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EN
In the recycling of WEEE, two approaches are common: a pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical treatment, preceded by a mechanical and/or physical separation. In this study, twostep processing of unmodified waste samples of LCD screen inverters was investigated: hightemperature processing followed by acidic leaching under fixed conditions (1M H2SO4, 90 ℃, 1 bar). The analysis carried out concerned a correlation between the type of HT treatment (pyrolysis, incineration, or gasification) and the dynamics of metals’ leaching from samples pretreated this way. It was found that HT method can act as “thermal disintegration”, since it affects, to a varying degree, the structure of the samples and cause elimination of organics and carbonaceous residue (incineration/gasification). The greatest mass loss (~18%) and the most loosened structure was observed for the gasified sample. Varying oxygen potential in HT-processes correlates well with the leachability of thermally treated inverters. The incineration was found to be the most favorable for copper extraction (>95%) by acidic leaching due to oxidized form of Cu, whereas Cu leaching from pyrolyzed and gasified samples needed oxygen and was controlled by the oxygen supply achieving only 36/43% after 6 h. The course of Pd leaching was similar to copper, although with lower efficiencies; 47% of palladium was extracted from the incinerated sample, and only 4 or 7% from gasified and pyrolyzed samples, respectively. Au was leached immediately but only to a slight extent. Contrary to Pb, leaching of Zn, Sn, Sb, and Ni was gradual, probably due to the formation of alloys with copper.
EN
The article presents current methods used for the recovery of metals from used electronic equipment. The analysis of the composition and structure of the material was made on the example of one of the most popular and widespread e-waste - used cell phones. The article was address the problems of processing and separation of individual components included in these heterogeneous wastes. The main purpose of the conducted research was to prepare the tested material in such a way that the recovery of metalsin the further stages of its processing was as effective as possible. The results of attempts to separate individual material fractions with magnetic, pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods will be presented. An analysis of the possibilities of managing electronic waste in terms of the circular economy will be made.
EN
The authors introduced automatic processing line for electrical and electronical equipment wastes as an alternative for semi-automatic WEEE lines. The efficiency of semi-automatic line was characterized for small WEEE with LCA and AHP algorithms. The problem nodes showed by algorithms was optimized and replaced by automatic devices. Optimized automatic WEEE processing line generated `groups of sources with min. 98 wt% purity. Comparison of the results obtained for the semi-automatic line to the automated line, 83-times increase in productivity was observed.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono automatyczną linię do przetwarzania odpadów elektrycznych i elektronicznych (WEEE) jako alternatywę dla linii półautomatycznych. Wydajność linii półautomatycznej charakteryzowała się małą wydajnością przetwarzania WEEE. Do oceny możliwości poprawy jej wydajności wykorzystano algorytmy LCA i AHP. Węzły problemów wskazane przez algorytmy zostały zoptymalizowane i zastąpione przez urządzenia automatyczne. Zoptymalizowana automatyczna linia do przetwarzania WEEE generuje materiały o minimalnej czystości 98% wag. Porównanie wyników uzyskanych dla linii półautomatycznej i linii zautomatyzowanej wykazało 83-krotny wzrost wydajności.
EN
The paper discusses metal recovery from metallic wastes by means of pure chemical and biological leaching in an acidic medium. The research tested whether it is possible to remove Cu, Al, Sn and Ag from the dust formed during processing of electronic waste by means of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. A laboratory flow bioreactor was designed and assembled for the purpose of the experiments. The experiments confirmed the effect of the bacteria on the dissolution of Cu, Al, and Sn, as well as different efficiency levels depending on the type of the leached material. The experimental results confirmed the positive effect of the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria on the recovery of Cu, Al and mainly Sn into the leaching solutions from the leached dust.
EN
New technologies and the globalization of the electrical and electronic equipment market cause a continuous increase in the amount of electrical and electronic waste. They constitute one of the waste groups that grows the fastest in quantity. The development of the new generation of electrical and electronic devices is much faster than before. Recently attention has been concentrated on hydrometallurgical methods for the recovery of metals from electronic waste. In this article the role of an oxidizing agent, mainly ozone and hydrogen peroxide was presented in hydrometallurgical processes. Leaching process of printed circuits boards (PCBs) from used cell phones was conducted. The experiments were carried out in the presence of sulfuric acid and ozone as an oxidizing agent for various temperatures, acid concentration, ozone concentration. As a result, the concentrations of copper, zinc, iron and aluminum in the obtained solution were measured. The obtained results were compared to results obtained earlier in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent and discussed.
EN
e-Waste awareness and behavior of local Polish community has been examined. Specifically, the issue of selective waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection has been explored. The main objectives of the research was to evaluate an attitude of the individuals towards e-waste treatment and to recognize the causes of low efficiency of the current WEEE management. The research was conducted among the inhabitants of a small town in Poland. Collected data may be useful while preparing household WEEE management systems. Over 52% of respondents, each was a representative of one household, conducted selective electrical and electronic equipment waste collection. Unfortunately, 12% (mostly young people aged 16-25, 9%) admitted that they threw e-waste mixed with general municipal waste. Another 12% (aged 18-25) claimed that they had never disposed of WEEE. Nowadays, the technology is developing very fast and small electronic devices are frequently exchanged, so the above mentioned statement is unlikely to be true. The research survey confirmed that further costs should be borne on educational activities which will raise people's awareness concerning WEEE threats and motivate them to collect e-waste selectively. The improvement of the management system increasing the number of e-waste drop off points, is necessary as well.
EN
Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) contain not only harmful materials but also many valuable resources, especially metals, which attracts more and more attention from the public. In this study, a sulfonic acid functionalized ionic liquid ([BSO3HPy]OTf) was used to recycle copper from WPCBs. Zinc and lead, represented as typical heavy metals, were chosen to study the leaching behavior and their relation to copper. Five factors such as particle size, ionic liquid (IL) concentration, H2O dose, solid to IL ratio and temperature were investigated in detail. The results showed that copper leaching rate was high, up to 99.77%, and zinc leaching rate reached the highest value of 74.88% under the optimum conditions. Lead cannot be leached effectively and the leaching rate was mostly low than 10%, which indirectly indicated that [BSO3HPy]OTf has a good selectivity to lead. Besides, the interaction of copper, lead and zinc was characterized macroscopically by means of statistical methods. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that copper and zinc had a highly positive correlation. Lead had little relation to copper, which to some extent indicated that the effect of zinc on copper leaching behavior was bigger than that of lead.
PL
Płytki z obwodami drukowanymi (2 kg) zostały wyjęte ze zużytych telefonów komórkowych (9,3 kg), rozdrobnione i zmielone na 2 frakcje ziarnowe poniżej 1,25 mm (młyn wibracyjny, 8 próbek) oraz poniżej 1,00 mm (młyn młotkowy, 8 próbek). Reprezentatywne próbki obu tych frakcji poddano analizie chemicznej na zawartość Cu i Ni metodą spektrometrii absorpcji atomowej. Wyniki oceniono stosując metodę wykresu skrzynkowego (box plot), aby usunąć dane odbiegające. Zawartość Cu była większa w próbce o mniejszych ziarnach niż w próbce o ziarnach większych (odpowiednio 18,14% i 13,71%) a zawartość Ni, przeciwnie, była większa w próbce o ziarnach większych (odpowiednio 1,76% i 2,44%). Zaproponowano procedurę przygotowania reprezentatywnej próbki płytek z obwodami drukowanymi do ich analizy chemicznej
EN
Printed circuit boards (2 kg) were recovered from waste mobile telephones (9.3 kg), disintegrated and grinded into 2 grain fractions up to 1.25 mm (vibration mill, 8 samples) and up to 1.00 mm (hammer mill, 8 samples). The representative samples of both fractions were analyzed for Cu and Ni contents by at. absorption spectroscopy. The results were assessed by box plot method to remove the deviated data. The Cu content was higher in the samples with smaller grains than that with coarser grains (18.14% and 13.71%, resp.) but the Ni content was higher in the samples with coarser grains than that with smaller grains (1.76% and 2.44%, resp.). A procedure for prepn. of a representative sample of the waste used for chem. anal. was proposed.
EN
The nonmetallic powder recycled from waste printed circuit boards (PCB) is used in cement mortar as replacement for sand. The results show that the waste PCB nonmetallic powder causes an increase in air content and improves the water-retention property of fresh mortar, decreases the bulk density of hardened mortar. There is a decrease in the compressive and flexural strengths with the addition of waste PCB nonmetallic powder and the decreasing degree depends on the substitution amount of the nonmetallic powder for sand. The tensile bond strength decreases slowly with the increase of the substitution amount from 0% to 35%. The water capillary adsorption of mortar is close to that of control when 10% and 20% sand is replaced. The use of mortar made with recycled waste PCB nonmetallic powder as sand replacement offers promise for applications as medium weight or light weight concrete, while adding value to a post-consumer electric and electronic material that is now generally treated as solid waste.
PL
W artykule analizowano możliwość wykorzystania niemetalicznego proszku pochodzącego z recyklingu płytek drukowanych PCB (ang. Printed Circuit Boards) jako zamiennika piasku w zaprawach cementowych. Uzyskane wyniki wskazują, że dodatek proszku PCB powoduje wzrost zawartości powietrza, poprawę zdolności do retencji wody świeżej zaprawy oraz zmniejszenie gęstości objętościowej stwardniałej zaprawy. Obserwowany spadek wytrzymałości na ściskanie i zginanie zależy od stopnia substytucji piasku proszkiem PCB. Przyczepność przy rozciąganiu spada stopniowo ze wzrostem substytucji od 0 do 35%. Adsorpcja kapilarna wody zapraw modyfikowanych jest zbliżona do wartości uzyskanej w przypadku próbki kontrolnej, jeśli stopień substytucji proszkiem PCB jest mniejszy niż 20%. Wyniki uzyskane dla zapraw z proszkiem PCB wskazują także na możliwość ich wykorzystania w betonach lekkich. Potwierdzają także, że zużyte elektryczne i elektroniczne płytki drukowane, uważane za produkty odpadowe, mogą być z powodzeniem wykorzystane w technologii materiałów budowlanych.
EN
New technologies and systems require precise insight of theirs parameters, which are in some cases difficult to measure. One of technique for obtaining of such data is simulation and modelling of objects, processes and theirs parameters. Application of mathematical modelling for thermodynamics, mass exchange and heat transfer calculation is presented in this article. Mathematical model of the plasmatron plasma reactor was developed and allows simulation of reactor and process parameters including: heat release during combustion, heat transfer from combustion process and exhaust gases to the reactors walls, temperature calculation inside the chamber, surface film conductance by convection and radiation, heat carried out with fumes, and other. The model was implemented in OCTAVE software and it can be calculated for relatively short time on single PC computer. Model of plasmatron reactor chamber allows quantitative simulation of the phenomena occurring in the exanimated process. Moreover, model allows answering how to control the process, and identification of correlations with sensitivity analysis. The article presents results of modelling of key process parameters of the plasma reactor essential for developed process understanding and analysis. Calculations results are interesting and important for further technology development for example, change of heat carried with fumes, or surface film conductance, which are hard to measure. Developed model offers good accuracy of calculations and correlation to measurements on experimental setup, and allows further optimization, scaling and development.
EN
The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of static, stirring and shaking conditions on copper, zinc, nickel and aluminium dissolution from printed circuit boards (PCBs) using the mixed acidophilic bacterial culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The results revealed that static conditions were the most effective in zinc and aluminium dissolution. Zinc was removed almost completely under static conditions, whereas maximum of nickel dissolution was reached under the stirring conditions. The highest copper recovery (36%) was reached under stirring conditions. The shaking conditions appeared to be the least suitable. The relative importance of these systems for the bioleaching of copper and nickel decreased in the order: stirring, static conditions, shaking.
EN
Rapid growth in the electricity and electronics industry in Thailand has resulted in numerous problems with electrical waste management. Printed circuit board (PCB) components contain copper in an amount of approximately 10 wt. % and approximately 90 wt. % of non-conductive substrate made from fiberglass resin. In the recycling process, after copper is physically separated from PCB, only nonmetallic powder (NMP) will be left; that needs to be properly disposed of and managed. Therefore, this study is a proposal of suitable choices for NMP management. The results showed that NMP can be disposed in hazardous waste landfill. Furthermore, NMP can be recycled as a component in fiber- -reinforced polymer (FRP) of the following composition: coarse NMP 25%, fine NMP 25%, polyester 38.8%, hardener (Butanox type) 0.6%, catalyst (cobalt type) 0.6%, styrene monomer 10%. This FRP mixed with NMP can be properly processed into an artificial wall tile product in terms of mechanical properties, manufacturing processes and conditions of use.
EN
The tin metal could be retractable from wasted tin scrap, sludge, and wasted electroplated solution hydrometallurgical treatment, and purification process. In order to be used as resource of electronic devices, the retracted crude metal should be purified to the extent of higher than 99.9%. In this study, tin electro-refining process was performed to purify the casted tin crude metal at various experimental conditions: at the current density of 3, 5A/dm2, and in various electrolytes such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and methansulfonic acid. Additional experiment was conducted using Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) in order to investigate the rate determining step of tin electro-refining process. The current efficiency, 65.6%, was achievable at the condition of current density, 5A/dm2, and in the electrolyte of Hydrochloric acid. During tin electro-refining process, impurity dissolved from tin crude metal into the electrolyte was analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), and the result showed the concentration of impurity metal gradually increased. Quantitative analysis on casted tin crude metal showed that it consists of tin with 93.9 wt.% and several impurity metals of Ag, Bi, Pb, Cu, and etc. After tin electro-refining process, the purity of tin increased up to 99.985 wt.%.
EN
Purpose: Purpose: The goal of the paper is to focus on waste solder and printed circuit board: the emerging secondary sources for recovery of metals. Design/methodology/approach: The worldwide reserves of high-grade ores are diminishing. At the same time the demand for heavy metals is ever increasing with the progress of the industrialized world. The rapid progress of electronic packaging technology is resulting in huge amounts of electronic waste (E-Waste) particularly in the form of solders and printed circuit boards (PCBs). Such E-waste contains various metals. The waste solders and PCB can act as large stockpiles of metals. Hence, they can be important secondary sources of valuable metals. Thus recycling of waste solders and PCB is not only useful for resource recovery from waste materials, but also for the protection of the environment. Findings: Comparing with the pyrometallurgical processing, hydrometallurgical method is more exact, more predictable, and more easily controlled. Bio-hydrometallurgical processes are emerging as potential environmentally friendly approaches. Research limitations/implications: Several promising metal recovery processes were developed to recover the precious metals from E-waste. There is a need to fill the gap areas in achieving a cleaner and economical recycling process. Also more studies are needed in the area of metal separation and recovery from PCB leach liquor. Orginality/Value: This review article will provide a concise overview of current disposal and recycling operations. Keywords: Electronic waste; Solder; Printed circuit board; Metal recovery; Pyrometallurgy, Hydrometallurgy; Bio-hydrometallurgy.
EN
The quantities of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) will increase in the near future and the importance of its recycling has become more evident. This waste are mixture of materials and components that because of their hazardous content, can cause major environmental and health problems. In order to minimize risks two legislation acts have been put in place; the Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS Directive) and Directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE Directive). It has led to a reduction of hazardous substances which often are replaced by new ones for example nanomaterials. Actually, existing processes for the recycling of used electronic equipment focuses on separation of metals but there is not procedures taking into account the presence of nanowaste. It is significant subject not only from the point of waste treatment and the recovery of valuable materials but also from the risk for environment and health.
PL
W pierwszej części artykułu wskazują na potrzebę nowego wydajniejszego podejścia do kwestii recyklingu odpadów elektronicznych. Następnie zostają wskazane przyczyny takiej sytuacji. Autorzy wskazują, iż obecnie rozwój nowej generacji urządzeń elektronicznych następuje zdecydowanie szybciej niż dotychczas, powoduje to skracanie żywotności elementów elektronicznych, który wynosił od 4-6 lat pod koniec XX wieku, a już w pierwszej dekadzie XXI wieku okres żywotności elektroniki został skrócony do 2 lat. W związku z tym znacznie zwiększyła się ilość generowanych odpadów elektronicznych. Autorzy podkreślają również, że recykling odpadów elektronicznych nie odnosi się wyłącznie do aspektów środowiskowych, tj. wytwarzania większej ilości złomu oraz zwiększonego zużycia surowców produkcyjnych, ale również wskazują na aspekt ekonomiczny, taki jak obniżenie kosztów produkcji przy użyciu surowców wtórnych. Autorzy następnie wskazują, na niebezpieczeństwa dla zdrowia ludzkiego, ze względu na stężenie ołowiu, rtęci, kadmu i arsenu w odpadach elektronicznych. Kwestia odzysku metali ze sprzętu elektronicznego została była omawiana już od drugiej połowie XX wieku. Wówczas uważano, że metalem, który warto odzyskiwać było złoto. Procesem recyklingu, który rozważano do odzysku złota była elektroliza solna. Obecnie złoto nadal jest stosowane w elektronice. Szacunki przedstawione przez World Gold Council w 2001 roku wskazują, że do produkcji elektroniki zużywa się prawie dwieście ton złota. W związku z powyższym konieczność utworzenia nowych i zarazem wysoko wydajnych linii technologicznych do recyklingu złomu elektronicznego wydaje się oczywista. Obecnie linia technologiczna do recyklingu złomu elektronicznego składa się z więcej niż jednego urządzenia. Po pierwsze materiał wprowadza się do kruszarki, w celu utworzenia cząstek o mniejszej wielkości. Kolejnym krokiem w odzyskiwaniu metali jest separacja prądami wirowymi, która opiera się na oddziaływaniu magnesami. Dzięki wykorzystaniu prądów wirowych można zmniejszyć zanieczyszczenia niemetaliczne w odzyskiwanym materiale. Ostatnim krokiem jest separacja elektrostatyczna. Obecnie stosuje się separatory koronowe. Materiał wprowadza się na obracający i uziemiony bęben, następnie zostaje on na bębnie doprowadzony do pola elektrody koronowej i zostaje naładowany elektrostatycznie. Materiał o dobrej przewodności powierzchniowej rozładowuje się stosunkowo szybko i jest wyrzucany poza bęben ze względu na ruch obrotowy urządzenia. Materiał z mniejszą przewodnością powierzchnią utrzymuje ładunek dłużej i również pod wpływem ruchu obrotowego bębna w końcu wpada do drugiego pojemnika. Materiały takie Jak laminaty, które nie tracą ładunku pozostają na bębnie i zostają przemieszczone w zasięg pola elektrody neutralizującej. W wyniku tego procesu otrzymuje się trzy produkty: materiał przewodzący, nie-przewodzący i mieszaninę. Można zauważyć, że proces recyklingu złomu elektronicznego jest jeszcze daleki od doskonałości i bardzo wysokiej wydajności. Jednak ze względów ekonomicznych mechaniczna separacja zastąpiła separację chemiczną. Może to zostać uznane za wielki krok w kierunku wydajnego odzysku metali z odpadów elektronicznych.
EN
In the first part of the article authors describe the need for efficient recycling of electronic waste. Authors describe shortly few causes for such a new processing method of electronic scrap. Nowadays the development of new generation of electronic devices became more rapid than before, thus shortening the life span of electronic parts from 4-6 years at the end of XX century to 2 years in first decade of XXI century. Therefore generation of electronic waste was significantly increased. Authors also point out that beside environmental aspects ie. increased scrap generation and the need for production of raw materials, there is also an economical aspect such as lowering of production costs by using secondary raw materials. Authors also points out that due to concentration of lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic electronic waste may also be a health hazard. The matter of metals recovery from electronic equipment has been discussed since the begging of the second half of XX century. The metal considered worth of recovery was gold. The process which was considered at that time to achieve the recovery was fused-salt electrolysis. Currently gold is also used in consumer electronics. Estimate made by World Gold Council in 2001 stated that almost two hundred metric tons of gold was used in production of electronics. Therefore the necessity for creating new efficient technological lines is clear. Currently the technological line for electronic recycling consists of more than one device. Firstly the material is fed into crusher in order to create particles of smaller size. The next step in metal recovery is eddy current separation, which operability is based on use of rare-earth permanent magnets. Through usage of eddy current separator it is possible to decrease the non-metalic fraction of the material. Final step is electrostatic separation. Currently the most often used is corona separator. The material is fed into a rotating and earthed drum, than material comes into the corona electrode field and is charged electrostatically. Conductives with good surface conductivity lose their charge quickly and are thrown off the drum due to its revolution. Non-conductives with less surface conductivity keep their charge longer and are sticking to the drum eventually falling into second container. Non-conductives, such as laminates, which are not decharged come into the neutralizing electrode field. As a result of this process there are three products: conductives, non-conductives and mixture product. One might observe that current recovery of metals is still far from being perfect and highly efficient. However due to economic reasons mechanical separation substituted chemical separation, and might be considered a big step toward effective recovery of metals from electronic waste.
EN
Automotive catalytic converters have a limited life time, after which the catalyst must be replaced or regenerated. The spent catalytic converters contain small amount of precious metals. Recovery of these metals is essential for environmental and economic reasons. The waste electronic equipment is also an attractive source for recovery of precious metals. Precious metals in electronic scraps are concentrated mainly in printed circuits and integrated circuits - so generally in elements that are the most diverse in their composition. Material heterogeneity of these elements is the reason why there is no universal method for processing this type of scrap. Methods used in the world for recovery of precious metals from spent auto catalytic coverters and electronic wastes by pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods were mentioned in this paper. The results of simultaneous melting of electronic waste with spent automotive catalysts were presented. The printed circuit boards were used as the carrier and as a source of copper. The precious metals present in the catalyst were collected in copper.
PL
Samochodowe konwertory katalityczne mają ograniczony czas życia, po czym katalizator ten należy wymienić lub poddać regeneracji. Zużyte katalizatory zawierają niewielkie ilości metali szlachetnych, a możliwość odzysku tych metali jest istotna ze względów ekonomicznych i ekologicznych. Równie atrakcyjne źródło metali szlachetnych stanowi wycofany sprzęt elektroniczny. Metale szlachetne w płytkach elektronicznych są zlokalizowane głównie w obwodach drukowanych układów scalonych, które są najbardziej zróżnicowane pod względem składu. Niejednorodność materiałowa tych elementów powoduje, że nie ma uniwersalnego sposobu przetwarzania tego rodzaju złomu. W artykule zwrócono uwagę na metody pirometalurgiczne i hydrometalurgiczne stosowane na świecie do odzysku metali szlachetnych ze zużytych katalizatorów samochodowych oraz od- padów elektronicznych. Przedstawiono wyniki badań próby wspólnego przetopu odpadów elektronicznych z odpadami zużytych katalizatorów samochodowych. Odpady elektroniczne w postaci drukowanych płytek obwodowych zostały wykorzystane jako nośnik i główne źródło miedzi, metalu pełniącego rolę metalu zbieracza platynowców, obecnych w katalizatorach. Otrzymano stop Cu-Fe-Au-Pt odzyskując w ten sposób platynę na poziomie około 78%.
PL
Dlaczego ważne jest to, aby ciągle edukować? Jak trafić do odbiorców, począwszy od dzieci, a na dorosłych skończywszy? W jaki sposób, edukując, znaleźć równowagę pomiędzy ilością a jakością?
EN
Electronic waste is usually processed by means of classical methods, i.e. in pyro- and hydro-metallurgical processes. However, new solutions for more economically and ecologically efficient recovery of metals are constantly being searched for. Biohydrometallurgy can become a promising technology of recovering metals from industrial waste. Bioleaching - one of the methods applied in that technology - is the subject of particular interest of many scientific centres. The paper presents the results of laboratory tests of bacterial leaching of metals from electronic scrap. It describes the mechanisms of this process and the factors influencing the chemical reaction. The paper also presents preliminary results of experimental studies on the copper bioleaching from electronic waste with the participation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria.
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