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PL
Haramain to jedyna istniejąca linia dużych prędkości w Arabii Saudyjskiej, biegnąca z Mekki do Medyny o długości 453 km, dwóch świętych miejsc islamu. Linia jest odseparowana od sieci kolejowej w Arabii Saudyjskiej, przy czym sieć kolejowa należąca do SRO (ang. Saudi Railways Organization) jest wykorzystywana głównie do przewozu towarów. Jednak jak pokazała już wstępna frekwencja, linia Haramain szybko zdobyła uznanie pasażerów, pomimo powszechnej dostępności w Arabii Saudyjskiej samochodów prywatnych, istniejącej sieci autostrad czyli rozwiniętej komunikacji lotniczej. Saudyjska linia dużej prędkości ma przeznaczenie zupełnie inne niż praktykowane dotychczas w innych krajach – biznesowe czy komercyjne, i powstała w celu obsługi wysokiego ruchu pielgrzymkowego do ośrodka religijnego (Mekki).
EN
Haramain is the only existing high-speed line in Saudi Arabia, operating from Mecca to Medina 453 km long, and connecting two holy sites of Islam. The line is separated from the rail network in Saudi Arabia, and the SRO (Saudi Railways Organization) rail network being used mainly to freight transport. However, as the initial turnout has shown, the Haramain line quickly gained passenger acceptance, despite the widespread availability of private cars in Saudi Arabia, the existing highway network, and developed air transport. The Saudi high-speed line has a completely different destiny than that previously practiced in other countries - business or commercial - and was established to service the high pilgrimage movement to a religious center (Mecca).
EN
The Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is home to almost 5,000,000 people and is a major contributor to Saudi Arabia’s economic strength. The area has experienced population growth of about 3.5% per year and rapid urbanization over the past few decades. With this increase in population has come a significant escalation in automobile traffic, which, in turn, has contributed to poor air quality in the province. Two of the major cities in the area were listed on the World Health Organization’s 2016 top 15 cities with the worst air pollution. Local studies have shown that vehicle traffic is a significant contributor to poor air quality and thus, eventually, climate change. Public transportation could alleviate some of the pollution. Unfortunately, overall past perceptions of public transportation and its negative connotations within the Saudi Arabian cultural setting have discouraged previous attempts to develop public transit services. Currently, KSA is progressing with metro works in the capital city of Riyadh and is considering what services to offer in the Eastern Province. This research involved surveying over 800 Eastern Province residents to determine whether they would use public transportation if it was offered, and what type of service they would expect. The response was positive and provided initial indications that public transportation is needed and would be utilized.
3
Content available remote Zmierzch arabskiego imperium naftowego
EN
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of corporate social responsibility, management characteristics, namely; board size and meetings, and audit characteristics, namely; audit quality and audit report lag with corporate performance among the manufactured companies in Saudi Arabia. A Pooled Ordinary-Least Square OLS regression is utilized to estimate the associations proposed in the hypotheses on 180 firm-years observations (2015-2017) from annual reports. The study finds that corporate social responsibility, board size, board meetings and audit quality are positively associated with corporate performance. Additionally, this study reports an inverse association of the audit report lag with corporate performance. Importantly, the study suggests that regulators, especially Saudi stock exchange, should mandate companies to disclose all relevant information related to corporate social responsibility in a transparent and timely manner, and increase law enforcement to enhance good corporate governance practices. For companies, this study proposes that they should emphasize more on enhancing the role and the disclosure quality of their social responsibility, board of directors and the audit quality issues, as this enhancement may positively influence their performance.
PL
Celem tego badania jest zbadanie związków społecznej odpowiedzialności biznesu, cech zarządzania, a mianowicie; wielkość zarządu i spotkania oraz cechy audytu, mianowicie; jakość audytu i raport z audytu są opóźnione w stosunku do wyników firm wśród produkowanych firm w Arabii Saudyjskiej. Do oszacowania powiązań zaproponowanych w hipotezach na podstawie 180 rocznych obserwacji (2015-2017) z raportów rocznych wykorzystuje się regresję OLS z puli zwykłych i najmniejszych kwadratów. Badanie pokazuje, że społeczna odpowiedzialność biznesu, wielkość zarządu, spotkania zarządu i jakość audytu są pozytywnie powiązane z wynikami firmy. Ponadto w tym badaniu wykazano odwrotny związek opóźnienia w raporcie z audytu z wynikami firmy. Co ważne, badanie sugeruje, że organy regulacyjne, zwłaszcza saudyjska giełda papierów wartościowych, powinny upoważnić firmy do ujawnienia wszystkich istotnych informacji związanych z odpowiedzialnością społeczną przedsiębiorstw w sposób przejrzysty i terminowy oraz zwiększyć egzekwowanie prawa w celu wzmocnienia dobrych praktyk w zakresie ładu korporacyjnego. W przypadku przedsiębiorstw niniejsze badanie sugeruje, że powinni oni położyć większy nacisk na zwiększenie roli i jakości ujawnienia ich odpowiedzialności społecznej, zarządu i kwestii jakości kontroli, ponieważ to ulepszenie może pozytywnie wpłynąć na ich wyniki.
EN
In the present work, we assessed the carbon sequestration capacity of mangrove forests (Avicennia marina) in relation to nutrient availability and salinity gradients along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. This was achieved through estimating the sediment bulk density (SBD), sediment organic carbon (SOC) concentration, SOC density, SOC pool, carbon sequestration rate (CSR) and carbon sequestration potential (CSP). The present study was conducted at 3 locations (northern, middle and southern), using 7 sites and 21 stands of mangrove forests (A. marina) along ∼1134 km of the Red Sea coastline of Saudi Arabia (from Duba in the north to Jazan in the south), all of which are in an arid climate. The correlation coefficients between the water characteristics and the first two Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) axes indicated that the separation of the sediment parameters along the first axis were positively influenced by TDS (total dissolved solids) and EC (electric conductivity) and were negatively influenced by total N and total P. On the other hand, the second axis was negatively correlated with total N, total P, EC and TDS. The SOC pools at the northern (10.5 kg C m−2) and southern locations (10.4 kg C m−2) were significantly higher than the SOC pool at the middle location (6.7 kg C m−2). In addition, the average CSR of the northern (5.9 g C m−2 yr−1) and southern locations (6.0 g C m−2 yr−1) were significantly higher than they were in the middle location (5.0 g C m−2 yr−1).
PL
W artykule przedstawiono technologię BIM (ang. Building Information Modeling) na tle historii rozwoju cyfrowych systemów modelowania informacji o budynku, zwracając uwagę na integrację branżową i rolę modelu parametrycznego. Na przykładzie dwóch zrealizowanych obiektów, takich jak Dongdaemun Design Plaza (DDP) w Seulu (2007–2014) projektu Zaha Hadid Architects oraz King Abdulaziz Centre for World Culture (ITHRA) w Dhahranie (2006–2017) projektu Snøhetta, objaśniono, jaki wpływ ma strategia opracowywania projektu realizacyjnego w systemach CAD/CAE/CAM na obiektowe modelowanie parametryczne sprzęgnięte z modelowaniem informacji o budynku. Istotne znaczenie mają tu przepływ danych i bezkonfliktowość w procesie wprowadzania zmian w modelach roboczych. Obecnie technologia BIM jest jedną z bardziej obiecujących technologii cyfrowych i wciąż jest udoskonalana na podstawie doświadczeń projektantów i wykonawców.
EN
BIM (Building Information Modeling) technology is presented against the background of the history of development of digital building information modeling systems, paying attention to industry integration and the role of the parametric model. Using the example of two completed objects such as the Dongdaemun Design Plaza (DDP) in Seoul (2007–2014) by Zaha Hadid Architects and the King Abdulaziz Centre for World Culture (ITHRA) in Dhahran (2006–2017) by Snøhetta, it is explained how the CAD/CAE/CAM implementation design strategy has an impact on parametric object-based modeling coupled with building information modeling. The data flow and the non-conflicting nature of the process of introducing changes to the working models are important here. Today, BIM technology is one of the most promising digital technologies and is still being improved based on the experience of designers and contractors.
7
Content available remote A novel model of adoption of m-commerce in Saudi Arabia
EN
The market of Saudi Arabia offers considerable potential for the success of mobile commerce (m-commerce) technology. In this context, this study aims to investigate the factors that influence the intentions of Saudi citizens and firms to use m-commerce technology. This study paper advances the literature by proposing a novel model to investigate the motivations behind adopting m-commerce in Saudi Arabia. The model defines factors that influence both customer and provider intentions of adopting m-commerce. The paper also outlines the methodology to be followed to evaluate the proposed model.
8
Content available Metro w Rijadzie
PL
Metro w Rijadzie, stolicy Arabii Saudyjskiej, będzie kolejnym systemem metra w krajach naftowych leżących nad Zatoką Perską. Na budowę linii oraz zakup taboru przeznaczono 23 mld USD, decydując się na pozyskanie pociągów kolei podziemnej od Alstomu, Bombardiera i Siemensa. Jednym z powodów budowy metra jest szybko rosnąca liczba mieszkańców Rijadu (obecnie 6,5 mln) oraz wyczerpywanie się przepustowości arterii miejskich. System kolei podziemnej docelowo będzie składać się z 6 linii o całkowitej długości ok. 177 km. Utworzono międzynarodowe konsorcja złożone z renomowanych firm pod przewodnictwem podmiotów saudyjskich, które otrzymały kontrakty na kompleksowe zaprojektowanie, zbudowanie i wyposażenie sieci metra w Rijadzie oraz późniejszy nadzór. Polskim akcentem jest zaprojektowanie i wyprodukowanie pociągów metra z rodziny Metropolis w dywizji koncernu Alstom – zakładzie w Chorzowie.
EN
Metro in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, is the next underground system in the oil-countries on the Persian Gulf. 23 bln USD was allocated for the lines construction and purchase of rolling stock, deciding to obtain trains for the underground railways from three worldleading manufacturers: Alstom, Bombardier and Siemens. The reason of the decision for metro construction is that this city has growing rapidly population (currently 6.5 million) and depletion of city artery capacity. The underground railway system will ultimately consist of 6 lines with a total length of approx. 177 km. It was established international consortia with renowned companies under Saudi leadership, which received contracts for comprehensive projecting, construction and equipment of the Riyadh metro network and subsequent supervision. The Polish accent are trains from the Metropolis family which are projected and manufactured in the Alstom Group division – the plant in Chorzów.
EN
This article aims to explore the differences in the practices and perceptions of the diversity strategies in Saudi private organizations. It draws on quantitative analysis and data were collected through a convenient sampling method. The findings suggest that Saudi organizations pay great attention to preventing harassment, encouraging ethical behavior, and creating a diverse working environment, while the tested hypotheses confirmed that the diversity strategies practiced are significantly different from what they must practice. The sample organizations did not practice strategies such as providing work and family benefits, preventing unfair discrimination, creating a transparent working environment, providing training and development opportunities, supporting social events, or respecting employee opinion. The findings indicate that Saudi organizations must adopt strategies based on employees’ perceptions.
PL
Celem tego artykułu jest zbadanie różnic w praktykach i postrzeganiu strategii różnorodności w saudyjskich organizacjach prywatnych. Badanie to opiera się na analizie ilościowej, a dane zebrano za pomocą wygodnej metody pobierania próbek. Sugeruje się, że organizacje saudyjskie przywiązują dużą wagę do zapobiegania molestowaniu, zachęcania do etycznych zachowań i tworzenia zróżnicowanego środowiska pracy, podczas gdy przetestowane hipotezy potwierdziły, że stosowane strategie różnorodności znacznie różnią się od tego, co jest praktykowane. Przykładowe organizacje nie stosowały strategii takich jak zapewnianie świadczeń pracowniczych i rodzinnych, zapobieganie nieuczciwej dyskryminacji, tworzeniu przejrzystego środowiska pracy, zapewniania możliwości szkolenia i rozwoju, wspierania imprez towarzyskich lub szanowanie opinii pracowników. Ustalenia wskazują, że organizacje saudyjskie muszą przyjąć strategie oparte na postrzeganiu pracowników.
EN
Spatial variability in the population density of meiofauna and the assemblage of free-living marine nematodes was studied at 20 mangrove sites located along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea. The total abundance of meiofauna varied between the locations and ranged from 119 to 1380 ind. 10 cm-2. A total of seven main taxa were recorded. Nematodes dominated (64.3%) in all sediment samples. They were followed by harpacticoid copepods (13.2%) and polychaetes (12.9%) with significant differences in their density between the locations surveyed (p < 0.001). The Pearson correlation analysis showed significant positive correlations between the sand fraction and nematodes, harpacticoid copepods and turbellarians. Twenty-five genera of free-living nematodes belonging to 15 families were recorded in the study area. Microlaimidae were the most abundant family, while Xyalidae, Desomodridae and Chromidoridae were the most diverse families. Microlaimus, Halalaimus and Terschellingia were the most frequent genera. ANOSIM values obtained for the distribution of different nematode genera in various habitats showed no significant differences. Feeding types of different nematode genera were also documented and the epistrate feeders along with the deposit feeders were found to be the common feeding types in the present study.
11
EN
Seaport management environment has continually changed over the last few decades due to increasing external pressure for seaports to be more competitive, active, dynamic and growing sustainably. These changes have created the need to manage organisational effectiveness in order to monitor port performance and achieve organisational objectives. While organisational effectiveness has been well known in organisational management and important in port management, its application to the seaport sector is limited. This paper presents exploratory research into critical factors of Saudi Arabian seaports’ organisational effectiveness. A Delphi method was applied. Data were collected from a two-round survey of the Saudi Arabian seaports, and interviews of 43 senior staff from Saudi Arabian seaports. A mixed method combining quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted. A total of thirty-one (31) factors from six different dimensions, namely human resource management, customer service, finance, operation, marketing, research & development, were identified to be influential to OE. The gathered data are no doubt important to seaports because only limited research has been conducted on the application of the organisational effectiveness concept to the seaport sector. Findings of this research regarding selecting and evaluating the most influential factors of OE are relevant to decision makers in managing seaport organisations.
12
Content available remote Health and safety perception of construction workers in Saudi Arabia
EN
Construction is a high-risk industry due to the high rates of accidents/fatalities recorded annually in various countries. Health and safety (HS) is a major concern of the construction industry. More so, for developing countries where HS cultures are yet to become fully established. In such situations, the perception of construction workers is a viable approach to assess the performance of HS. This study investigated the HS conditions in Saudi Arabian construction sites from the perspective of construction labor. The study employed a questionnaire comprised of 50 issues related to safety and health from an employee’s perspective, on a 1-5 Likert scale of agreement. Responses were obtained from 196 construction workers in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Results from the study showed that the crucial issues identified include: lack of communication between front-line supervisors and construction labor, less priority for safety compared to productivity; lack of employee-engagement in developing safety policies; poor morale and lack of motivation amongst workers; and un-tested emergency response procedures. Thus, the study suggests that addressing such issues will allow for improved safety performance in the Saudi Arabian construction industry.
EN
The geopolitical location of Yemen makes the country an area that has always drawn the attention of external actors interested in expanding their influences in the Arabian Peninsula. During the period of the Cold War, the territory of today's Yemen was a theater of geopolitical rivalry, where the interests clashed between both superpowers and regional actors. During the conflict in North and South Yemen, external entities played an important role as they drove the dynamics of these conflicts counting on achieving their own strategic objectives. The purpose of this article is to seek answers to the questions: who, how and why was engaged in armed conflicts in the territory of North and South Yemen during the Cold War era, and what long-term consequences of this commitment can be observed today?
EN
Analysis of Silurian graptolite assemblages from 1017 sample horizons in 132 cores (from 65 boreholes) through the Qusaiba Member, Qalibah Formation of Saudi Arabia, provides a refined graptolite biostratigraphy for the Arabian Peninsula comparable in its resolution to that from the British Isles and the Czech Republic. Over 150 graptolite species characterize 11 biozones from the lowermost Rhuddanian lubricus Biozone to the lower Telychian guerichi Biozone, with sub-zonal resolution for several intervals. Graptolite biozonal boundaries and the Rhuddanian-Aeronian and Aeronian-Telychian stage boundaries can be placed with high precision. Detailed analysis of graptolite spatial distribution suggests persistent depth-stratified marine assemblages across the Silurian palaeo-Arabian Plate. Near-surface-dwelling assemblages probably occupied the mixed-layer of Silurian oceans, enabling colonization of shallow shelf environments. They are low-diversity (1-2 species) assemblages characterized by Neodiplograptus, Coronograptus, Neolagarograptus and Stimulograptus species and often are preserved in strata with extensive shelly faunas. Deeper marine assemblages are of higher diversity (up to 15 species per horizon), and are characterized by dorsally curved or helically coiled species of Spirograptus, Demirastrites, Lituigraptus, Rastrites and Torquigraptus. Recognition of depth-stratified graptolite assemblages provides an important tool for establishing palaeo-basin topography and water depth at the time of sedimentary deposition. At the species level, the graptolite assemblages of Saudi Arabia are remarkably similar to contemporaneous faunas from peri-Gondwanan Europe and, from the middle Rhuddanian onwards, also to the Avalonian and Laurentian Llandovery graptolites of the UK.
EN
The distribution of benthic foraminifera was studied in two stations in the coastal area, located around Jeddah, Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia. Thirty-three species belonging to 15 genera, 14 families and three suborders were recorded in twenty samples. Some foraminiferal tests display abnormalities in their coiling, general shape of chambers and apertures. On the other hand, concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cd were measured in the tests of the two most common living species of benthic foraminifera (Sorites marginalis and Peneroplis planatus). Significant spatial differences in the metal concentrations of benthic foraminifera were recorded at the two sites. Benthic foraminifera yielded significantly high concentrations of Fe, Mn, Pb and Cu, which may attribute to anthropogenic activities at the studied coastal areas. The anthropogenic activities have a considerable impact, besides other factors, in the abnormalities of foraminiferal test.
EN
This study was conducted in metalwork and woodwork industries in Jeddah Industrial Estate. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of industrial noise exposure and to propose remedial actions. Noise was measured at different times of a day in 28 randomly selected factories and workshops. Results indicated that noise levels varied according to the type and size of a factory, and the type and number of machines used. Mean noise levels in metalwork factories were higher than those in woodwork factories. The highest noise levels were observed while manufacturing cans and forming steel reinforcement for concrete, where noise levels exceed 90 dB(A). All mean noise levels in all studied metalwork factories and in 50% of studied woodwork industries were higher than the standard level of 85 dB(A).
EN
The volcanic field of Harrat Khaybar north of Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia contains rare examples of white volcanoes comprised mainly of the felsic rock comendite. The obsidian that occurs in association with the white comendite was exploited and worked by Neolithic inhabitants of the area. The white volcanoes are surrounded by more recent black basaltic lava fields that follow the pre-existing topography and display both aa and pahoehoe flow structures. Although situated only 60 km from a busy motorway, the volcanic area is remote and all necessary safety precautions must be taken in order to visit the volcanoes.
EN
Turbidite sandstones deposited in rift settings are currently among the main targets of hydrocarbon exploration. However, the impact of style of sedimentation, cyclicity and diagenesis on reservoir quality of such sandstones is relatively poorly explored in the literature. The sedimentology, stratigraphic architecture, and diagenetic alterations of deep marine sandstones of the Mocene Nutaysh member of the Burqan Formation in the Midyan area (Saudi Arabia) are described based on number of measured sedimentologic sections, lithofacies identification in the field and laboratory studies. Three lithofacies types are here identified in the measured sections. These are from bottom to top: (1) “Lithofacies A” consisting of massive to thickly-bedded, coarse-to-very coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerates; (2) “Lithofacies B” consisting of well-bedded, coarse-to-medium-grained, well-sorted sandstone, and (3) “Lithofacies C” consisting of thin-bedded, fine to very fine-grained, current-rippled sandstone, bioturbated shaley siltstone and marl. The main diagenetic processes in the sandstones include the formation of grain-coating smectite and rhombic dolomite. Small amounts of cements include the formation of authigenic kaolinite and calcite. The reservoir quality is anticipated to have been preserved under the transformation of smectite to deep burial illite, which is believed to prevent formation of quartz cements.
PL
W artykule przedstawiona została ewolucja roli Królestwa Arabii Saudyjskiej w procesie stabilizacji rynku ropy naftowej w latach osiemdziesiątych, dziewięćdziesiątych i w ostatniej dekadzie. Ponadto zaprezentowano pojawianie się nowych elementów rynku ropy naftowej oraz współzależność pomiędzy rynkiem surowca, wydarzeniami politycznymi w kontekście zróżnicowania wyzwań i rozwiązań proponowanych przez Królestwo.
EN
The article highlights the evolution role of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the process of stabilizing the oil market in the 80s, 90s and the last decade. It also presents different factors occurring on the market as well as the interdependency between crude markets, political issues in the context of the diversity of challenges and the solutions proposed by the Kingdom.
EN
The distribution and abundance of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages were investigated in surface sediments from south-western Red sea coasts of Saudi Arabia at six sites during March 2010. A total of 19 taxa of dinoflagellate cysts were identified from all sites. The sampling sites showed a similar cyst assemblage, but they differed in total cyst abundance (3 to 4083 cysts g-1 dry weight). Cyst abundance was strongly correlated with sediment characteristics, the highest numbers being recorded in sediments with large contents of organic carbon, silt and clay. Cyst assemblages were dominated by cysts of potentially toxic species, including Cochlodinium polykrikos, Prorocentrum minimum, Dinophysis acuminata, Alexandrium catenella and Scrippsiella trochoidea. Most cysts germinated successfully at different rates at 15 and 25°C. This study suggests that surface sediments from all Saudi Red Sea coasts should be monitored for the presence of dinoflagellate cysts to give ample warning of the presence and abundance of toxic species in a given area
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