In cold environment, the damage of freezing and thawing poses a great threat to the safety of concrete structures. In this study, six frost-damaged squat reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls were subjected to low cyclic reversal loading to investigate the effects of axial compression ratio, concrete strength and freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) on the seismic performance of squat RC shear walls. The seismic behavior of the test specimens was evaluated in terms of the frost action at the microstructure level, frost-heave crack patterns, damage processes, failure patterns, hysteretic behaviors, skeleton curves, deformations, and energy dissipation capacities. It shows that the boundary elements and distributed reinforcements had obvious restraining effects on the development of frost-heave cracks. The FTC action weakened the load-carrying capacity, energy dissipation capacity, and shear resistance capacity of the walls. When the number of FTCs is kept at 200, with the increase of the concrete strength, the gel structure (C-S-H) gradually evolved from fibrous to nets, also the width and number of frost-heave cracks started to reduce, and the distribution of frost-heave cracks evolved from the middle of the specimen to the perimeter. Moreover, the energy dissipation capacity and the ratio of the shear displacement on the whole displacement after cracking loading condition started to increase.