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EN
The potential for energy production from effluents and husks generated in grain processing in the rice parboiling industries in Brazil is capable of promoting energy self-sufficiency in the sector, through the production and use of syngas and biogas. However, the production of methane from residues of the rice parboiling industries is still little explored by academic studies, in general studies on the potential of methane production by this same type of effluent are found in the south of the country, however, the same is not true for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil. The objective of this study was to determine the production potential of biodiesel, methane and electric energy of the largest parboiled rice industry in Rio Grande do Sul, located in the southern region of the country. According to this study, the rice parboiling industry located in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, has a production potential of 1.2-10² m³ /day of biodiesel, 2.93-10 Nm³ /day of methane and 1.89-10⁴ kWh/day of electricity. Despite being a significant and high potential, which may reduce the financial expenses of the industry regarding the purchase of energy from concessionaires, it is not able to promote its energy self-sufficiency. At the same time, it would be necessary to add the energy production potential of the rice husk gasification syngas highlighted in other studiem.
EN
Ukraine has expressed its intention to follow basic principles of the European Green Deal. Most probably, Ukraine will set the goal to achieve climate neutrality of its economy by 2060. Effective reduction of GHG emission and successful implementation of the green energy transition is possible only on condition that the bioenergy sector is developing intensively. The same applies to fulfilling Ukraine’s commitments within the Paris Agreement and the Energy Community. It is obvious that Ukraine urgently needs a long-term strategic document for the bioenergy sector and the Roadmap until 2050 could be such a document. The Roadmap is in line with the scenario of achieving over 60% renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy balance of Ukraine by 2050 and 100% RES by 2070. Biomass shares of all RES in 2050 assumed in the Roadmap, which are 38% in the total primary energy supply (TPES), 67% in heat production, 11% in power production and 40% in the transport sector, result in 24% of bioenergy in TPES in 2050. This corresponds to using about 20 Mtoe of biomass for energy. The obtained bioenergy benchmark figures can be used for the elaboration of a new energy strategy of Ukraine until 2050, the current strategy being only until 2035.
EN
The observations of plant development were carried out for three years. The most desirable period for harvesting the miscanthus is December. During this period, the humidity of the stems decreases to 17%. For this reason, the samples for laboratory tests were taken in December. According to the obtained research data, the sewage sludge used is characterized by the following indicators: humidity – 76%, ash content – 5%, nitrogen – 0.66%, P2 O5 – 2.51%, K2O v 2.16%. In this study, a mathematical model which allowed predicting the yield of the miscanthus at given levels, with the introduction of the mineral and organic (sewage sludge) fertilizers was successfully implemented. According to the performed research, the application of a sewage sludge in norm of 20–40 t/ha promotes the productivity of the power cultures (the miscanthus) within 24.5–27.1 t/ha, thus increasing productivity on 2.3–5.1 t/ha, compared with control.
4
Content available Hydrogen production analysis: prospects for Ukraine
EN
Over the last few years, hydrogen energy has shifted from a little-studied field to the main one with which leading western countries associate the prospects of their national economies. The reasons are the unprecedented pace of development of hydrogen technologies. It turned out that they are able to provide significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and thus bring closer the solution to the problem of global climate change. The first and foremost purpose of our investigation is to reveal that our country has ample opportunities to become the main supplier of hydrogen to the EU market, overtaking North Africa in the competition. Using the methods, authors studied the targets of the European funds towards development of energy production from biohydrogen, studied the potential for the implementation of hydrogen projects, possibilities of financing them and a potential ability of Ukraine to form internal and external markets for hydrogen energy. One of the main issues of Ukraine's possible participation in Europe's hydrogen energy program as a supplier and producer of renewable hydrogen is the possibility of its technically safe and cost-effective transportation to EU countries. As a conclusion to the authors’ research, the path of the hydrogen industry development in Ukraine will help to receive additional investments in the Ukrainian economy for creation of new capacities for "green" hydrogen production. In return, Europe will receive research and evolution of the bioenergy component of the economy, which will permit the safe transition of Europeans to an affordable, competitive, and stable energy system.
PL
W ostatnich latach energia pochodząca z wodoru z mało zbadanego obszaru stała się głównym tematem, w którym kraje zachodnie upatrują szansy dla swoich krajowych gospodarek. Wynika to z niesłychanego tempa rozwoju technologii wodorowych. Okazało się, że są one w stanie znacząco zredukować emisję gazów cieplarnianych i w ten sposób przybliżyć rozwiązanie problemu globalnej zmiany klimatu. Pierwszym i najważniejszym celem naszego badania jest wykazanie, że nasz kraj posiada duże możliwości, aby stać się głównym dostawcą wodoru na rynek europejski, wyprzedając w tym północną Afrykę. Przy zastosowaniu metod, autorzy dokonali przeglądu celów europejskich funduszy w kierunku rozwoju produkcji energii z biowodoru, możliwość wprowadzenia projektów wodorowych, możliwości finansowania potencjału Ukrainy do tworzenia wewnętrznych i zewnętrznych rynków energii wodorowej. Jednym z głównych kwestii możliwego udziału Ukrainy w europejskim programie energii wodorowej jako dostawcy i producenta odnawialnego wodoru jest możliwość jego bezpiecznego i opłacalnego transportu do krajów UE. Podsumowując, autorzy stwierdzili, że ścieżka rozwoju przemysłu wodorowego na Ukrainie pozwoli na uzyskanie dodatkowych inwestycji w gospodarce Ukrainy w celu stworzenia nowych możliwości produkcji zielonego wodoru. W zamian Europa otrzyma badania i rozwój nad wodorem, który jest elementem gospodarki. Co z kolei pozwoli na bezpieczne przejście Europejczyków na niedrogi, konkurencyjny i stały system energii.
EN
The article presents discussion on the state and prospects of bioenergy development in the context of rationalization of energy crops application as resource potential of Ukraine. Along with the development of society and increase of life intensity, the needs of mankind with regard to energy resources are increasing. The reduction rates of traditional types of energy resources are progressively growing, and their shortage is increasing. In addition, Ukraine belongs to import-dependent countries in the energy sector. At the expense of its own sources, our country provides only about half of the energy needs, while domestic national economy is one of the most energyintensive industries in the world. In this regard, there is an urgent need to search for new, alternative sources of energy. Taking into account the potential present in Ukraine, the biomass use for energy production is the most attractive option. However, along with this, there is a problem of purposeful use of the agricultural land and a competitive struggle between agricultural products for nutrition and energy purposes. At the same time, many problems arise, which concerdevelopment of an appropriate legislative framework, methodological approaches to the economic, environmental and social efficiency of production and use of biological types of energy.
PL
W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono rozważania na temat stanu i możliwości rozwoju bioenergii w kontekście racjonalizacji zastosowania upraw energetycznych jako potencjału zasobów Ukrainy. Potrzeby ludzkości związane ze źródłami energii wzrastają wraz z rozwojem społeczeństwa i zwiększającą się intensywnością życia. Poziomy redukcji tradycyjnych rodzajów źródeł energii stale zwiększają się a ich niedobór wzrasta. Ponadto, Ukraina należy do krajów, które polegają na imporcie w kwestii energetycznej. Bazując na swoich zasobach, nasz kraj zaspokaja jedynie około połowy zapotrzebowania na energię, podczas gdy krajowa gospodarka jest jedną z największych energochłonnych gałęzi przemysłu na świecie. Dlatego, istnieje pilna potrzeba znalezienia nowych, alternatywnych źródeł energii. Biorąc pod uwagę możliwości Ukrainy, zastosowanie biomasy do produkcji energii jest najbardziej atrakcyjną opcją. Jednak, istnieje także inny problem, a mianowicie kwestia celowego wykorzystania użytków rolnych i walka konkurencyjna pomiędzy produktami rolniczymi na żywność i na cele energetyczne. Jednocześnie, pojawia się wiele problemów dotyczących przygotowania odpowiedniej ramy legislacyjnej, podejść metodologicznych do skuteczności gospodarczej, środowiskowej i społecznej produkcji i wykorzystania biologicznych rodzajów energii.
EN
The current economy system is based in an intensive consumption of fossil fuels in a way that severely compromise future of the planet due to the severe consequences in climate change. In this scenario, the development of flexible and integrated biorefineries to produce biofuels and bioproducts from renewable biomass sources represent a key tool to perform the transition from a petroleum-based economy to a novel bioeconomy that looks for a more efficient and sustainable global development. This article analyses: the significance of biomass sources (such as agricultural and woody crops and residues, agro-food and wood processing industries residues and urban wastes) as feedstocks in the biorefinery, the most relevant biorefinering process technologies of the biochemical and thermochemical conversion pathways that are nowadays under development, and the need of further research and innovation effort to eventually achieve the commercialization and application in the market of the different biorefinery products.
EN
The article presents the results of an experiment showing the efficiency of stimulating the release of biogas from a cow’s substrate under the influence of a constant electric field of a certain intensity at a mesophilic temperature regime, as well as the change in the chemical composition of the obtained biogas and the amount of residual due to this effect. The studies were conducted on the basis of a specially designed laboratory biogas plant. It contains two reactors housed inside a thermostat and connected to a biogas collection and storage system. This allows you to determine its volume and chemical composition. One of the reactors is equipped with a system of exposure to the substrate by a constant electric field. The optimum intensity of the latter was determined by previous experiments. Studies were performed on the cow substrate under mesophilic regimen. Studies have shown that biogas output per unit of dry organic matter under the influence of a constant electric field increased by 11.3%, the destruction of the latter increased by 12.2%, and the total volume of biogas (excluding CO2) increased by 8.2%. It should also be noted that the lag phase decreased by 12.2%.
EN
The concept of a climate-resilient economy appeared prominently in the 2015 economic considerations in the context of the Paris Agreement. However, the very concept of resiliency emerged in the 1970s in ecological research and was also widely considered from the perspective of socio-economic development. This paper presents the objectives of the European Union policy related to the creation of climate-resilient economies and the rationale behind the concept of resiliency. This analysis seeks to reveal differences between the resilient-oriented strategies of local rural communities in developed countries, based on the example of bioenergy villages, and in less-developed countries, using the example of reintroduced traditional farming. This research reveals the key strategies and benefits generated by the particular local communities.
EN
The aim of the article is to review EU policy towards renewable energy sources (RES) and their assessment, taking into account the principles of sustainable development. The presented development is of a theoretical nature. Therefore, the basic research method is the analysis of available sources, such as statistical data, EU legal acquis and reports. Many aspects are touched upon in implementing the principles of sustainable development in energy policy. For this reason, the following have been selected for analysis: the share of RES in the overall energy balance, the energy mix of renewable energy sources and the use of soft instruments supporting RES. As a result of the analysis, it has been found that despite undoubted progress regarding the increase in share of RES in the energy balance, many problems remained unresolved. These include the sustainable use of biomass (especially wood resources) and insufficient use (despite the progress made in this area) of soft instruments.
EN
Greenhouse gas control it is key aspect for climate protection. The positioning of corporations concerning greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) has changed profoundly in the past two decades. As climate regulation became inevitable, companies started adopting more proactive strategies. One of the effective methods for greenhouse gas emission calculation is based on life cycle analysis. A carbon footprint is defined as the sum of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event, or product and is expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents (CO2-e). Our investigations were devoted to greenhouse emission assessment during life cycle of willow wood production from short rotation coppice plantations. In accordance with results about 48% of carbon dioxide gas from all life cycle of willow was emitted during wood harvesting and transportation to energy plants. It is necessary to optimize the logistic scheme of willow wood harvesting and transportation for decreasing of greenhouse gas emission. The substitutions of fossil fuel by willow wood enable to save 11733 ton CO2-e from 30 hectares of willow plantation. The carbon tax for instance in Australia starting at AU$ 23 a ton of Carbon Dioxide equivalent (tCO2e). Thus, the substitute of fossil fuel by willow wood may have profit as for regional so and for local level of production.
11
Content available Effects of small biogas plants in Poland
EN
The paper describes current situation in Poland regarding biogas plants development. The lack of new act on renewable energy sources for a long time, not contributes to the development of biomass energy. The situation seems to have changed after the entry into force of the new law. Nevertheless, the low support of state and auction system does not guarantee the profitability for biogas particularly in agriculture. We applied questionnaire survey to Polish local communities regarding biogas plants. The practical recommendations for decision makers regarding better renewable energy policy were formulated.
EN
Biomass is the most important source of renewable energy in the Polish energy system. The most common technologies of energetic utilization of biomass in smali and middle scalę boilers is combustion of pellets and briauettes. This article is focused mainly on micronized biomass a special form of the pulverized fuel. This type of biomass can be utilized as fuel at middle and smali scalę boilers. Experimental investigations of the ignition process of such finely milled biomass is necessary for elaboration of guidelines for development of pulverized burners. Tests of the micronized cereal straw were performed at the pulverized fuel test stand. Different particie fractions were investigated in the rangę of 0-0.315 mm. Temperature range of the drop tube reactor was 600 - 1000°C. The tests showed that the micronized cereal straw has relatively Iow autoignition temperature (T = 410°C), comparing to other conventionally pulverized types of biomass with comparable sizes of particles. Moreover, combustion process of the micronized dust was characterized by the stand-off distance of the flame - ignition point. The experimental results were used for verification of numerical models of combustion of the micronized biomass fuel. The 2D and 3D calculations were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT code with the developed and modified at the Institute of Power Engineering model of combustion of the micronized fuel. Comparison of the numerical and experimental results was rewarding.
EN
The paper presents a comparison of the multi-criteria Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method and numerical taxonomy in biogas plant location selection. Biogas plants are sources that will significantly contribute to the implementation of the provisions of the energy and climate package for Poland by 2030. Increasing the share of energy produced from renewable sources, e.g. biogas plants, will increase the country’s energy security. Biogas plants obtain energy from biogas of various origins. Therefore, biogas plant location choice depends on such factors as environmental impact, biogas availability and origin, technological aspects, and possible output energy use. The multitude of these factors makes the biogas plant location choice a multithreaded issue. The AHP is a highly sophisticated mathematical method. Its advantage is the ability to compare countable and uncountable factors with each other. The analysis outcome is a vector containing the ranking of considered variants. The numerical taxonomy is a much less complex method. It consists in determining the tested solutions’ distances from a hypothetical ideal solution, the so-called standard, in effect creating their ranking. The methods were compared in terms of sensitivity to change of decision options and criteria, decision-makers’ and experts’ involvement level, as well as computational complexity.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia porównanie wielokryterialnej metody analytic hierarchy proces (AHP) oraz taksonomii numerycznej w przy- padku wyboru lokalizacji biogazowni. Biogazownie należy zaliczyć do źródeł, które w znaczny sposób przyczynią się do realizacji postanowień pakietu energetyczno-klimatycznego dla Polski do 2030 roku. Zwiększenie udziału produkcji energii pochodzącej z OZE, np. biogazowni, spowoduje wzrost bezpieczeństwa energetycznego kraju. Biogazownie pozyskują energię pochodzącą z biogazu różnego pochodzenia. Dlatego też na lokalizację biogazowni wpływają takie czynniki, jak: oddziaływanie na środowisko, dostępność oraz pochodzenie biogazu, aspekty technologiczne, możliwość wykorzystania wyprodukowanej energii. Mnogość wymienionych czynników czyni kwestię lokalizacji biogazowni zagadnieniem wielowątkowym. Metoda AHP jest metodą matema- tyczną o dużym stopniu zaawansowania. Zaletą metody jest możliwość porównania ze sobą czynników policzalnych oraz niepo- liczalnych. Efektem analizy jest wyznaczenie wektora zawierającego uszeregowanie rozpatrywanych wariantów. Metoda takso- nomii numerycznej jest metodą o znacznie mniejszym stopniu skomplikowania. Polega na wyznaczeniu odległości badanych rozwiązań od hipotetycznego rozwiązania idealnego, tzw. wzorca, w efekcie tworząc ranking rozwiązań. Metody porównano pod względem wrażliwości na zmianę wariantów decyzyjnych i kryteriów, stopnia zaangażowania decydentów i ekspertów oraz złożo- ności obliczeniowej.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia porównanie wielokryterialnej metody Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) oraz taksonomii numerycznej na podstawie analizy wyboru lokalizacji biogazowni. Wykazano, że analiza lokalizacji biogazowni metodą AHP oraz metodą taksonomii numerycznej wskazuje jednakowe uporządkowanie rozpatrywanych lokalizacji, przy jednocześnie różnych wagach kryteriów wpływających na podjęcie decyzji. W artykule przedstawiono również badanie wrażliwości obu metod na zmianę liczby kryteriów i wariantów decyzyjnych. W metodzie AHP, po redukcji liczby kryteriów, wskazano to samo kryterium jako posiadające największy wpływ na wybór lokalizacji biogazowni. Metoda taksonomii numerycznej, po redukcji kryteriów, wskazała, że kryteria zmieniły swoje znaczenie względem analizowanej lokalizacji. Z tego względu metoda taksonomii numerycznej okazała się wrażliwą na zmianę liczby kryteriów.
EN
The article presents a comparison of the multicriteria Analytic Hierarchy Process method and numerical taxonomy based on the location of the biogas power plant. Biogas power plants were included in the group of energy sources which will contribute to the implementation of the energy-climate package for Poland until 2030. Energy security can be greatly enhanced by increasing the production of energy from renewable sources, eg. biogas power plants, which acquire energy from biogas of various origins. Therefore, the location of the biogas power plants is influenced by multiple factors, such as an environmental impact, availability and origin of biogas, technological aspects, and the possibility of utilization of produced energy. The problem of locating biogas power plants, due to a multitude of factors, is multicriteria. The AHP method is a mathematical method with a high level of advancement. The result of the analysis is to determine the rank vector of the considered options. The numerical taxonomy method is much less complex. It consists in determining the distance between the considered solutions and the hypothetically ideal solution, thus forming ranking solutions. The methods were compared in terms of sensitivity to changing options and decision-making criteria.
EN
The heat of combustion and calorific value of empty seeds and seed wings were determined. The structure of seed and wing cells and the content of toxic metals and other elements (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mo, Co, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, K, Na) were described. Heat of combustion was measured in a bomb calorimeter. Cell structure was described based on microscopic images acquired with the Nikon Alphaphot -2- TRIN microscope and camera and the Quanta 200 scanning electron microscope. The elemental analysis was performed in the Elementar Vario Macro Cube analyzer and the Milestone Start D microwave digestion system. The mean calorific value of the tested materials ranged from 19.20 to 19.49 MJ×kg-1. Heavy metal content was higher in pine and spruce seeds than in wings, but the noted concentrations should not have adverse environmental effects. Metal concentrations were similar to those reported by other authors. The tested seeds were abundant in potassium, calcium and magnesium. Wings and empty seeds from extraction residues can be burned and used as sources of renewable energy.
PL
W przedstawionych badaniach określono ciepło spalania i wartość opałową pustych nasion i ich skrzydełek, które mogą być wykorzystane na cele energetyczne. Opisana została ich budowa komórkowa oraz zawartość toksycznych metali i innych pierwiastków (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mo, Co, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, K, Na), które mogą być emitowane do środowiska. Ciepło spalania wyznaczono metodą kalorymetryczną, budowę komórkową określano na podstawie zdjęć z mikroskopu z kamerą Nikon Alphaphot -2- TRIN i mikroskopu skaningowego Quanta 200. Analizę elementarną i pierwiastkową wykonano analizatorem Elementar Vario Macro Cube oraz mineralizatorem mikrofalowym Milestone Start D. Uzyskano średnią wartość opałową badanych materiałów w zakresie 19,20-19,49 MJ×kg-1. Zawartość metali ciężkich w nasionach sosny i świerka jest wyższa niż w skrzydełkach, jednak ich ilość nie powinna powodować negatywnych skutków ekologicznych. Zawartość metali była zbliżona do wartości podawanych przez innych autorów. Nasiona były zasobne w potas, wapń i magnez. Skrzydełka i puste nasiona po procesie wyłuszczenia szyszek można spalać i wykorzystywać jako paliwo pochodzące z OZE.
EN
The share of renewable energy, which is used for power supply, increases worldwide steadily to avoid the threat of climate change. In the renewable energy production from renewable resources biogas plays an important role. Biogas can be provided continuously by the permanent availability of biomass and it is also easily to store. In the context of competition for land between food and feed production as well as the cultivation of renewables an efficient biogas production is extremely important. Strategies for this aim are installing biogas plants in order to increase the biogas output and take measures to increase the efficiency of existing biogas plants or of concepts of biogas digesters for the new installation.
EN
The aim of the study was to assess the cellulolytic activity of a strain of Trichoderma viride in the presence of three lignocellulosic substrates, i.e. wheat, barley, and maize straw, in different temperatures (25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C). Research related to the biosynthesis of enzymes was conducted using the deep method, whereas enzyme activity was assessed on solid media with added carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The assessment was based on the activity index (AI) determined for each object of research. The obtained results indicate that T. viride produces cellulolytic enzymes, and that their level of activity depends on the type of material introduced into the culture as a lignocellulosic substrate as well as on the temperature. The highest value of AI was found in objects with added maize straw. The optimal temperature for the biosynthesis of cellulolytic enzymes equalled 30 °C.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wartości pól elektromagnetycznych i hałasu wprowadzanych do środowiska na podstawie wyników pomiarów przeprowadzonych na obszarze zakładu biogazowi rolniczej o mocy 0,999MW zlokalizowanej w Piaskach. Wartości te odniesiono do obowiązujących w kraju norm dotyczących ekspozycji na pola elektryczne i magnetyczne oraz hałas. Nie stwierdzono przekroczenia ekspozycji dopuszczalnych w obszarach stałego pobytu ludzi.
EN
Electro-magnetic and acoustic fields were analysed at the bioenergy and biogas production plant of 0.999 MW operational power, localized in Piaski. Measured values were compared with valid national norms and did not exceed limiting values in zones of people’s permanent residence.
EN
Bioenergy from logging residues is an important contributor to Swedish energy supplies. Thus, accurate measurements of delivered logging residues’ energy contents are very important for both sellers and buyers. Deliveries’ energy contents are highly correlated with their moisture contents, and thus are determined in southern Sweden (and elsewhere) by measuring their masses and moisture contents. There is insufficient knowledge, however, about the variation in moisture content within and between deliveries, and hence the minimum number of samples needed to obtain the required precision. Thus, these variations were examined in detail in the presented study. Nested analysis of the variance of the acquired data shows that at least nine samples are required to obtain estimates of a delivery’s moisture content with a 3% margin of error. For high volume trade, such as that between forest companies and the energy-conversion industry, current measurement practices are sufficiently accurate. For private forest owners making single deliveries, however, higher precision is required as inaccurate measurements can strongly affect prices.
20
Content available remote Zielona energia wytwarzana w przedsiębiorstwach wodociągowo-kanalizacyjnych
PL
Obecnie można zaobserwować szybki rozwój przedsiębiorstw wodociągowo-kanalizacyjnych, które poddawane są modernizacji oraz wdrażaniu nowych technologii.
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