stations of automatic monitoring of air quality in the Malopolska Province. Trends evaluation was made on the basis of mean annual concentrations, taken from the database of the Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Poland. Separately for each basic air pollutant, such as SO2, NO2, NOx, CO, PM10 and O3, trend lines and their linear equations were determined to illustrate the direction of changes in concentrations. The obtained equations of the trend lines indicate the threat to the environment in the Malopolska Province. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that for recent years there has been observed the concentration decrease of main air pollutants, except of tropospheric ozone.
PL
Zanieczyszczenia powietrza oddziałują zarówno na człowieka, jak i całe środowisko naturalne: gleby, wody, ziemię, zwierzęta i rośliny. Jednym z nich jest pył zawieszony. Badania stężeń frakcji tego pyłu PM10, PM2,5, PM1,0 z liniowych źródeł komunikacyjnych zaplanowano i wykonano na Woli, jednej z dzielnic Warszawy. Pomiary za pomocą pyłomierza DustTrak II odbywały się dwa razy w ciągu doby w różnym czasie, ale w tych samych punktach pomiarowych, znajdujących się przy wybranych arteriach komunikacyjnych. Wpływ liniowych źródeł emisji pyłu zależy bardzo często od stanu technicznego pojazdów, ale również bardzo duże znaczenie ma sposób organizacji i natężenie ruchu oraz przepustowość dróg. Zwrócono uwagę na to, że bardzo istotny wpływ na rozkład stężeń pyłu zawieszonego w powietrzu atmosferycznym mają między innymi warunki meteorologiczne. Zjawisko inwersji termicznej w sposób istotny utrudnia ruchy zanieczyszczonych mas powietrza, w wyniku czego masy te kumulują się na danym terenie, powodując gromadzenie się mgły oraz wzmacnianie się smogu na obszarze, gdzie wystąpiła duża emisja zanieczyszczeń.
EN
Air pollution affects both man and the whole natural environment-soil, water, animals and plants. One of the key pollutants of the atmospheric air is the suspended dust. Investigations of the concentrations of this PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0 fractions from linear communication sources were planned and carried out in Wola, one of the Warsaw districts . The measurements using the DustTrak II dust meter took place twice a day at different times, but at the same measuring points located at selected traffic arteries. The influence of linear dust emission sources depends very often on the technical condition of vehicles, but also the manner of organization and volume of traffic as well as road capacity are very important. It has been pointed out that the meteorological conditions have a very significant influence on the distribution of particulate matter suspended in the atmospheric air. The phenomenon of the thermal inversion significantly impedes the movements of the contaminated air masses, as a result of which these masses are cumulated in a given area, causing the accumulation of fog and strengthening the smog in the area where a large emission of pollutants occurred.
EN
The article presents the possibilities of applying the methodology of modelling the spread of pollutants in the air for the processes of uncontrolled waste combustion with the use of the Gaussian Dispersion Model (1st generation plume), simultaneously modifying the assumptions for input data in regard to the degree of emission and meteorological parameters assumed for modelling. The model has been adapted to parameters of the assumptions of the Source Characterisation Model (SCM). The publication indicates the suitability of using the described methodology in specific conditions to forecast the spread of a pollution cloud.
PL
Celem pracy było określenie trendów zmian stężeń imisyjnych podstawowych zanieczyszczeń powietrza, takich jak NO2, SO2, PM10, O3, dla wybranych miejscowości w województwie mazowieckim. Podstawą opracowań były dane z okresu 2005-2016, zarejestrowane na automatycznych stacjach monitoringu powietrza w 4 różnych miejscowościach województwa. Każda z wybranych stacji reprezentowała jedną z 4 stref województwa. 1-godzinne surowe dane chwilowe pozyskane z bazy danych Głównego Inspektoratu Ochrony Środowiska uśredniono do stężeń średniomiesięcznych. Uzyskane serie czasowe danych średniomiesięcznych posłużyły do wizualizacji zmian i do statystycznej oceny trendów. Wyznaczone trendy zostały wykorzystane do oceny zagrożenia środowiska. W wyniku analizy trendów stwierdzono, że ogólna tendencja poziomów stężeń zanieczyszczeń w województwie mazowieckim jest spadkowa. Największe obniżenie poziomów stężeń w powietrzu odnotowano w przypadku SO2. Dla stężeń PM10 także zaobserwowano tendencję spadkową. W przypadku NO2 zmiany stężeń były mniej regularne i kierunek zmian zależał od położenia stacji. Dla stężeń O3 stwierdzono spadek lub stabilizację poziomu stężeń.
EN
The purpose of the analysis was to determine the trends of changes in ambient concentrations of basic air pollutants, such as O3, NO2, SO2, PM10, for some chosen sites in Masovian Voivodship. The basis for the studies were data from the period 2005-2016, collected at automatic air monitoring stations at 4 different places in the Voivodship. Each of the selected stations represented one of the four provincial zones. Hourly data obtained from the database of the Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection were averaged to monthly concentrations. The obtained time series of monthly concentrations were used to visualize changes and to estimate trends. The determined trend lines have been used to assess the threat to the environment. As a result of the trend analysis, it was found that the general trend of pollutant concentration levels in the Masovian Voivodship is decreasing. The greatest reduction in air concentration levels was recorded in the case of SO2. In the case of concentrations of PM10, the downward trends were also observed. Only in the case of NOx, the changes in concentrations were less regular and the direction of changes depended on location of the station. For ozone concentrations, the decreasing or the stabilization were observed.
PL
W artykule omówiono prace związane z zastąpieniem dotychczas stosowanej normy dotyczącej filtracji powietrza dla wentylacji ogólnej (PN-EN 779) serią norm PN-EN ISO 16890. Zaprezentowano aktualne zasady badania oraz klasyfikacji filtrów powietrza. Przedstawiono wyniki badania zmian skuteczności filtracji i oporu przepływu aerozolu w zakresie cząstek stałych o wielkości od 0,3 µm do 10 µm, w celu określenia przynależności przykładowego filtru powietrza do grupy PM10, PM2,5 lub PM1.
EN
The article discusses the replacement of the existing standard for air filtration for general ventilation (PN-EN 779) with a series of standards PN-EN IS0 16890 This article presents current T, for testing and classification of an filters. The results of the study which investigated changes in" filtration efficiency and aerosol flow resistance in the range of O 3 µm to 10 µm were presented to determine the inclusion of an exemplary air filter in the group PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. 41
EN
This article presents data on the anthropogenic air emissions of selected substances (CO2, SO2, total suspended particles (TSP), dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), Pb and Cd) subject to reporting under the Climate Convention (UNFCCC) or the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE CLRTAP). It also presents the national emissions of these substances in 2014 by the major source categories and defines the share of metal production in these emissions. Analysis is based on national emission inventory reports. Most important source of air emission in case of CO2 and SO2 is 1.A.1 Energy industries category. TSP and PCDD/F are emitted mainly from fuel combustion in small sources (i.a. households). Emission of heavy metals (Pb and Cd) is connected mostly with 1.A.2. Manufacturing industries and construction category. Metallurgy is significant source of emission only for lead and cadmium from among all considered substances. The shares of particular sectors in the national emissions of given pollutants are important, in view of the possible reduction measures and the determination in which industries they could bring about tangible results.
8
Content available remote Ocena efektu ekologicznego wynikającego z zastosowania kolektorów słonecznych
EN
Climate and energy package is a set of rules designed by member states of European Union to combat climate change. According to these directives the greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced by 20% and the share of energy produced from renewable sources should simultaneously be increased by the same percentage. The use of solar collectors can both improve energy security and reduce the environmental impact caused by the thermal energy industry. An ability to reduce the pollutants, which can be achieved using devices for converting solar radiation into the heat, was determined in this paper. The environmental effect, discussed in the present work, is caused by reducing the demand for domestic water heating. This effect results from the application of thermal solar collectors. The amount of pollutants that are released into the air, emitted from combustion of fuels, was estimated on the basis of the annual energy gain from the solar radiation and emission factors of the selected pollutants recommended by the European Environment Agency (EEA). Net gain of energy from solar panels was determined on the basis of experimental data. The object of the study was the solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system located on the roof of the Hotel for the staff of Bialystok University of Technology (Poland). Experimental studies were carried out under the project financed by the Regional Operational Program of Podlasie Province – stage 1.1 named “Study of the effectiveness of active and passive methods to improve the energy efficiency of infrastructure supported by renewable energy sources”. The construction of the research object was the target of the stage – 5.2 named “Improving the energy efficiency of Bialystok University of Technology infrastructure by use of renewable energy sources” (V. Development of environmental protection infrastructure”). The system consists of two parallel-connected installations. The first includes 21 tube collectors with a total gross area of more than 74 m2. The second unit consists of 35 flat plate collectors with a total gross area of about 72 m2. Eight storage tanks with the capacity of 1000 liters each were placed in the basement of the Hotel. The monitoring system was used to record the installation parameters during its operation. It consists of 17 heat meters, 4 electricity recorders, and 42 platinum resistance temperature sensors. The weather station that captures the basic parameters of outside air and insolation is located near the solar collectors. As a result of studies, it was found that the solar system produced 230.61 GJ heat energy throughout the year. The equation necessary to determine an equivalent amount of energy that is produced in a power plant was presented in this paper. Subsequently, the value of a possible reduction of selected pollutant emissions, which are released into the air, was calculated. Moreover, ΔPj coefficients were proposed for determination of the emissions reduction related to 1 m2 gross area of a solar panel. The main conclusions from the assessment of the impact of applying SDHW system to reduce the air pollution in the urban area were presented at the end of the paper.
PL
Przeprowadzono analizę wpływu rozmiarów ziaren pyłu drogowego i stężenia zapylenia powietrza na prędkość zużycia ściernego elementów tłokowego silnika spalinowego i jego trwałość. Przedstawiono wpływ nadmiernego zużycia elementów skojarzenia T-P-C na spadek mocy silnika. Pokazano erozyjny charakter zużycia elementów silnika turbinowego oraz wpływ rozmiarów ziaren pyłu drogowego i stężenia zapylenia powietrza na trwałość silnika turbinowego. Omówiono wpływ zużycia erozyjnego i osadów pyłowych na moc silnika turbinowego. Przeanalizowano wpływ masy pyłu zatrzymanej przez filtr przegrodowy na zmianę jego charakterystyk skuteczności i oporów przepływu oraz wpływ oporu przepływu filtru powietrza na zmianę parametrów pracy tłokowego silnika spalinowego. Zdefiniowano pojęcie dopuszczalnego oporu przepływu filtru powietrza i przedstawiono jego wartości.
EN
An analysis of the impact of road dust particle size and dust concentration on the rate of piston engine components abrasive wear and its durability. The influence of piston-piston rings-cylinder association excessive wear on engine power decrease is presented. The erosive nature of the turbine engine wear has been shown. The impact of road dust particle size and concentration on the durability of the turbine engine has been presented. Influence of erosion wear and dust sediments on the power of the turbine engine has been discussed. The influence of dust retained by the barrier filter on its efficiency and flow drag characteristics change has been described. The influence of the air filter flow drag on the change of piston engine operating parameters has been presented. The concept of acceptable air filter flow drag and its value are presented.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wstępne wyniki badań występowania wybranych pierwiastków śladowych (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Sb i Se), należących do grupy HAPs (ang. Hazardous Air Pollutants), w formie biodostępnej frakcji respirabilnej (PM2,5). Odpowiednią frakcję pyłu pobrano w otoczeniu pracującej elektrowni węglowej opalanej węglem kamiennym. Analiza specjacyjna frakcji pyłu PM2,5 została przeprowadzona według zmodyfikowanego schematu Tessiera z wykorzystaniem ekstrakcji formy rozpuszczalnej w wodzie (Frakcja 1). Średnie stężenia pierwiastków badanych we frakcji rozpuszczalnej w wodzie utworzyły następujący szereg: Pb>Cr>As>Sb>Cd>Se>Co. Jest on zbliżony do szeregu otrzymanego w źródłach literaturowych.
EN
Research regarding environment and dust exposition conducted so far has been based on theoretical factors. These factors primarily concern the total content of heavy metals in suspended dust. However, there is a shortage of data on the specific chemical forms of trace elements. These forms condition the heavy metal threat on the environment and human health. Based on the results of chemical speciation, we can define the mobility of elements (including heavy metals) in the environment, that is, their bio-chemical activity during assimilation by organisms. The paper presents preliminary results of the occurrence of selected trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Sb and Se) that belong to the HAPs group (Hazardous Air Pollutants) in the PM2.5 water soluble form. The appropriate fraction of particulate matter was collected by Dekati PM10 Impactor in the surroundings of a working power plant that is fired with hard coal. The speciation analysis of PM2.5 fraction was conducted using a modified Tessier scheme. This procedure employs the extraction of a water soluble fraction (Fraction 1). The concentrations of elements were determined using the ICPMS technique. Measurements delivered data on the average concentration of respirable fraction PM2.5, which equaled 22.93 μg/m3. While conducting the research in the surroundings of a working power plant, a relatively high ratio of PM2.5 to TSP (83%) and to PM10 (88%) was found. Among the determined trace elements, the highest average total concentration in PM2.5 was found for Pb (82.17 ng/m3), while the lowest (less than 1 ng/m3) was found for Co. The highest average concentration in water soluble fraction F1 in PM2.5 was also found for Pb (12,97 ng/m3), while the lowest concentration (below 1 ng/m3) was found for Sb, Cd, Se and Co. The average concentrations of trace elements determined in the bioavailable fraction were found in a following order: Pb>Cr>As>Sb>Cd>Se>Co. This sequence is similar to the order received in the existing literature. In future, received data will assist in determining the forms of hazardous trace elements in total suspended particles (TSP), suspended dust (PM10) and in respirable fraction (PM2.5) in the surroundings of selected working power plants.
EN
Management practices for medical waste should be conducted using the best available techniques in order to minimize harmful effects of medical waste. Most common practices in Turkey were reported to be burying with lime and incineration. Although incineration stood out as a better option in terms of environmental and public health, it produced air pollutants such as dioxin, furan and co-planar PCBs as a result of incomplete burning of plastics. Consequently three options, namely converter, autoclave, and ozonator technologies were investigated for economic feasibility in the medical waste treatment field. ozonator technology was concluded to be the economically best option.
PL
W artykule przedstawiony jest projekt mobilnego systemu pomiarowego funkcjonującego w ramach koncepcji tak zwanego „inteligentnego miasta”. Jednym z kluczowych czynników kształtujących jakość życia na obszarze metropolii jest skład i parametry powietrza. Wiadomo, że w wielu polskich aglomeracjach, dopuszczalne stężenia zanieczyszczeń powietrza są przekraczane. Powszechnie prowadzi to do licznych i poważnych problemów zdrowotnych wśród mieszkańców. Mobilny system rozproszony do pomiarów stanu powietrza byłby narzędziem do analizy źródeł tych problemów i mógłby pełnić rolę informacyjna zarówno dla lokalnej społeczności jak i dla władz miasta.
EN
A project of a mobile measurement system functioning as a part of a "smart city" is presented in this paper. One of the key factors shaping the quality of life in the urban area is composition and parameters of the air. It is widely known than in many Polish cities allowable concentrations of air pollutants are exceeded. Generally, it leads to numerous and serious health problems in the population [1]. In the concept presented, measurements of environmental factors are based on mobile, multisensor measurement devices. The measurements are simultaneously taken in many points. The mobility of measurement devices can be achieved by attaching them to public transportation or similar vehicles such as cabs or public (rented) bicycles (Fig. 2). The data processing should be done with IT back-end. Based on a data-centric approach it should provide features such as: gathering, integration, processing, modeling, visualization and providing insight to information about the state and changes of the air quality in the city. IT and a computational system by integrating data from mobile sources are a tool in decision making process performed by the authorities responsible for city development and current functioning. Thanks to deployment of this solution, strategic decisions could include actions aimed at improving the quality of life of city residents.
14
EN
The use of quantitative methods, including stochastic and exploratory techniques in environmental studies does not seem to be sufficient in practical aspects. There is no comprehensive analytical system dedicated to this issue, as well as research regarding this subject. The aim of this study is to present the Eco Data Miner system, its idea, construction and implementation possibility to the existing environmental information systems. The methodological emphasis was placed on the one-dimensional data quality assessment issue in terms of using the proposed QAAH1 method - using harmonic model and robust estimators beside the classical tests of outlier values with their iterative expansions. The results received demonstrate both the complementarity of proposed classical methods solution as well as the fact that they allow for extending the range of applications significantly. The practical usefulness is also highly significant due to the high effectiveness and numerical efficiency as well as simplicity of using this new tool.
15
PL
Dwutlenek węgla może znacząco wpływać na samopoczucie oraz jakość pracy osób przebywających w pomieszczeniach zamkniętych. Znajomość poziomu koncentracji zanieczyszczeń powietrza w danym pomieszczeniu powinna być wytyczną do projektowania właściwie funkcjonującego systemu wentylacyjnego. Pomiary stężenia CO2 wewnątrz budynku Wydziału Budownictwa, Architektury i Inżynierii Środowiska Politechniki Łódzkiej wykonano za pomocą przenośnego mikrochromatografu gazowego. Urządzenie to pomogło przeanalizować wybrane pomieszczenia Wydziału i określić obszary występowania wysokiego stężenia dwutlenku węgla, który może negatywnie wpływać na osoby tam przebywające.
EN
Carbon dioxide can affect on human mood and working conditions in closed area. Knowledge about the level of air pollutants concentration in the room, should be a guideline to design a properly working ventilation system. Concentration of carbon dioxide was measured in building of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Engineering faculty of Technical University of Lodz using portable gaschromatograph. This device has helped analyze selected areas of the building and identify high concentrations of carbon dioxide areas, which may adversely affect on people staying inside the building.
EN
Over the last few years, a significant increase in the use of alternative fuels in the Polish cement industry has been observed. These are mainly waste and waste-derived fuels. The national leader in this field is Chełm cement plant, with the share of alternative fuels in the cement kiln heat balance reaching in 2012 the level of 78.5%. In this paper, an analysis of the emission rate of air pollutants from cement clinkering process in the above-mentioned cement plant in the years 1998-2012 was carried out, using the results of continuous and periodic measurements. The compliance with the emission limit values applicable for cement kilns co-incinerating waste was assessed, and the influence of large amounts of burnt alternative fuels on the emission of substances such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), total dust, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF), total organic carbon (TOC), heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Tl, Sb, As, Pb, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and V) as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs).
PL
W ciągu kilku ostatnich lat obserwuje się znaczny wzrost ilości paliw alternatywnych stosowanych w polskim przemyśle cementowym. Są to głównie odpady i paliwa pozyskane z odpadów. Krajowym liderem w tym zakresie jest Cementownia Chełm, w której udział paliw alternatywnych w bilansie cieplnym pieca cementowego w roku 2012 osiągnął poziom 78,5%. W artykule dokonano analizy wielkości emisji zanieczyszczeń do powietrza z procesu wypalania klinkieru cementowego w ww. cementowni w latach 1998-2012 z wykorzystaniem wyników pomiarów ciągłych i okresowych. Oceniono spełnianie standardów emisyjnych obowiązujących względem pieców cementowych, w których są współspalane odpady, oraz określono wpływ dużych ilości spalanych paliw alternatywnych na emisję takich substancji, jak: tlenki azotu (NOx), dwutlenek siarki (SO2), pył ogółem, tlenek węgla (CO), chlorowodór (HCl), fluorowodór (HF), całkowity węgiel organiczny (TOC), metale ciężkie (Hg, Cd, Tl, Sb, As, Pb, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni i V) oraz polichlorowane dibenzo-p-dioksyny i furany (PCDD/Fs).
17
EN
Spider webs found in polluted areas could absorb air contaminants. In order to check their cumulative ability, two different study sites had been chosen in Wroclaw (in the area of wet ponds and in the residential district of Biskupin) where spider silk was collected (after 10 days from the time of its construction). Web types of appropriate thickness and size were chosen for analyses. The representatives of Agelenidae family belonging to two species Malthonica silvestris and Malthonica ferruginea proved to be the most adequate for further studies. The level of selected heavy metal cumulation was assessed (Pb, Zn, Pt) in the collected samples. As the background, the level of air pollution concerning dust and selected heavy metals was also analysed by classic methods. Based on the web analysis, it was found that site 2 (Biskupin) exhibited the highest level of pollution with some metals. Similar results were obtained with the application of classic methods. The results of research are promising and confirm the possibility of obtaining a practical tool for the indication of air pollutants based on spiders silk, particularly on webs belonging to Agelenidae family.
18
Content available remote Negative effects of biomass combustion and co-combustion in boilers
EN
Concentrations of regulated air pollutants - carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide as well as that of non-regulated compounds in waste gases - volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and HCl during combustion of selected biomass pellets in a small retort boiler have been investigated. In the group of VOCs, the highest concentration has been observed for aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) and benzene. The lowest concentration of CO and the highest concentration of VOCs were detected in waste gases from combustion of wooden pellets. The highest concentration of HCl in flue gas has been observed during combustion of wheat straw pellets. Design of the retort boiler investigated favours high concentration of CO in flue gas, regardless of the biomass used.
EN
Long-term collection of data, recorded at several air monitoring stations located in Central Poland, was analyzed. The main objective of the analysis was to choose optimum modelling methods for concentration of specified air pollutants. For this purpose accuracies of various groups of autonomous models were compared. Prediction of any air pollutants was performed using three different modelling methods. The modelled value was instantaneous concentration of specified pollutant. The models varied in the number and type of the explanatory variables and the modelling technique. It was presumed that there is a need for modelling the measurement gap, comprising a selected extract of the time series of a chosen pollutant. For successive cases in the gap, prediction errors of various methods of modelling were compared.
EN
Baking of semi-finished graphite products in a tunnel furnace is the source of many air pollutants present in both the gaseous and solid phases. The goal of this study was to assess emission rates into the air of the substances such as: CO, NOx, SO2, H2S, CH4, aliphatic hydrocarbons C1-C6, BTEX, total dust, tar substances and PAHs. The research showed a small time-dependence of the emission rates for the majority of the substances analysed. Concentrations of the analysed substances in exhaust gases were in the majority of cases at a low level, except for BTEX and PAHs.
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