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PL
W artykule przybliżono czytelnikowi problemy związane z obliczeniami statycznymi podczas projektowania wielkopowierzchniowych obiektów o nietypowej geometrii. Zawarto w nim podstawowe informacje na temat technologii BIM oraz możliwości wymiany informacji między programami branżowymi na przykładzie przedstawionej koncepcji obiektu z pracy dyplomowej magisterskiej. Podjęto temat numerycznego wyznaczania obciążeń wiatrem przy użyciu dostępnego oprogramowania oraz potencjalnego wpływu zjawisk reologicznych podczas wznoszenia obiektu. Przedstawiono podejście do kształtowania dylatacji podczas tworzenia modelu obliczeniowego, a także w jaki sposób generować siatkę MES w sekcjach narażonych na niestabilności obliczeniowe.
EN
The article introduces the reader to the problems related to static calculations when designing large-area objects with atypical geometry. It contains basic information on BIM technology and the possibility of exchanging information between industry programs on the example of the presented concept of an object from the master’s thesis. The subject of numerical determination of wind loads using the available software and the potential impact of rheological phenomena during the construction of the object was discussed. An approach to shaping dilatation while creating a computational model is presented, as well as how to generate a FEM mesh in sections exposed to computational instabilities.
EN
Wind generated surface waves were measured at V2 station (φ=43°29.3’ N; λ=16° 27.9’ E) in the Brački Kanal Channel area of the Middle Adriatic, in front of the port of Split. This was undertaken in the time interval from November 2007 to June 2008, by using Datawell MKIII waverider with all its compo-nents. For the analysis and description of extreme sea states maximum recorded wave height Hmax and sig-nificant wave height H1/3 were presented as well as associated wave spectra. The measurement results show that much larger waves appear in the open Adriatic compared to the Middle Adriatic channel area. Numerical modelling of wave generation in the Brački Kanal Channel area and wider island area of the Middle Adriatic Sea was performed by using Mike 21/SW numerical model. Wind field used for the forcing in numerical simulations relies on the results of the prognostic atmospheric model Aladin-CRO. For verification of model results, results of measurement at a waverider station V2 located in front of the port of Split were used. It was concluded that measured and modelled significant wave heights were very well matched.
EN
The design of shallow foundations on swelling soils needs a thorough study to evaluate the effect of swelling potential soil on the final foundation heave. For this reason, a simple analytical approach based on the soil stress state under the foundation can be used to calculate the foundation heave. This paper reports a set of analytical and numerical analysis using the finite-difference code (FLAC 3D), performed on an isolated shallow foundation founded on a swelling soil mass at N’Gaous city in Batna Province, Algeria, subjected to distributed vertical loads. Further, the influence of some parameters on total heave was analyzed, such as the embedded foundation and soil stiffness. The analysis results from the proposed 3D modelling was compared and discussed with analytical results. The numerical results obtained show a good agreement with the analytical solutions based on oedometer tests proposed in the literature, and deliver a satisfactory prediction of the heave of the shallow foundations.
EN
This paper contains the attempt of numerical assessment of hydraulic efficiency of intensive green roof utilizing two different, commercially available substrates, additionally retrofitted with layer of fractioned sand 1.0-0.5 and 0.5-0.25 mm mixed in mass concentration of 0.1 % with hydrogel. The numerical modelling of green roof efficiency was performed by the means of the popular modelling software FEFLOW, Wasy-DHI. The developed model reflected the selected cross section of the tested green roof. The required input data for modelling covering the saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention characteristics were determined under the laboratory conditions as well as were based on information available in technical descriptions of tested substrates. The applied boundary conditions were based on previously performed in-situ measurements. The obtained results of numerical modelling showed relation between porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, retention properties of substrate, rainfall characteristics, duration of dry period and presence of additional sand-hydrogel mixture layer and water retention efficiency of tested green roofs.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono próbę numerycznej oceny efektywności hydraulicznej intensywnego zielonego dachu wykorzystującego dwa różne, dostępne komercyjnie, wypełnienia, dodatkowo wzbogacone warstwą frakcjonowanego piasku, 1,0-0,5 i 0,5-0,25 mm, zmieszanego w stężeniu masowym 0,1 % z hydrożelem. Obliczenia numeryczne efektywności badanego zielonego dachu zostały przeprowadzone za pomocą programu obliczeniowego FEFLOW, Wasy-DHI. Opracowany model odzwierciedlał wybrany przekrój poprzeczny przez badany zielony dach. Wymagane dane wejściowe do obliczeń modelowych, obejmujące współczynnik filtracji oraz charakterystykę retencyjną badanych materiałów porowatych, określono w czasie drogą badań laboratoryjnych oraz oparto o upublicznione opisy techniczne wykorzystanych wypełnień. Zastosowane warunki brzegowe wykorzystały poprzednio przeprowadzone pomiary terenowe. Wyniki obliczeń modelowych wykazały związek pomiędzy porowatością, współczynnikiem filtracji, właściwościami retencyjnymi wypełnienia oraz charakterystyką opadu, długością okresu suchego i obecnością dodatkowej warstwy mieszaniny piasku z hydrożelem a efektywności zielonego dachu.
EN
The paper presents investigation of shock initiation effects on highly energetic material LX-04, an HMX based one, by a blunt brass projectile using numerical modelling methods implemented in LS-DYNA software. Multi – Material Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MM-ALE) formulation has been used to provide the possibility of fulfilment of the elements with multiple materials accordingly to multiple phases of the composition detonated. The work is focused on LS-DYNA’s equation of the state keyword *EOS_IGNITON_AND_GROWTH_IN_HE. Proper comparison with experimental data is presented. The introduction into the subject of highly nonlinear transient dynamic finite element analysis, possibilities, and superiority of this kind of modelling are being discussed. Reasons of sustaining the need of data by numerical solutions rather than experimental handling in military applications are given. Some of typical technical issues, occurring during such a fast-performing phenomenon, and the need of experimental validation of the models are typed together with detonation-state determination’s observation capabilities.
EN
Experimental tests and numerical simulations of a full-scale segment of a foot and cycle bridge made of polimer composites are presented in the paper. The analysed structure is made of sandwich panels, which consist of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) multi-layered laminate faces and a PET foam (obtained from recycling) core. The dimensions of the segment cross-section are the same as for the target footbridge; however, span length was reduced to 3 m. The experimental tests were conducted in a laboratory of the Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology at Gdansk University of Technology. A single vertical force was generated by a hydraulic cylinder and was applied to the platform of the structure. The experimental tests were supported by numerical analyses performed in Femap with NX Nastran software by means of the finite element method (FEM). Results obtained in the computational model were compared with results from experiments. Thus, the numerical model was validated and the obtained conclusions were used in the next step of the design process of a composite footbridge with a span length of 14.5 m.
EN
In this study, we present an analysis of the hydrodynamic processes under ice cover in the largest lagoon in Europe – the Curonian Lagoon. By applying a finite element numerical modelling system (SHYFEM) and remote sensing ice cover data, the residual circulation, water fluxes through specific areas of the lagoon, saltwater intrusions, and water residence time (WRT) were investigated. The results, taken over an 11 year period, show that ice cover affects the circulation patterns in the lagoon by forming and shifting different gyre systems. Different circulation patterns are observed throughout all the meteorological seasons of the year. Since ice decreases circulation, water fluxes also decrease, especially in a cross-section in the middle of the lagoon, where the ice-cover suppressed wind-stress has a higher impact on the water movement rather than it has in the north. The presence of ice cover also decreases the salinity of the water in the northern part of the lagoon. In general, the salinity in the water column averaged over different periods is vertically uniform, however, a slight increase of salt concentration can be observed at the bottom layers in the Klaipėda Strait, where the difference of >1 PSU between bottom and top layers shows up on average 130 hours per year. The ice cover also decreases the saltwater intrusions into the lagoon by nearly 14 days per year. The increase of WRT is most prominent after long ice cover periods, away from the river inlets, especially in the southern part of the lagoon, where without the help of the wind action, water takes a longer time to renew than in the northern part.
EN
The article elaborates upon the numerical modelling of shaped charges equipped with various types of elliptical (trumpet-like) liners. Three various geometries of shaped charges with elliptical liners were modelled, which have been compared against a model of a traditional shaped charge with a conical liner. The charges were compared for maximum pressure during charge detonation, velocity of cumulative jet, kinetic energy obtained, as well as length of cumulative jet after a 15 µs interval. The modelling of shaped charges with elliptical liners was aimed at improvement of perforation job parameters in oil wells. Realization of the perforation job is a key element, enabling initialisation of production from a given reservoir of hydrocarbons. The purpose of perforation is the creation of a channel series, perpendicular to borehole axis, penetrating the wall(s) of the casing, cement layer and formation rock, in order to make a hydraulic connection of the borehole with the reservoir of hydrocarbons. The longest possible perforation channels are desired, which enable better completion of the reservoir. Currently, for a perforation job, shaped charges of axial symmetry equipped with conical liners made of copper powders are used, which enable achieving a cumulative jet velocity of 7000 m/s, which can penetrate up to 1 m of undisturbed rock in favourable conditions. The modelled shaped charges, featuring the elliptical liners, achieved much better values of pressure, maximum velocity, kinetic energy and channel length within the same time interval as compared to the results of modelling a cumulative jet created by standard shaped charge. However, it should be remembered that in order to confirm the effectiveness of target penetration by modelled shaped charges, their physical models should be fabricated and tested in ground-fields experiments.
PL
Artykuł został opracowany na podstawie wyników modelowania numerycznego ładunków kumulacyjnych z różnymi typami wkładek eliptycznych (trąbkowych). Zamodelowano trzy geometrie ładunków kumulacyjnych z wkładkami eliptycznymi, które porównano do modelu klasycznego ładunku kumulacyjnego z wkładką stożkową. Ładunki porównano pod względem maksymalnego ciśnienia podczas detonacji ładunku, prędkości strumienia kumulacyjnego, uzyskanej energii kinetycznej oraz długości strumienia kumulacyjnego po czasie 15 µs. Celem modelowania ładunków kumulacyjnych z wkładkami eliptycznymi była poprawa parametrów zabiegu perforacji w odwiertach naftowych. Wykonanie perforacji to kluczowy element, dzięki któremu możliwe jest zapoczątkowanie produkcji w danym złożu węglowodorów. Perforacja ma na celu wykonanie serii otworów prostopadłych do osi odwiertu, przebijających ścianki rur okładzinowych, cementu oraz skałę złożową, aby połączyć hydraulicznie otwór wiertniczy i złoże węglowodorów. Pożądane są jak najdłuższe otwory perforacyjne, które wraz ze wzrostem długości lepiej udostępniają złoże. Obecnie do perforacji wykorzystuje się ładunki osiowosymetryczne ze stożkowymi wkładkami kumulacyjnymi wykonanymi z proszków miedzi, które osiągają prędkość strumienia kumulacyjnego na poziomie 7000 m/s i penetrują do 1 m calizny skalnej przy sprzyjających warunkach. Zamodelowane ładunki kumulacyjne z wkładkami eliptycznymi osiągnęły znacznie lepsze wartości ciśnienia, prędkości maksymalnej, energii kinetycznej oraz długości po czasie dla strumienia kumulacyjnego w porównaniu do wyników modelowania strumienia powstałego z klasycznego ładunku kumulacyjnego. Należy jednak pamiętać, że aby potwierdzić skuteczność przebijania celów przez zamodelowane ładunki kumulacyjne, należałoby wykonać ich fizyczne modele i poddać je testom na poligonie doświadczalnym.
EN
Underground laboratories provide a unique environment for various industries and are the perfect place for developing new technologies for mining, geophysical surveys, radiation detection as well as many other studies and measurements. Unfortunately working in underground excavations is associated with exposure to many hazards not encountered in the laboratories located on the surface. Water inflow, gas burst, roof fall and even seismic hazards translate into high accident rates in the underground mining industry across the globe. Therefore, to minimise the risk of serious accidents, a lot of research investigations related to the development of effective risk assessment procedures are being carried out. One of the initiatives aimed at improving the work safety in underground laboratories in the Baltic Sea Innovation Network project implemented under the Interreg Baltic Sea Region Programme. This study presents the process of compiling a database on hazards within underground laboratories. Finally, a proposal of unification of the procedure for risk assessment, including methods for determining the likelihood and potential impact of unwanted events has been developed.
EN
The article presents the results of the analysis data of the roof rocks geotechnical parameters in the conditions of the deep copper ore of the KGHM Polish Cooper mines. Using single factor analysis of variance and comparing means in two samples, the significance of differences between individual lithological layers (dolomite, anhydrite and rocks on their contact (dolomite-anhydrite breccia)) was evaluated in the aspect of constructing numerical simulations of the behavior of roof rocks above mining excavations. Based on the results of previous studies described in the works (Galiński 2005; Galiński, Lis and Mróz 2003), it was proposed to use Fisher–Snedecor analysis and t-Student test in order to justify the decision to consider individual lithological layers in numerical modeling of the rock mass around mining excavations. The problem raised in the article concerns the selection of lithological layers consider in numerical models of rock mass. Assuming too general (average values) physico-mechanical parameters in the simulation will generate incorrect results. On the other hand, consider of more lithological layers with insignificantly different physico-mechanical parameters may prove unnecessary, because this will not affect the accuracy of the results obtained.
EN
As part of the work, the error level of simulations of uniform optical-fibre Bragg gratings was determined using the transition matrix method. The errors were established by comparing the transmission characteristics of the structures obtained by simulation with the corresponding characteristics arrived at experimentally. To compile these objects, elementary properties of the characteristics were specified, also affecting the applications of Bragg gratings, and compared with each other. The level of error in determining each of these features was estimated. Relationships were also found between the size of the physical properties of Bragg gratings and the level of errors obtained. Based on the findings, the correctness of the simulation of structures with the said method was verified, giving satisfying results.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono przebieg i wyniki badań przemysłowych wykonanych w ramach 1 Etapu projektu, którego końcowym celem jest opracowanie innowacyjnej stali elektrotechnicznej nowej generacji, przeznaczonej na blachy transformatorowe o wysokiej przenikalności magnetycznej (wysokiej indukcji 1,9 T i małej stratności 0,8 W/kg) z ziarnem zorientowanym (typ HGO) wraz z technologią jej wytwarzania w zakresie: wytapiania w konwertorze z obróbką pozapiecową uwzględniającą próżniowe odgazowanie stali w demonstracyjnej instalacji, ciągłego odlewania wlewków płaskich i walcowania ich na gorąco na półwyrób do dalszego przerobu. Pozostałe etapy wytwarzania blach transformatorowych obejmujące walcowanie na zimno, międzyoperacyjną obróbkę cieplną i cieplno-chemiczną oraz obróbkę powierzchniową stanowią tajemnicą przedsiębiorstwa. W ramach 1 Etapu projektu wykonano symulacje numeryczne i fizyczne wytapiania, odlewania i walcowania na gorąco stali o założonych parametrach jakościowych, celem uzyskania materiału do dalszych badań. Określono parametry wytapiania i odlewania zapewniające uzyskanie odpowiedniej jakości stali o maksymalnej zawartość tlenu całkowitego 12 ppm i udziale powierzchniowym wtrąceń niemetalicznych max. 0,05%, oraz wymagania techniczno-technologiczne urządzenia do obróbki ciekłej stali w próżni, stanowiącego instalację demonstracyjną, a także opracowano model reologiczny stali transformatorowej dla procesu walcowania blach na gorąco, z użyciem którego przeprowadzono wstępne symulacje w celu uzyskania rozkładów temperatury, odkształcenia i prędkości odkształcenia w walcowanym paśmie.
EN
The article presents the process and results of industrial tests carried out as part of the 1st Stage of the project, the final goal of which is to develop an innovative new-generation electrical steel designed for the manufacture of transformer plates with high magnetic permeability (high inductance of 1.9 T and low lossiness of 0.8 W/ kg) and with oriented grain (HGO type) together with the technology of its production in the scope of: melting of steel in a converter with ladle treatment taking into account vacuum degassing of steel in a demonstration installation, continuous casting of flat ingots and their hot rolling for further processing. The remaining stages of transformer plate production, including cold rolling, inter-operational heat and thermo-chemical treatment, as well as surface treatment operations, are a trade secret. As part of the 1st Stage of the project, numerical and physical simulations of melting, casting and hot rolling of steel with assumed quality parameters were carried out in order to obtain material for further research. The melting and casting processes parameters were determined to ensure obtaining the appropriate quality of steel with a maximum total oxygen content of 12 ppm and the surface fraction of non-metallic inclusions of max. 0.05%, technical and technological requirements for the device for liquid steel processing in vacuum constituting the demonstration installation were determined, and a rheological model of transformer steel for the sheet hot-rolling process was developed, with the use of which preliminary simulations were carried out to obtain temperature, deformation and strain rates in the rolled strip.
EN
Currently, the application of coal pillars to protect an adjacent roadway is a common method in Vietnam when exploiting according to the longwall system. Therefore, the width of a coal pillar is an important issue for the stability of a roadway. In order to reduce coal loss in these coal pillars, they tend to be designed in a narrow coal pillar style but still have to ensure that the adjacent roadway can meet safe coal production conditions. The stability of roadways and coal pillars is related to many factors such as technical mechanical characteristics, physical and mechanical properties of coal, stress environment and support methods. The bearing structure of the coal pillar and the around rock a roadway is analyzed and it has been shown that enhancing roadway support and improving the carrying capacity of coal pillars can control the deformation of the surrounding rock. A study related to the stability and safety of roadways and small coal pillars in the longwall mining system has been carried out. Stabilization factors have been considered, especially the state of stress in the coal pillars and the deformation of the roadway. By applying the numerical simulation method, the stress of the coal pillar and the deformation of the adjacent roadway under different supporting solutions were analyzed and evaluated. By using this method, the rock bolt roadway support solution combined with the long cable bolt in the roadway roof and the coal pillar was selected in the safe condition of the mining process. Because cable bolt can improve the flexibility of the coal pillar such as: reducing the size of the plastic area on both sides of the pillar; enhancing coal pillar stability in the core area by providing great drag and tensile for coal pillars; contributing to improving the anchor point fixation of rock bolt. The conclusions obtained may provide a certain reference parameters to improve mining efficiency and labor safety in underground coal mines.
PL
Obecnie stosowanie filarów węglowych do ochrony sąsiednich wyrobisk złożowych jest powszechną metodą przy eksploatacji systemem ścianowym w Wietnamie. Wymiary filarów jest istotną kwestią dla stabilności wyrobisk złożowych. Aby zmniejszyć straty węgla, zwykle są one projektowane w stylu wąskich filarów, ale nadal muszą zapewniać, że sąsiednie wyrobiska muszą spełniać bezpieczne warunki. Stateczność wyrobisk i filarów węglowych jest związana z wieloma czynnikami, takimi jak techniczne właściwości fizyczno-mechaniczne górotworu, naprężenia i metody podparcia. Przeanalizowano konstrukcję nośną filara węglowego i skały otaczającej chodniki wykazano, że wzmocnienie podparcia wyrobisk i polepszenie nośności filarów węglowych może kontrolować odkształcenia otaczającej skały. W artykule, przedstawiono wyniki badania dotyczącego stateczności wyrobisk i małych filarów w ścianowym systemie. Uwzględniono czynniki stabilizujące, w szczególności stan naprężeń w filarach oraz odkształcenie chodników. Wykorzystując metodę symulacji numerycznej, przeanalizowano i oceniono naprężenie w filarach węglowych oraz odkształcenie sąsiednich chodników przy różnych rozwiązaniach podporowych. Ponieważ śruba linowa może poprawić elastyczność filarów, na przykład: zmniejszenie rozmiaru obszaru z tworzywa sztucznego po obu stronach filara; zwiększenie stabilności filara węglowego w obszarze rdzeniowym poprzez zapewnienie dużego oporu i rozciągliwości filarów; przyczynianie się do poprawy mocowania punktu kotwienia śruby do skał. Uzyskane wnioski mogą dostarczyć rozwiązania dla poprawy efektywności wydobycia i bezpieczeństwa pracy w podziemnych kopalniach węgla kamiennego.
EN
Low-voltage, as well as high-voltage power cable lines, are usually buried in the ground. The ampacity of the power cables in the ground mainly depends on the thermal resistivity of the soil, which may vary in a wide range. A common practice in power cable systems performance is to supply them from a pole of an overhead line. If so, a section of the line is located in free air and can be directly exposed to solar radiation. In some cases, the ampacity of power cables placed in free air is lower than in the ground. Differences in ampacities can be very high if thermal resistivity of the soil is very low, and simultaneously solar irradiation of cables in air occurs. This paper presents the risk of power cables overheating and in consequence the risk of their failure, when part of the underground power cable line is placed in free air. Temperature distribution of cables in the air (with and without solar radiation) for various load currents is presented. Thermal endurance of power cables insulation, operating with the overheating, is estimated.
PL
Linie kablowe zarówno niskiego, jak i wysokiego napięcia zwykle buduje się jako podziemne. Obciążalność kabli układanych w ziemi w znacznym stopniu zależy od rezystywności cieplej gruntu, a może się ona zmieniać w bardzo szerokim zakresie. Obecnie powszechną praktyką jest zasilanie linii kablowych z linii napowietrznych, co sprawia, że pewien odcinek linii kablowej znajduje się w powietrzu i może być poddany bezpośredniemu oddziaływaniu promieniowania słonecznego. W pewnych przypadkach obciążalność prądowa długotrwała kabli w powietrzu jest niższa niż w ziemi – różnice w tej obciążalności mogą być bardzo duże, jeżeli grunt ma niską rezystywność cieplną, a na odcinek linii w powietrzu oddziałuje promieniowanie słoneczne. W artykule przedstawiono problem przegrzania kabli elektroenergetycznych, gdy przyjęta obciążalność linii kablowej wynika z warunków dla ułożenia w ziemi, a na pewnym odcinku linia jest umieszczona w powietrzu. Przedstawiono rozkłady temperatury kabli w powietrzu (z uwzględnieniem i bez uwzględnienia promieniowania słonecznego) dla różnych prądów obciążenia kabli. Oszacowano trwałość termiczną izolacji kabli, mających przez znaczny przedział czasu temperaturę wyższą niż dopuszczalna długotrwale.
EN
Tremors occur randomly in terms of time, energy as well as the location of their focus. The present state of knowledge and technology does not allow for the precise prediction of these values. Therefore, it is extremely important to correctly select a powered roof support for specific geological and mining conditions, especially in the case of areas where dynamic phenomena are often registered. This article presents information on rock burst hazard associated with the occurrence of rock mass tremors and their influence on a powered roof support. Furthermore, protection methods of a powered roof support against the negative effects of dynamic phenomena are discussed. As a result of an analysis the methodology, to determine the impact of dynamic phenomena on the powered roof support in given geological and mining conditions is presented.
EN
2-phase composites are often used for high demanding parts that can undergo impact loads. However, most of the papers on dynamic loading concerns layered composites. In our opinion, the impact loads are not considered thoroughly enough. Good examples of 2-phase composites are: (1) a WC/Co cermet or (2) a monolithic ceramic Al2 O3 /ZrO2 . The WC/Co cermet is often modelled as having ductile elasto-plastic Co matrix and ideally elastic WC grains. It is because of very high crushing resistivity of the WC. In this paper, we present an extension to earlier elaborated models ([44]) with the assumption of ideal elasticity of the grains. The new and general numerical model for high-velocity impact of the 2-phase composites is proposed. The idea of this novelty relies on the introduction of crushability of grains in the composite and thermo-mechanical coupling. The model allows for description of the dynamic response both composite polycrystals made of: (1) 2 different purely elastic phases (e.g. Al2 O3 /ZrO2 ) or (2) one elastic phase and the second one plastic (e.g. cermet WC/Co), or (3) 2 elasto-plastic phases with different material properties and damage processes. In particular, the analysis was limited to the cases (2) and (3), i.e. we investigated the WC/Co polycrystal that impacted a rigid wall with the initial velocity equal to 50 m/s.
EN
The mathematical model and numerical simulations of the solidification of a cylindrical casting, which take into account the process of the mould cavity filling by liquid metal and the feeding of the casting through the conical riser during its solidification, are proposed in the paper. The interdependence of thermal and flow phenomena were taken into account because they have an essential influence on solidification process. The effect of the pouring temperature and pouring velocity of the metal on the solidification kinetics of the casting was determined. In order to obtain the casting without shrinkage defects, an appropriate selection of these parameters was tried, which is important for foundry practice. The velocity fields have been obtained from the solution of Navier-Stokes equations and continuity equation, while temperature fields from solving the equation of heat conductivity containing the convection term. In the solidification modelling the changes in thermo-physical parameters as a function of temperature were considered. The finite element method (FEM) was used to solve the problem.
EN
Production of near net shape thin strips using vertical twin roll casting method has been studied. In a typical VTRC process, the simultaneous action of solidification and rolling makes the process quite attractive as well as complicated. An industrially popular alloy A356 has been chosen for the VTRC processing. It is challenging to identify VTRC processing parameters for the alloy to produce thin strips because of its freezing range and complex composition. In the present work processing parameters of VTRC like roll speed, roll gap, melt superheat and the interface convective heat transfer coefficient have been investigated through modelling of the process. The mathematical model was developed which simultaneously solves the heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification, using commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics 5.4. VTRC sheets of alloy A356 were produced in an experimental set up and attempts were made to correlate the microstructures of VTRC A356 alloy to that predicted from the numerical studies to validate the model.
19
Content available Finite element modelling of the hexagonal wire mesh
PL
Artykuł przedstawia wyniki symulacji numerycznych (wykonanych z wykorzystaniem Metody Elementów Skończonych MES) zachowania się stalowej splatanej sześciokątnej siatki używanej do budowy gabionów. Gabiony, wypełnione gruntem (najczęściej gruboziarnistym) są powszechnie używane w budownictwie, np. do budowy murów oporowych. Modelowano testy statycznego rozciągania siatki, uzyskane zależności siła – przemieszczenie porównano z literaturowymi wynikami badań laboratoryjnych. Zaobserwowano dobrą zgodność pomiędzy wynikami laboratoryjnymi a rezultatami symulacji numerycznych. Testowano trzy różne modele konstytutywne dla pojedynczego i podwójnego splecionego drutu. Specjalną uwagę poświęcono modelowaniu podwójnie splecionego drutu. Wykonano też symulacje zachowania się uszkodzonej siatki, analizowano spadek jej nośności i sztywności. Zaproponowano i wykalibrowano anizotropowy model membranowy dla siatki. Oszacowano parametry zhomogenizowanego ośrodka typu Coulomba – Mohra dla gabionu (siatki i wypełnienia). Model ten może być wykorzystywany w praktyce inżynierskiej do modelowania rzeczywistych konstrukcji gabionowych.
EN
This paper presents the results of Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling of double-twisted steel hexagonal wire mesh used to construct gabion cages. Gabion cages, filled with soil (usually rock particles) are commonly used in civil engineering (for example in order to form a retaining wall). Static tensile tests are modeled and the obtained force - displacements curves are compared with the laboratory test results (known from literature). Good accordance between numerical and laboratory test results is observed. Three different material models for single wire and double twist are tested. Special attention is paid to double-twist modelling. Simulations of the damaged mesh are also performed, strength and stiffness reduction is analyzed. Anisotropic membrane model for mesh is proposed and calibrated. Parameters for homogenized Coulomb - Mohr media for gabion (filling and mesh) are estimated. Such homogenized Coulomb - Mohr model could be used in engineering practice to model behaviour of real gabion structures.
20
EN
Masonry was the most used material during the last centuries to build constructions. Most of the existing masonry structures (buildings, bridges, etc.) were built without considering some important structural considerations that are important nowadays. Moreover, due to factors such as the increasing of service loads, materials aging, structural damage, etc., the existing masonry structures require strengthening interventions. The definition of optimal strengthening strategies using traditional and innovative materials is still an important issue of the scientific research. In fact, during the last decade, many researchers focused their attention studying innovative composites materials, such as fiber-reinforced polymers and fiber-reinforced cementitious matrix composites, for the strengthening of existing masonry structures. This research has focused on aspects such as the bond behavior between the substrate and the composite materials, the structural behavior of the strengthened masonry and concrete structures, and the compatibility and reversibility of these materials when bonded to existing substrates. In this study, the bond behavior of a composite material known as steel fiber-reinforced mortar (SFRM), recently used as for the strengthening of existing structures, applied onto masonry structures is analyzed experimentally and numerically. First, the material is characterized experimentally with the aim of getting insight on its behavior and applicability when applied as an innovative technique for the strengthening of masonry and to obtain mechanical parameters required for the numerical models. Mechanical properties of the SFRM studied included flexural and compressive strength, tensile strength, and residual flexural strength. The SFRM bond behavior on masonry substrates was evaluated by means of double shear lap tests. In addition, the experimental tensile and bond behavior of the SFRM is studied numerically through finite-element models validated using the results obtained during the experimental tests. Results show that if an adequate bonded length is provided, the SFRM can fully develop its tensile strength as detachment from the substrate is not observed.
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