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EN
This paper summarizes the research on exoskeletons focusing on locomotion support and presenting their general features including the general control approaches. The major fields of exoskeleton applications are focused, namely the military and medical fields. The results of our research on muscles activation during human walking are shortly described. The current developmental trends are outlined in the conclusions part.
PL
W niniejszym artykule podsumowano wyniki badań przeprowadzonych nad egzoszkieletami przeznaczonymi do wspomagania czynności ruchowych. Przedstawiono ich główne cechy, a także główne podejścia ich sterowania. Podstawowymi obszarami użycia egzoszkieletów są zastosowania wojskowe i medyczne. Opisano zwięźle wyniki badań nad aktywacją mięśni podczas chodzenia przez człowieka. Obecne trendy rozwojowe przedstawiono w podsumowaniu.
EN
Objective gait analysis provide a large number of data, which are used for planning further treatment of the patient. Data from groups of patients are used for comparisons of different treatment methods, assessment of the severity of gait deviations, design of classification systems. The Gilette Gait Index (GGI) was designed to express the level of abnormality of the gait pattern of patients with cerebral palsy by one number: a measure of distance between the set of discrete gait parameters of a patient from a similar set of a healthy subject, based on 16 parameters. Gait pathology in other disorders is different, thus other variables may better describe their level of pathology. The aim was to see if modified GGI can be constructed based on other sets of gait variables. To decide which gait variables should be taken three different analytical methods were used: Hellwig Correlation Based Filter, random forest, and correlation methods. Gait data of 84 patients were retrospectively selected: 30 had spastic cerebral palsy, 24 scoliosis, 30 suffered the stroke. The results show, that in the final sets of the 16 parameters chosen by the analyses there are some parameters, which were not present in the original list of GGI. If the number of sixteen parameters is kept, there are more than one optimal set of parameters. In conclusion, the use of analytical methods enabled the choice of sets of 16 gait parameters which are specific for the medical problem, and the calculation of modified GGIs.
3
Content available remote Chemotherapy-induced fatigue estimation using hidden Markov model
EN
Chemotherapy-induced fatigue undermines the physical performance and alter gait behaviour of patients. In clinics, there is not a well-established method to objectively assess the effects of chemotherapy-induced fatigue on gait characteristics. Clinical trials commonly use 6 Minute Walking Tests (6MWT) to assess patients' gait. However, these studies only measure the distance that patients can walk. The distance does not provide comprehensive information about variations in ambulatory motion characteristics and body postural behaviour which can more appropriately describe the fatigue effects on general physical performance. Gait characteristics provide a manifestation of relationships between muscular and cardiovascular fitness status and physical motions. Hence, an assessment of gait characteristics provides more appropriate information about the effects of chemotherapy-induced fatigue on gait behaviour. A novel approach is proposed to objectively assess the impacts of chemotherapy-induced fatigue on cancer gait by analysing the gait characteristics during 6MWT. The joint angles of the lower body segments are measured by inertial sensors and modelled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with Gaussian emissions. A Gaussian clustering method classifies the joint angles of first gait cycle to determine the six gait phases of a normal gait as initial training values. A comparison of gait characteristics before and after chemotherapy-induced fatigue determines the gait abnormalities. The method is applied to four cancer patients and outcomes are benchmarked against the gait of a healthy subject before and after running program-induced fatigue. The results indicate a more accurate quantitative-based tool to measure the effects of chemotherapy-induce fatigue on gait and physical performance.
PL
Celem pracy jest określenie wpływu różnych ustawień ortezy typu Walker na zmianę kątów w stawach kończyn dolnych podczas chodu. W badaniach wzięło udział 10 zdrowych osób. Do badań czterech rodzajów chodu -jeden bez ortezy i trzy w różnych ustawieniach ortezy wykorzystano system Vicon. Udowodniono, że sposób ustawienia ortezy ma istotny wpływ na zmianę kątów w stawie kolanowym i biodrowym kończyny dolnej, na której jest noszona orteza. Bardzo korzystny jest brak wpływu ortezy na kinematykę kończyny wolnej od ortezy.
EN
The aim of the work is to determine the effect of various settings of Walker type orthosis on lower limb kinematics parameters during walking. 10 healthy people participated in the study. The Vicon system was used to test four types of the gait - one without an orthosis and three in different orthosis settings. It has been proven that the way the orthosis is positioned has a significant impact on changing the angles in the knee and hip joints of the lower limb, on which the orthosis is worn. The absence of the orthotic effect on the kinematics of the limb free from orthosis is very beneficial.
PL
W pracy dokonano oceny biomechanicznej funkcji lokomocyjnych weterana wojennego. Uzyskane dla weterana wojennego wyniki ilościowej analizy chodu porównano z wartościami otrzymanymi dla grupy 56 zdrowych osób dorosłych, bez zaburzeń w obrębie narządu ruchu. Badania doświadczalne przeprowadzono z wykorzystaniem systemu optoelektronicznego BTS Smart. Analizie porównawczej poddano parametry czasowo-przestrzenne i kinematyczne chodu oraz zmiany energii całkowitej, potencjalnej, wypadkowej energii kinetycznej w czasie chodu. Uzyskane dla weterana wojennego wyniki znacznie odbiegały od wartości/zakresów normatywnych, wskazując na znaczne obrażenia aparatu ruch, które poniósł podczas wybuchu improwizowanego urządzenia wybuchowego.
EN
In the work the biomechanical evaluation of locomotion functions of a war veteran was made. The results of the quantitative gait analysis obtained for a war veteran were compared with the values obtained for a group of 56 healthy adults without locomotor disorders. Experimental studies were carried out using the BTS Smart optoelectronic system. The spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters of gait as well as changes in total energy, potential energy, kinetic energy and its components during gait were subjected to comparative analysis. The results obtained for a war veteran differed significantly from normative values / ranges, indicating significant injuries to the apparatus, which he suffered during the explosion of the improvised explosive device.
6
Content available remote Wearable devices in clinical gait analysis
EN
Portable, efficient, exact, detailed, early and cost-effective clinical gait analysis (CGA) has key influence for planning, development and assessment rehabilitation strategies and models, as far as for prosthetics assessment. Novel families of mobile CGA solutions may provide earlier detection, more exact diagnosis, and more effective therapy of the gait disorders. Remote integration of aforementioned solutions to hospital information system may provide better and more actual knowledge for clinical decision-making purposes. This study aims at review of the alternative wearable devices to measure selected gait parameters, depending on the desired accuracy level.
PL
Mobilna, efektywna, dokładna, szczególowa, wczesna i tania kliniczna analiza chodu ma kluczowy wpływ na planowanie, postęp i ocenę strategii i modeli rehabilitacji, jak również przedmiotów zaopatrzenia ortopedycznego. Nowe rodziny mobilnych rozwiązań do klinicznej analizy chodu mogą zapewnić wczesniejsze wykrywanie, dokładniejszą diagnostykęoraz efektywniejszą terapię deficytów chodu. Zdalna integracja ww. rozwiązań ze szpitalnym systemem informacyjnym może zapewnić lepszą i aktualniejszą wiedzę na potrzeby klinicznego podejmowania decyzji. Niniejszy artykuł stanowi przegląd urządzeń do pomiaru wybranych parametrów chodu, w zależności od poządanej dokładności.
7
Content available remote Parkinson's disease monitoring from gait analysis via foot-worn sensors
EN
Background: In Parkinson's disease (PD), neuronal loss in the substantia nigra ultimate in dopaminergic denervation of the stiratum is followed by disarraying of the movements' preciseness, automatism, and agility. Hence, the seminal sign of PD is a change in motor performance of affected individuals. As PD is a neurodegenerative disease, progression of disability in mobility is an inevitable consequence. Indeed, the major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with PD is the motor changes restricting their functional independence. Therefore, monitoring the manifestations of the disease is crucial to detect any worsening of symptoms timely, in order to maintain and improve the quality of life of these patients. Aim: The changes in motion of patients with PD can be ascertained by the help of wearable sensors attached to the limbs of subjects. Then analysing the recorded data for variation of signals would make it possible to figure an individualized profile of the disease. Advancement of such tools would improve understanding of the disease evolution in the long term and simplify the detection of precipitous changes in gait on a daily basis in the short term. In both cases the apperception of such events would contribute to improve the clinical decision making process with reliable data. To this end, we offer here a computational solution for effective monitoring of PD patients from gait analysis via multiple foot-worn sensors. Methods: We introduce a supervised model that is fed by ground reaction force (GRF) signals acquired from these gait sensors. We offer a hybrid model, called Locally Weighted Random Forest (LWRF), for regression analysis over the numerical features extracted from input signals to predict the severity of PD symptoms in terms of Universal Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) scale. From GRF signals sixteen time-domain features and seven frequency-domain features were extracted and used. Results and conclusion: An experimental analysis conducted on a real data acquired from PD patients and healthy controls has shown that the predictions are highly correlated with the clinical annotations. Proposed approach for severity detection has the best correlation coefficient (CC), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) values with 0.895, 4.462 and 7.382 respectively in terms of UPDRS. The regression results for H&Y Scale discerns that proposed model outperforms other models with CC, MAE andRMSE with values 0.960, 0.168 and 0.306 respectively. In classification setup, proposed approach achieves higher accuracy in comparison with other studies with accuracy and specificity of 99.0% and 99.5% respectively. Main novelty of this approach is the fact that an exact value of the symptom level can be inferred rather than a categorical result that defines the severity of motor disorders.
PL
W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono biomechaniczną analizę chodu pacjentów poruszających się w ortezach, u których zdiagnozowano mózgowe porażenie dziecięce lub pacjentów po operacji przepukliny oponowo-rdzeniowej. Badanie chodu przeprowadzono z wykorzystaniem systemu BTS Smart. Analizę przeprowadzono na podstawie zarejestrowanych w trakcie badania parametrów kinematycznych chodu oraz obliczonego wydatku energetycznego. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników wykazano wpływ dobranych ortez na jakość chodu poszczególnych pacjentów.
EN
This article presents biomechanical analysis of gait patients with ankle-foot orthoses, who were diagnosed with cerebral palsy or patients after a surgery for myelomeningocele. The gait test was performed using the BTS Smart system. The analysis was based on the kinematic parameters of gait recorded during the study and the calculated energy expenditure. On the basis of the results obtained, the influence of selected orthoses on the quality of walking of individual patients was demonstrated.
EN
The Gait Variability Index (GVI) summarizes overall gait quality, taking into account spatiotemporal parameters from a 3-dimensional gait analysis. However, there are no studies evaluating changes in gait patterns after stroke, based on the GVI. The study was designed to assess usefulness of the GVI for evaluation of gait pathology in subjects with stroke, compared to healthy individuals. Methods: Spatiotemporal gait parameters were examined in a group of 50 subjects at a chronic stage post-stroke and in 50 healthy controls. The GVI was calculated based on the 9 spatiotemporal data. Results: The findings show statistically significant differences between the values of the GVI for paretic and non-paretic limbs ( p < 0.001). Higher values of the index were identified in the case of non-paretic limb: 80.74 vs. 76.32. The GVI scores were decreased for both paretic and non-paretic limbs, compared to the controls – p < 0.001. Conclusions: The GDI score seems to be a viable tool for quantifying changes in gait pattern during evaluation of subjects with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Further studies should be conducted to validate the use of GVI in the post-stroke population.
EN
Human gait motion analysis was one useful method for lower limb prosthesis study. The most often measured parameters were plantar pressure, kinetic and kinematic parameters. It was indispensable for prosthetic knee design and performance assessment. The aim of this study was to analysis the plantar pressure in traumatic above-knee amputee equipped with a developed microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee. Methods: The maximum force of forefoot and rearfoot, the average vertical reaction force and pressure and the centre of pressure (COP) offset trajectories of ten above-knee amputees under different walking speeds were obtained. Results: Both forefoot and rearfoot force were bigger in intact leg than prosthetic leg. As the speed increased, the pressure increased in both sides. Forefoot bore more pressure than rearfoot in both legs. The average vertical pressure and force both increased along with the increase of speed. The force and pressure of intact side were always bigger than the prosthetic side. The trend of COP and gait line of the prosthetic and intact side had no significant difference. The length of the gait line of prosthetic side was greater than the intact side. Conclusions: The results of this study exhibited reduced plantar pressure in the prosthetic side. The typical butterfly diagrams were produced during different walking speeds. It indicated that the stability of the microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee could be guaranteed.
EN
This paper proposes a novel gait rehabilitation analysis system, based on an innovative multimodal vision-based sensor setup, focused on detecting gait pattern changes over time. The proposed setup is based on inexpensive technologies, without compromising performance, and was designed to be deployed on walkers, which are a typical assistive aid used in gait rehabilitation. In the medical field the evaluation of a patient's rehabilitation progress is typically performed by a medical professional through subjective techniques based on the professional's visual perception and experience. In this context, we are proposing an automatic system to detect the progress of patients undergoing rehabilitation therapy. Our approach is able to perform novelty detection for gait pattern classification based on One- Class Support Vector Machines (OC-SVM). Using point-cloud and RGB-D data, we detect the lower limbs (waist, legs and feet) by using Weighted Kernel-Density Estimation and Weighted Least-Squares to segment the legs into several parts (thighs and shins), and by fitting 3D ellipsoids to model them. Feet are detected using k-means clustering and a Circular Hough Transform. A temporal analysis of the feet's depth is also performed to detect heel strike events. Spatiotemporal and kinematic features are extracted from the lower limbs' model and fed to a classifier based on the fusion of several OC-SVMs. Experiments with volunteers using the robotic walker platform ISR-AIWALKER, where the proposed system was deployed, revealed a lower limbs tracking accuracy of 38 and that our novelty detection approach successfully identified novel gait patterns, evidencing an overall 97.89% sensitivity.
EN
Nowadays, fashion has caused that many young women are wearing high-heeled shoes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term walking in high-heeled shoes on the foot mechanics during barefoot gait. Methods: Forty-three young women (22 ± 2.1 years) divided into two groups participated in this retrospective cohort study. The first group was composed of women who frequently wear high-heeled footwear. The second, infrequent wearers group, consisted of women who preferred flat-heeled shoes. Measurements of gait parameters were recorded for barefoot gait. A motion analysis system and two force plates were used in order to evaluate the lower-limb rocker mechanism, transverse foot arch height and parameters of ground reaction force. Results: Walking in high-heeled shoes modified barefoot foot mechanics, which manifested itself in a shorter duration (by ca. 4%) of the first and second rocker and a significantly longer duration (by 5%) of the third rocker phase as well as a substantial reduction in height of the transverse foot arch (by around 50%) in women habitually walking in high-heeled shoes. A significantly shorter relative duration of the third rocker (44.3% of cycle time) and greater value of the vertical component of ground reaction force (114.7% BW) in the third rocker phase were found in the group of women habitually walking in high-heeled shoes. Conclusions: The mechanism of foot rolling, with flattened foot arch, and significantly higher values of the vertical component of ground reaction force and shorter time might lead to overload in lowerlimb joints in young women.
PL
Badania biomechaniki chodu są cennym narzędziem przy projektowaniu i testowaniu obuwia oraz zaopatrzenia ortopedycznego. Zbudowany w IPS Oddział Kraków system do analizy chodu pozwala na wideogrametryczne określenie ruchu kończyn i ciała człowieka w trójwymiarowej przestrzeni. W skład systemu wchodzi bieżnia, układ dwóch kamer w ustalonej odległości, zestaw pasywnych markerów oraz laptop z opracowanym w Instytucie programem Diopser. Program pozwala na wyznaczanie parametrów geometrycznych pomiędzy zdefiniowanymi przez użytkownika punktami. Możliwe jest śledzenie do 20 markerów umieszczonych na osobie lub przedmiocie oraz obliczanie długości i kątów dowolnych układów geometrycznych. Danymi wejściowymi jest zestaw dwóch zsynchronizowanych czasowo nagrań, rezultatem działania programu jest plik arkusza kalkulacyjnego zawierający wybrane miary. Istotnymi czynnikami wpływającymi na poprawność wyznaczenia położeń markerów są rozdzielczość i prędkość nagrania, barwa markerów oraz oświetlenie obiektu. Artykuł prezentuje możliwości systemu Diopser, sposób przeprowadzania pomiarów, interpretację wyników uzyskanych dla testowych nagrań oraz wskazuje obszary potencjalnych zastosowań.
EN
The study of biomechanics of gait is a valuable tool for designing and testing of footwear and orthopedic devices. Built in IPS Krakow Branch system for gait analysis allows to determine via videogrammetry the movements of the limbs and the human body in three-dimensional space. The system includes treadmill, a set of two cameras at a predetermined distance, a set of passive markers and a laptop with Diopser program developed in the Institute. The program allows the determination of geometrical parameters between user-defined points. It is possible to track up to 20 markers placed on a person or object and calculate the length and angles of any geometries. The input is a set of two time-synchronized recordings, the output of the program is a spreadsheet file containing the selected measurements. Important factors that affect the correct designation of markers’ positions are resolution and recording, markers’ color and object’s illumination. The paper presents the capabilities of Diopser system, the way the measurements are made, interpretation of results obtained for test recordings and identifies areas of potential applications of the system.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano projekt osobistego systemu do monitorowania mechaniki ruchów oraz rozkładu nacisku podeszwowej części stopy. Układ pozwala na rejestrację danych w warunkach rzeczywistych w czasie dynamicznych obciążeń, podczas chodu i biegu. W skład systemu wchodzi układ akwizycji oraz elastyczna wkładka sensoryczna. Głównymi elementami Układu akwizycji są mikrokontroler z rdzeniem ARM Cortex M4 oraz zintegrowany układ akcelerometru i żyroskopu LSM330DLC. Wkładka naciskowa zapewnia pomiar nacisku w pięciu charakterystycznych punktach stopy przy pomocy elastycznych czujników FSR. System posiada możliwość komunikacji z wykorzystaniem interfejsu Bluetooth oraz CAN. Pomiary monitorowanych wartości mogą odbywać się z częstotliwością próbkowania o wartości do 100 Hz. System zapewnia zapis danych na kartę pamięci oraz bateryjne podtrzymanie pracy. Zaprojektowane rozwiązanie charakteryzuje się niskimi kosztami i łatwością implementacji. Dzięki zastosowaniu dwóch typów czujników: nacisku oraz czujników inercjalnych urządzenie łączy w sobie szereg możliwości pozwalając m.in. na detekcję faz chodu, orientacji stopy w przestrzeni, detekcji momentu kontaktu stopy z podłożem. System może stanowić wsparcie dla nawigacji inercyjnej oraz pozwala ocenić obciążenia podczas wysiłku fizycznego.
EN
This article presents the design of personal monitoring system of foot pressure distribution and mechanics of human movement. System allows for recording data in real conditions during dynamic loads, both during walking and running. System includes acquisition unit and a flexible insole sensor. The main elements of the acquisition unit are microcontroller with ARM Cortex M4 core and an integrated accelerometer and gyroscope LSM330DLC. Flexible electronic insole provides a measure of the pressure at five characteristic points using flexible FSR sensors. The system communicate with Bluetooth and CAN bus. Measured values can be monitored with a sampling rate of up to 100Hz. System provides data storage on a memory card and battery back-up. Designed solution is characterized by low cost and ease of implementation. By using two types of sensors: pressure and inertial sensor, device combines a number of possibilities allowing to detect the phases of gait, foot orientation in space, detection of foot contact with the ground. System can provide support for inertial navigation and allows to evaluate the load during exercises.
PL
W pracy przeprowadzono ocenę wpływu wykorzystania systemu G-EO System do reedukacji chodu na parametry czasowo- przestrzenne chodu. Badanie wykonano w Centrum Fizjoterapii „FIZJOFIT” w Gliwicach, przy zastosowaniu systemu do trójpłaszczyznowej analizy ruchu – BTS Smart. Analizę parametrów czasowo-przestrzennych przeprowadzono na dzieciach z mózgowym porażeniem dziecięcym oraz na dzieciach z zaburzeniami psychoruchowymi.
EN
This article presents analysis impact of application the system to re-education gait on spatio-temporal gait parameters. Research has been made at the Physiotherapy Centre “Fizjofit” in Gliwice, using the system for three dimensional motion analysis – BTS Smart. The analysis were performed on children with cerebral palsy and children with psychomotor hyperactivity disorder.
PL
Celem pracy było opracowanie aplikacji w środowisku MatLab umożliwiającej wyznaczenie wskaźnika chodu Gait Deviation Index dla dzieci z mózgowym porażeniem. Badaną grupę stanowiły 44 dzieci z różnymi postaciami MPD, a grupę kontrolną 57 osób o chodzie prawidłowym. Badania chodu przeprowadzono wykorzystując optoelektroniczny system BTS. Analizę wyników przeprowadzono uwzględniając postać mózgowego porażenia dziecięcego i rodzaj leczenia pacjentów.
EN
The aim of this study was to develop an application in MatLab, allowing the designation of Gait Deviation Index for children with cerebral palsy. The research group consisted of 44 children with various forms of MPD, and a control group of 57 people with normal gait. The gait study was carried out using optoelectronic BTS system. Analysis the results of the research group was performed taking into account the type of cerebral palsy and type of treatment.
EN
Purpose: Footwear and equipment worn by military personnel is of importance for them to be able to meet the physical demands specific to their profession daily activities. Aim of the present study was to investigate by means of gait analysis how army-provided footwear and equipment influence the range of motion of hip, knee and ankle joints as well as stride length.Methods: Thirty-two soldiers were subjected to gait analysis on a treadmill by way of video recordings and goniometric measurements. Results: The stride length increased when military shoes are worn. We found no influence on stride length in connection to increased loading. The weight of the shoes represents the decisive factor. Neither shoes nor equipment changed the range of motion of the knee joint.Weight of equipment affected range of motion of the hip joint. The range of motion of the upper and lower ankle joints was mainly influenced by the properties of the shoes. Conclusions: Military footwear and weight of equipment influence stride length and range of motion of joints of the lower extremities in a specific way. Shape of material is the decisive factor.
18
Content available Analysis of foot load during ballet dancers’ gait
EN
Ballet is an art that puts extreme demands on the dancer’s musculoskeletal system and therefore significantly affects motor behavior of the dancers. The aim of our research was to compare plantar pressure distribution during stance phase of gait between a group of professional ballet dancers and non-dancers. Thirteen professional dancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 24.1 ± 3.8 years) and 13 nondancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 26.1 ± 5.3 years) participated in this study. Foot pressure analysis during gait was collected using a 2 m pressure plate. The participants were instructed to walk across the platform at a self-selected pace barefoot. Three gait cycles were necessary for the data analysis. The results revealed higher ( p < 0.05) pressure peaks in medial edge of forefoot during gait for dancers in comparison with nondancers. Furthermore, differences in total foot loading and foot loading duration of rearfoot was higher ( p < 0.05) in dancers as well. We can attribute these differences to long-term and intensive dancing exercises that can change the dancer’s gait stereotype.
PL
W większości definicji biomechaniki jako temat wiodący przewija się ruch człowieka i zwierząt. Świadczy to o jego wielkim znaczeniu dla funkcjonowania organizmów żywych, a jednocześnie wskazuje na potrzebę ciągłych badań nad jego pełnym poznaniem. Chód jest jednym z najważniejszych i najczęściej spotykanych rodzajów ruchu człowieka. Mimo wielu lat intensywnych badań ciągle jeszcze nasza wiedza na temat tej formy przemieszczania się jest niepełna, zaś metody i urządzenia służące do jej analizy są stale rozwijane i udoskonalane. W prezentowanej pracy można wyróżnić dwie podstawowe części, których motywem przewodnim jest chód człowieka. W pierwszej części (rozdział 4) skoncentrowano się na analizie stabilności chodu normalnego, będącego podstawą wszelkich badań porównawczych w zakresie lokomocji dwunożnej oraz patologii układu ruchu. Najpowszechniej obecnie stosowana, znana od kilkudziesięciu lat, metoda oceny stabilności zarówno posturalnej, jak i lokomocyjnej, wykorzystuje platformy dynamometryczne pozwalające uzyskać informacje na temat środka nacisku stóp na podłoże i jego przemieszczeń. Ma ona jednak pewne wady i ograniczenia, nie daje na przykład pełnej wiedzy na temat parametrów kinematycznych chodu. Zaproponowana w tej pracy procedura badawcza łączy w sobie znaną metodę optoelektronicznej rejestracji trajektorii wybranych punktów ciała idącej osoby z kryteriami stabilności wykorzystywanymi przy projektowaniu dwunożnych robotów kroczących. Testy przeprowadzone przy użyciu dwóch kamer cyfrowych i bieżni o regulowanej prędkości przesuwu dowodzą, że nawet tak prosty system daje satysfakcjonujące rezultaty i może być z powodzeniem stosowany w ośrodkach badawczych i rehabilitacyjnych, niedysponujących bogatym wyposażeniem sprzętowym ani znacznymi środkami finansowymi. Druga część pracy (rozdział 5) przedstawia badania naprężeń wybranych fragmentów kośćca kończyny dolnej, których obciążenia są zdeterminowane głównie przez siły dynamiczne generowane podczas chodu. Analizie poddano kość miedniczną, szyjkę kości udowej oraz kości goleni. Na podstawie symulacji numerycznych prowadzonych przy użyciu metody elementów skończonych uzyskano szereg informacji na temat wielkości i rozkładu naprężeń badanych struktur, a także miejsc krytycznych z punktu widzenia ich wytrzymałości. Obliczenia były wykonywane dla różnych konfiguracji parametrów kontrolnych, co pozwoliło m.in. na określenie krytycznej wartości kąta szyjkowo-trzonowego, ocenę wpływu sprawności mięśni na stan pracy szyjki kości udowej czy też zmian w naprężeniach kości piszczelowej przy uszkodzonej strzałce.
EN
In most definitions of biomechanics as a leading subject, the movement of man and animals appears. This demonstrates its great importance for the functioning of living organisms, and also indicates the need for continuing research on his full knowledge. Walking is one of the most important and most common types of human movement. Despite many years of intensive research, our knowledge of this form of movement is still incomplete, and the methods and devices for the analysis are constantly being developed and refined. In presented study, there can be distinguished two basic parts, in which the leading theme is gait of human. The first part (chapter 4) focuses on the analysis of the stability of the normal gait, which is the basis for any comparative study of bipedal locomotion and the pathology of the musculoskeletal system. The most popular method for evaluating both postural and locomotive stabilities, known for several decades, use the dynamometric platforms to obtain information about the foot center of pressure and its displacement. However, it has some drawbacks and limitations, for example, it does not give full knowledge of the kinematic parameters of gait. Procedure proposed in this treatise combines the well-known method for optoelectronic recording the trajectory of the selected points of the walking person's body with the stability criteria used in the design of bipedal walking robots. Tests carried out using two amateur digital cameras and variable speed treadmill shift shows that even such a simple system gives satisfactory results and can be successfully used in research centers and rehabilitation facilities not yet have extensive hardware or significant financial resources. Second part of the treatise (chapter 5) presents the stress study of selected elements of lower limb bones' skeleton, which loads are determined mainly by the dynamic forces generated during gait. The analysis was performed on the pelvic bone, femoral neck and shin bones. Based on numerical simulations executed using the finite element method, there was obtained some information on the size and distribution of the stress test structures, as well as critical areas from the standpoint of their strength. The calculations were carried out for different configurations of the controlled parameters, which allowed, inter alia to determine the critical values of the femoral neck-shaft angle, assessing the impact of the muscles efficiency on the femoral neck status or changes in the stress of the tibial bone at the damaged fibula.
EN
One of the primary goals of physiotherapy after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is to restore of the patient's normal gait patterns. However, to date, only a limited number of studies have examined gait during physiotherapeutic procedures following ACL reconstruction. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate gait kinematics and symmetry in male patients after ACL reconstruction during the first two stages of their physiotherapy programme. Ninety-seven males, including 53 patients after primary ACL reconstruction in one limb and 44 healthy controls, participated in the study. The patients were examined using a movement analysis system during their physiotherapeutic programme (from the 2nd to the 12th week following reconstruction). Some selected parameters of gait kinematics, a dynamic range of movement in the knee joint and gait asymmetry coefficients were evaluated. During the 12th week of physiotherapy, a mean gait velocity increased by more than 0.97 m/s compared to that obtained during the 2nd week of physiotherapy. A statistically significant increase in the relative length of stance phase was observed in the involved extremity, from 36.1% to 62.7% (P = 0.01); the range of movement significantly improved from 25.8 degrees during the 2nd week to 63.7 degrees during the 12th week of physiotherapy. At the same time, the stance time asymmetry coefficient decreased from 68.5% to –0.4%. We observed a significant improvement in most of the gait parameters from the 2nd to the 12th week of physiotherapy after reconstruction and also in comparison to the results obtained for the control group.
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