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PL
Celem niniejszej pracy było sprawdzenie możliwości wykorzystania rentgenowskiej tomografii komputerowej (CT) do obserwacji spękań w badanej próbce węgla przed i po teście geomechanicznym, przeprowadzonym w stanie trójosiowych naprężeń (TRX). W pracy przedstawiono zastosowanie dwóch specjalistycznych technik laboratoryjnych: rentgenowskiej tomografii komputerowej i geomechanicznego trójosiowego testu ściskania. Testy geomechaniczne przeprowadzono za pomocą zestawu pomiarowego TRX-070, GCTS (USA), rejestrując pełną charakterystykę naprężeniowo-odkształceniową. Podczas trójosiowych testów ściskania wykonano też innowacyjne równoczesne pomiary prędkości fal P i S. Próbkę analizowano w dwóch etapach, zdefiniowanych ze względu na stan próbki w obrazie CT: pomiar CT wykonany na nienaruszonej próbce węgla (etap 1) oraz otrzymany po teście zniszczeniowym (etap 2). W pierwszym etapie próbka została zeskanowana w celu odzwierciedlenia początkowego stanu struktury porowej wraz z układem mikropęknięć. Drugi etap reprezentuje próbkę po badaniu geomechanicznym. Dla każdego z etapów przeprowadzono szczegółową analizę struktury porowej. W wyniku proponowanego połączenia wymienionych metod w każdym etapie uzyskano obrazy struktury porów. Próbkę analizowano pod kątem liczby i kierunków propagacji pęknięć i zmian w strukturze porów. Interpretacja jakościowa i ilościowa opierała się na rejestracji zmiany liczby pustek, średnic pęknięć, kątów zapadania i porównaniu struktury porowej pomiędzy stanem początkowym próbki oraz po badaniu geomechanicznym. W 1 etapie (przed testem) największy obiekt (zidentyfikowany jako mikroszczelina) przyjmował objętość powyżej 16 mm3 , po wystawieniu próbki na działanie naprężeń (po zniszczeniu próbki) największy zidentyfikowany obiekt charakteryzował się objętością około 15 razy większą (240 mm3 ). Zidentyfikowane w etapie 2 (po teście wytrzymałościowym) pory są wydłużone (wysokie wartości parametru Elongation), a także nie wykazują znaczącego spłaszczenia (Flatness). Według uzyskanych wyników próbka węgla była podatna na pękanie w określonych kierunkach. Kompleksowe badania wykazały zasadność zastosowania proponowanej metodologii do oceny zmian w strukturze próbki podczas testu wytrzymałościowego.
EN
The study aimed to check the possibility of using computed tomography to observe fractures in coal samples before and after a triaxial compression test (TRX). The paper presents an innovative use of two specialized laboratory techniques: computed tomography and geomechanical triaxial compression test. Geomechanical tests were performed on a TRX-070, GCTS (USA) measuring triaxial system. A full stress-strain characteristic was recorded. Also, during the triaxial compression tests, the P and S wave velocities were measured and dynamic elastic moduli were determined. The results were compared. The sample was analyzed in two stages: CT measurement performed on raw coal sample (stage 1) and after the TRX test which destroyed the sample structure (stage 2). First, the sample was scanned reflecting the initial pores and microcracks system. The final stage represents the sample after the geomechanical test. A detailed pore structure analysis was performed for each of the stages. As a result of the proposed above-mentioned method, images of the pore structure were obtained after each step. The sample was analyzed for crack propagation and changes in the pore structure. The qualitative and quantitative interpretation was based on the determination of the number of voids, crack diameters, collapse angles, and comparison of the pore structure between the initial state of the sample and after the triaxial test. In the first stage (before the test), the largest object (identified as a microcrack) had a volume of approximately 16 mm3 , after the sample was stress-tested (after the sample was destroyed), the largest identified object was about 15 times larger (240 mm3 ). It appeared that the coal sample was prone to fracturing in defined directions. Comprehensive research has demonstrated the legitimacy of using the proposed methodology to evaluate changes in the sample structure during the triaxial test.
PL
Papiery higieniczne należą do grupy wytworów papierowych, które powinny charakteryzować się m.in. miękkością i wysoką absorpcyjnością cieczy. Jedną z metod poprawy tych właściwości jest wytłaczanie określonych wzorów w gotowym produkcie. Proces wytłaczania powoduje zwiększenie objętości wstęgi papierowej i poprawia obydwa wymienione parametry, a także zwiększa estetyczne walory końcowego produktu. Odciśnięty wzór może stanowić unikalny identyfikator producenta danego wyrobu. W ramach prezentowanych badań opracowano technikę identyfikacji wzorów tłoczonych na papierach higienicznych, która może znaleźć zastosowanie w przemyśle papierniczym, a w szczególności w produkcji i wykańczaniu papierów higienicznych do oceny jakości i powtarzalności wzorów tłoczonych na papierach tissue, a także do porównywania wytłaczanych wzorów pod kątem ewentualnego naruszania praw autorskich.
EN
Hygienic papers belong to the group of paper products which should be characterized by, among others, softness and high absorption of liquids. One method to improve these properties is to emboss specific patterns in the finished product. The embossing process increases the volume of the paper web and improves both of the above parameters as well as increases the aesthetic value of the final product. The embossed pattern may be also the unique identifier of the producer of a given product. In the presented research, a technique has been developed to identify embossed patterns on hygienic papers, which can be used in the paper industry, in particular in the production and finishing of hygienic papers to assess the quality and repeatability of patterns embossed on tissue papers, as well as to compare extruded patterns for possible violation of copyright.
EN
Enhancing image brightness under low light conditions is crucial. The traditional night vision technology depends on the development of photoelectric materials and accurate image processing algorithms. Inspired by the structure of elephant-nose fish, we construct a bionic image intensifier (BII) model. The BII is a planar array based on the concentrating principle of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). This solution is based on pure optical design and independent. Through light tracing, the simulation results show that the brightness of the image is improved and good image uniformity is obtained. Quantitative analysis of the geometric concentration ratio (GCR) and the image uniformity is used to optimize CPC structure parameters. At the same time, we also discuss the influence of CPC structural parameters on image continuity, uniformity and geometric concentration ratio. The optimization results are as follows: the input port diameter is 50 μm, the output port diameter is 10 μm, the height is 90 μm, the GCR is 5.61, and the image uniformity is 95.30%. The comprehensive performance of the BII achieves the best.
EN
The project aimedto develop and implement algorithms to diagnose the phase separation process based on digital images. The image processing techniques and various numerical methods for interpolation and integration were used to identify the process state. The swirl’s volume and diametersat its three different levelscan be determined on-line. A consistent diagnostic signal is produced and can be used by the control unit. The program was written in Python using the OpenCV library that allows the analysis of digital images. The article presents thedeveloped procedure that provides reliable results despite the poor quality of theinput source video stream. The complete procedure was described with the results’ presentation and discussionat each step.
PL
Celem projektu było opracowanie oraz implementacja algorytmów pozwalających diagnozować przebieg procesu separacji faz na podstawie obrazów cyfrowych. W kontekście identyfikacji stanu procesu wykorzystano techniki przetwarzania obrazów oraz metody numeryczne interpolacjioraz całkowanianumerycznego. Wyznaczane są charakterystyczne parametry wiru jak objętość oraz średnice na trzech różnych jego wysokościach. Zwracany spójny sygnał diagnostyczny może być dalej wykorzystany przez jednostkę sterującą. Program został napisany w języku Python z wykorzystaniem biblioteki OpenCV pozwalającej na przetwarzanie obrazów cyfrowych.W artykule zaprezentowano opracowaną procedurę, która dostarcza wiarygodnych wyników mimo słabej jakości obrazów wejściowych wynikającej ze złego oświetlenia sceny. Procedura została opisana wraz z prezentacją wyników i dyskusją nakażdym jej etapie.
EN
Deep learning methods, used in machine vision challenges, often face the problem of the amount and quality of data. To address this issue, we investigate the transfer learning method. In this study, we briefly describe the idea and introduce two main strategies of transfer learning. We also present the widely-used neural network models, that in recent years performed best in ImageNet classification challenges. Furthermore, we shortly describe three different experiments from computer vision field, that confirm the developed algorithms ability to classify images with overall accuracy 87.2-95%. Achieved numbers are state-of-the-art results in melanoma thick- ness prediction, anomaly detection and Clostridium difficile cytotoxicity classification problems
EN
The performance of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant depends on bioflocculation that is monitored by physical measurements such as the sludge volume index (SVI) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). The estimation of SVI and MLSS has been proposed using image analysis based modeling which is time-efficient and valid for multiple plants operating in different states. The methodology includes the sequence of image acquisition using bright-field microscopy, a robust segmentation of flocs, partitioning of flocs based on different ranges of their equivalent diameters, extraction of morphological features, and modeling of SVI and MLSS using the features. It is proposed that bright-field microscopy at lower magnification to capture the flocs is sufficient to model SVI and MLSS. A robust approach for image segmentation is adopted by integrating state-of-the-art image segmentation algorithms. It is hypothesized that flocs in different ranges of equivalent diameter respond differently to the variation in the operating state. Hence, flocs and their respective image analysis features are categorized based on the range of equivalent diameter. Finally, stepwise regression is used for feature selection and model identification to explore the feasibility of generalization of models to multiple plants in different states regarding SVI and MLSS.
PL
W artykule omówiono metody komputerowej analizy obrazów znane z celowników lotniczych (ukrywanej przez wojskowych naukowców ubiegłego wieku w psychologii i badaniach językowego opisu obrazu), analizy obrazu z kamery robota spawalniczego, komputerowego wspomagania badań mikroskopowych. Do stworzenia algorytmów rozpoznawania struktur mikroskopowych stali wykorzystano znaną z językoznawstwa metodę zamiany metaforycznych wypowiedzi na wektory czyli na zapis matematyczny. W analizie wektorów uwzględniono odziedziczone i wyuczone typy zdolności. Wynik analizy, który jest identyczny dla algorytmów odpowiadających 3 typom zdolności daje pewność jednoznaczności. W innych przypadkach potrzebna jest dodatkowa wiedza dotycząca technologii powstawania badanych struktur mikroskopowych.
EN
Noise reduction of images is a challenging task in image processing. Salt and pepper noise is one kind of noise that affects a gray-scale image significantly.Generally, the median filter is used to reduce salt and pepper noise; it gives optimum results while compared to other image filters. Median filter works only up to a certain level of noise intensity. Here we proposed a neighborhoodbased image filter called nbd-filter, it works perfectly for gray image regardless of noise intensity. It reduces salt and pepper noise significantly at any noise level and produces a noise-free image. Further, we proposed an edge detection algorithm based on the neutrosophic set, it detects edges efficiently for images corrupted by noise and noise-free images. Neutrosophic set (NS) is a powerful tool to deal with indeterminacy. Since most of the real-life images consists of indeterminate regions, Neutrosophy is a perfect tool for edge detection. In this paper, the neutrosophic set is applied to the image domain and a novel edge detection technique is proposed.
9
Content available remote Speckle noise reduction and image segmentation based on a modified mean filter
EN
Image segmentation is an essential process in many fields involving digital images. In gen-eral, segmentation is the process of dividing the image into objects and background image.Image segmentation is an important step in the object detection process. It becomes morecritical if a given image is corrupted by noise. Most digital images are corrupted by noisessuch as salt and pepper noise, Gaussian noise, Poisson noise, speckle noise, etc. Specklenoise is a multiplicative noise that affects pixels in a gray-scale image, and mainly occursin low level luminance images such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and Mag-netic Resonance Image (MRI) images. Image enhancement is an essential task to reducespecklenoise prior to performing further image processing such as object detection, imagesegmentation, edge detection, etc. Here, we propose a neighborhood-based algorithm toreduce speckle noise in gray-scale images. The main aim of the noise reduction technique isto segment the noisy image. So that the proposed algorithm applies some luminance to theoriginal image. The proposed technique performs well at maximum noise variance. Finally,the segmentation process is done by the modified mean filter. The proposed technique hasthree phases. In phase 1, the speckle noise is reduced and the contrast adjustment is made.In phase 2, the segmentation of the enhanced image is processed. Finally, in phase 3, theisolated pixels in the segmented image are eliminated and the final segmented image isgenerated. This technique does not require any threshold value to segment the image; itwill be automatically calculated based on the mean value.
EN
The paper describes modification to Fm3 ̅m (space group no. 225) lattice of aluminium based α-solid solution observed in Zn-Al alloys required to properly correlate quantitative data from X-ray diffraction analysis with results obtained from quantitative scanning electron microscopy image analysis and those predicted from Zn-Al binary phase diagram. Results suggests that 14 at.% of Zn as a solute atom should be introduced in crystal lattice of aluminium to obtain correct estimation of phase quantities determined by quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis. It was shown that this modification holds for Cu mould cast as well as annealed and water-cooled samples of Zn-3wt.%. Al and Zn-5wt.% Al.
EN
Wedge splitting test gained popularity as a stable and simple method to predict the fracture mechanism properties of concrete specimens. The present research focuses on understanding the behavior of self-compacting concrete specimens made with and without steel fibers tested using wedge splitting test, later scanned under high resolution computed tomography. The contribution of hooked end steel fiber and coarse aggregates in fiber reinforced specimens was compared without steel fiber reinforced concrete specimens using high resolution computed tomography. As fracture takes place across the plane perpendicular to the splitting force, i.e. along the depth of specimens. High resolution computed tomography technique was adopted in visualizing the changes taking place across the matrix, coarse aggregate and steel fibers, along with the specimen’s depth. Datasets of the images, obtained from computed tomography, after images analysis and volume reconstruction, revealed a higher coarse aggregate and steel fiber participation in the failure region of without and with fibers specimens. Computed tomography investigation indicated a total of 23 coarse aggregate and 64 steel fibers participated in resisting the failure, during wedge splitting test of without and with fibers specimens. Therefore, high resolution computed tomography can be used in understanding, quantifying the participation of coarse aggregate and steel fiber in the failure plane, under fracture loads.
EN
The chaff quality or, more specifically, the distribution of stalk length after straw shredding during wheat harvest with a combined harvester is of significant interest for ploughless tillage practices. The currently applied characterization methods (manual length measurement or the cascade sieve analysis) are time-consuming and labour-intensive. Image analysis-based size characterization has the potential to solve these problems. In this study, two techniques of digital image processing, the well-known method of image moments (rectangular model) and a subpixel skeletonization approach (flow lines-tracing), were applied comparatively for stalk length measurement. Upon applying the rectangular model, the analyzed stalks were found to be longer than when the flow lines-tracing algorithm was applied. This was attributed to the unbiased decision criteria of the measuring method. A greater length of the stalk is to be expected in the main stalk than when the length of a twisted or branched stalk is measured from the edge length of a rectangular box that encloses it.
PL
Jakość plew, a dokładniej rozkład długości łodyg po rozdrobnieniu słomy podczas zbioru pszenicy za pomocą kombajnu zbożowego, ma istotne znaczenie dla uprawy bezorkowej. Stosowane obecnie metody charakterystyki (ręczny pomiar długości lub kaskadowa analiza sitowa) są czasochłonne i pracochłonne. Charakterystyka wielkości w oparciu o analizę obrazu może potencjalnie rozwiązać ten problem. W pracy porównawczej do pomiaru długości łodyg zastosowano dwie techniki cyfrowego przetwarzania obrazu, znaną metodę momentów (model prostokątny) oraz szkieletyzację na poziomie subpikseli (flow lines-tracing). Po zastosowaniu modelu prostokątnego zaobserwowano, że odwzorowane łodygi są dłuższe niż przy zastosowaniu algorytmu flow lines-tracing. Przypisano to niedostosowaniu kryteriów metody do tego zadania pomiarowego. Biorąc pod uwagę łodygę główną, należy spodziewać się większej długości niż w przypadku, gdy pomiar długości skręconej lub rozgałęzionej łodygi wynika z długości krawędzi prostokątnych ram, które ją otaczają.
EN
The aim of the work was to verify hypothesis that colour of longitudinal section of carrot root may be represented by a selected segment of root or a cross-section. An image analysis was based on image data obtained for longitudinal sections of carrot roots using flatbed scanner and graphics editing software. Colour images were acquired into sRGB colour space and converted to CIE Lab. Sixteen segments of equal height were separated over whole length of root image. The colour difference metric was determined to present how colour of each segment differs from the mean colour of whole root. The root section was considered to be representative for whole root if colour difference metric was the least. The analysis of results confirmed a research hypothesis and allowed for finding representative section which was located at 10⁄16 of total root length measuring from the carrot root head.
14
Content available Comparison of selected shading correction methods
EN
Shade effect is a defect of the images very often invisible for human vision perception but may cause difficulties in proper image processing and object detection especially if the aim of the task is to proceed detection and quantitative analysis of the objects. There are several methods in image processing systems or presented in the literature, however some of them introduce unexpected changes in the images, what may interfere the final quantitative analysis. In order to solve this problem, authors proposed a new method for shade correction, which is based on simulation of the image background based on analytical methods which return pixel values representing smooth grey level changes. Comparison of the effects of correction by applying standard methods and the method proposed are presented.
EN
Automatic image analysis is nowadays a standard method in quality control of metallic materials, especially in grain size, graphite shape and non-metallic content evaluation. Automatically prepared solutions, based on machine learning, constitute an effective and sufficiently precise tool for classification. Human-developed algorithms, on the other hand, require much more experience in preparation, but allow better control of factors affecting the final result. Both attempts were described and compared.
16
Content available remote Electrical tomography system for innovative imaging and signal analysis
EN
In this article, we describe the electrical tomography system for biomedical applications. Electrical tomography for pulmonology and heart monitoring is a non-invasive imaging method in which an unknown physical object is examined using electrical currents applied at the boundary. The internal conductivity distribution is recovered from the measured boundary voltage data. The numerical model of the lungs with heart is presented. The deterministic algorithms based on the SVD distribution and gradient techniques were analysed. The algorithms of electrical reconstruction of impedance tomography were tested. New results of the reconstruction of the numerically simulated phantom were presented. The calculations were made for the defined model by solving the inverse problem. The finite element method was used to solve the simple problem. The collection of tomographic data must be as fast as reliable to consider the possibility of real-time reconstruction. System architecture and prototype design for biomedical electrical tomography were also presented. The hardware solution was based on the FPGA chip. The system is a mobile solution that allows simultaneous recording of the electrical potential of cardiac function and lung ventilation.
PL
W tym artykule opisujemy system tomografii elektrycznej do zastosowań biomedycznych. Tomografia elektryczna do monitorowania pulmonologii i serca jest nieinwazyjną metodą obrazowania, w której nieznany obiekt fizyczny jest badany za pomocą prądów elektrycznych stosowanych na granicy. Wewnętrzny rozkład przewodnictwa jest odzyskiwany ze zmierzonych danych napięcia granicznego. Przedstawiony został model numeryczny płuc o serca. Przeanalizowane zostały algorytmy deterministyczne oparte o rozkład SVD i techniki gradientowe. Zbadano algorytmy rekonstrukcji elektrycznej tomografii impedancyjnej. Przedstawiono nowe wyniki rekonstrukcji symulowanego numerycznie fantomu. Obliczenia wykonano dla zdefiniowanego modelu poprzez rozwiązanie zagadnienia odwrotnego. Do rozwiązania zagadnienia prostego zastosowano metodę elementów skończonych. Zbieranie danych tomograficznych musi być tak szybkie, jak niezawodne, aby uwzględnić możliwość rekonstrukcji w czasie rzeczywistym. Przedstawiona została również architektura systemu i projekt prototypów dla biomedycznej tomografii elektrycznej. Rozwiązanie hardware'owe oparto na układzie FPGA. System jest rozwiązaniem mobilnym, które umożliwia równoczesne rejestrowanie potencjału elektrycznego czynności serca i wentylację płuc.
EN
The flotation froth surface appearance includes remarkable information, which can be employed as a helpful index for the qualitative evaluation of the process efficiency. Image analysis is a practical technology for the sake of achieving process related information that can be employed in expert controllers in order to amend flotation performance. In this paper, the intelligent modelling of relationship between froth characteristics and the metallurgical performance in a pilot column flotation of iron ore was established. Column flotation tests were carried out at a wide range of operating conditions and the froth features along with the metallurgical performances were specified for each run. The artificial intelligence models suggested for the performance parameters prediction include (1) multi-layer back propagation neural network (BPNN), (2) hybrid BPNN with principal component analysis (PCA). The hybrid network was on the basis of the PCA employment in order to decrease the number of variables to be given as input for BPNN. The relationships between the froth features and metallurgical performance factors were successfully modelled via the use of the two methods. The simulation results revealed that the prediction precision of BPNN model on the basis of all the data was relatively higher than the estimation precision of BPNN based on PCA algorithm. The Hybrid BPNN model that was trained by the pre-processed database of measurements achieved from the PCA can be considered a robust method when training time is of paramount importance in objectives of proces control.
PL
W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono analizę nagrania zderzenia klatki kabiny maszynisty elektrycznego zespołu trakcyjnego (EZT). Przedmiotem badań była klatka kabiny maszynisty pojazdu szynowego Impuls I produkcji Newag S.A.. Badania doświadczalne przeprowadzono na zlecenie firmy Newag S.A. na torze doświadczalnym Instytutu Kolejnictwa w Węglewie koło Żmigrodu zgodnie z normą PN-EN 15227. Zderzenie zarejestrowano, stosując trzy kamery do rejestracji szybkozmiennych. W artykule przedstawiono niektóre wyniki z badań na podstawie
EN
The article presents the video analysis of Cash test of „Impuls I” Electric Multiple Unit (EMU). The subject of the study was the cage of the driver of the “Impuls I” rail vehicle of Newag S.A. Experimental research was carried out on the order of Newag S.A. on the experimental track of the Railway Institute in Węglewo near Żmigród according to PN-EN 15227. The crash test was recorded by three high speed cameras. The article presents some results from experimental research based on image motion analysis. Motion analysis was carried out in TEMA Motion environment.
EN
In this paper the authors propose a decision support system for automatic blood smear analysis based onmicroscopic images. The images are pre-processed in order to remove irrelevant elements and to enhancethe most important ones – the healthy blood cells (erythrocytes) and the pathologic ones (echinocytes). The separated blood cells are analysed in terms of their most important features by the eigenfaces method. The features are the basis for designing the neural network classifier, learned to distinguish between erythrocytes and echinocytes. As the result, the proposed system is able to analyse the smear blood images in a fully automatic way and to deliver information on the number and statistics of the red blood cells, both healthy and pathologic. The system was examined in two case studies, involving the canine and human blood, and then consulted with the experienced medicine specialists. The accuracy of classification of red blood cells into erythrocytes and echinocytes reaches 96%.
EN
Land use/land cover changes (LULCC) at Adei watershed (Ethiopia) over a period of 23 years (1986–2009) has been analysed from LANDSAT imagery and ancillary data. The patterns (magnitude and direction) of LULCC were quantified and the final land use/land cover maps were produced after a supervised classification with appropriate post-processing. Image analysis results revealed that the study area has undergone substantial LULCC, primarily a shift from natural cover into managed agro-systems, which is apparently attributed to the increasing both human and livestock pressure. Over the 23 years, the aerial coverage of forest and grass lands declined by 8.5% and 4.3%, respectively. On the other hand, agricultural and shrub lands expanded by 9.1% and 3.7%, respectively. This shows that most of the previously covered by forest and grass lands are mostly shifted to the rapidly expanding farm land use classes. The findings of this study suggested that the rate of LULCC over the study period, particularly deforestation due to the expansion of farmland need to be given due attention to maintain the stability and sustainability of the ecosystem.
PL
Zmiany użytkowania i sposobu pokrycia terenu w zlewni Adei (Etiopia) analizowano w ciągu 23 lat (1986–2009) z użyciem obrazów LANDSAT i dodatkowych danych. Oceniono ilościowo schemat zmian (wielkość i kierunek) oraz wykonano mapy użytkowania i pokrycia terenu po odpowiednim przetworzeniu danych. Analiza obrazów ujawniła, że badany obszar podlegał znaczącym zmianom – głównie od naturalnego pokrycia do gospodarczych agrosystemów, co wynikało z rosnącej presji ze strony człowieka i zwierząt gospodarskich. W ciągu 23 lat powierzchnie leśne i trawiaste zmalały odpowiednio o 8,5 i 4,3%, a powierzchnie użytkowane rolniczo i tereny zakrzaczone powiększyły się odpowiednio o 9,1 i 3,7%. Oznacza to, że tereny uprzednio zajmowane przez lasy i systemy trawiaste zostały zajęte przez tereny rolnicze. Przeprowadzone badania sugerują, że należy zwrócić szczególną uwagę na szybkie zmiany pokrycia powierzchni terenu, aby utrzymać stabilność i trwałość ekosystemu.
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