The EU cohesion policy is an important tool of European integration. It has been introduced to enable all European regions effective competition within the common market. The amount of financial measures devoted to its implementation, (for years 2007-2013 - 347 billion euro), represents over a third of the EU budget. Hence so much attention is paid to the debate on desired, (from the point of view of individual Member States and the Community as a whole), directions of its evolution and the role that the policy should play in the context of the EU political priorities. New paradigm of cohesion policy breaks off with the cohesion which is identified with convergence and points out its broader perspective. The policy should foster the endogenous potential development of European regions, but cover not only the lagging regions but all (though in various ways) and be "the promoter" of an integrated approach towards the realisation of the EU development aims, (if the policy is to be the general and successful initiative). The notion of global competitiveness has been incorporated into the policy frame. Poland is the biggest beneficiary of Union structural resources. Therefore, Polish public development policy is associated with Union funds. This concerns, inter alia, the model and directions of intervention, implementation principles, tools and programming documents. The aim of the paper is to discuss the most important points of the Union cohesion policy reform for years 2007-2013 and their consequences for Poland.