Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a natural extension and supplement of Non-Distractive Tests (NDT). Structure assessment during periodical NDT tests is performed by highly trained human team. However, during long sea voyage, ship crew has no knowledge and possibility for detailed assessment and, what is more, has no knowledge lifetime predicting of ship structure. SHM systems should have good designed sensors types, distribution, and automatic recording unit. However, most important (and most difficult for designing) is autonomous and self-contained procedures for marine structures hazard assessment. In the paper, basic assumptions for numerical algorithms of signal processing, damage identification and localization, threat assessment and forecasting of structure lifetime are presented. SHM systems can be based on several different measurements techniques like: comparative vacuum monitoring, electromagnetic layer, Lamb waves, vibration based methods, acoustic emission, and fibre optics. Last three methods are most promising in the marine environment, according to the author experience. Global ship hull deformation should be monitored as quasi-continuous measurements. Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer method (OTDR) is planned by author for hull global deformation monitoring. Some local strain-stress concentration of hull structure and propulsion system bearings' reactions will be monitored by Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. Both techniques (OTDR and FBG) have been shortly described in the paper.