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EN
Full Mission Bridge simulating became a valuable tool to assess the conditions for safe navigation during seaport development. The article presents an overview of the works carried out at the Lithuanian Maritime Academy. The specialists of the Academy together with the pilots of Klaipeda State Seaport performed a number of trainings and tests using Full Mission Bridge simulator, related to navigational safety assessment. Overviewed works concern a wide range of directions: development of the harbour navigation channel, introduction of two-way traffic of ships, ships sailing with tugboats, coordination with vessel traffic service, emergency response of the LNG vessel in case of various scenarios, extremely big ships accessibility studies, the boundary weather conditions assessment and so on.
EN
Low maneuverability of ships together with growing intensity of marine traffic result in new challenges related to navigation safety. This paper reports a research aimed at design of methodology of operation of recommender systems for navigation safety. First, a specification of requirements to systems of the considered class has been carried out. Based on these, the major principles of functioning of such systems have been defined. The principles were a basis for development of the mentioned above methodology, which is based on the usage of context patterns and characterized by the presence of feedback to update the system’s knowledge base.
EN
Conducting navigation by using electronic charts is not an option anymore. With few exceptions, vessels shall carry on board electronic navigational charts and Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems. The official electronic charts are issued by or on behalf of the authority of a Government, authorized Hydrographic Office or other relevant government institutions. These nautical charts are compiled from multiple data sources, some modern and very comprehensive, while others older. The accuracy of data, named “Category Zones of Confidence – CATZOC”, differs among various navigation areas. The navigation officers of the watch rely on the chart data to calculate the safety parameters and to plan the route in advance for the intended voyage. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the impact which the data accuracy has on the safety of navigation. For this purpose, a model vessel was considered in a Strait of Dover bridge simulation scenario, assuming good weather conditions without swell or current. The Safety Contour was defined using a mathematical formula which incorporated the under keel clearance, the squat effect and the tide levels. Then, the Safety Contour was examined considering the chart data accuracy. The results of this analysis contribute to increasing awareness and better understanding of CATZOC influences on the identification of safe waters during navigation.
EN
The data analysed in the paper are related to the hydrology of tidal waters at a tidewater glacier terminus. Set of data was collected in the wide span of time from 2009 till 2015 in the Nordaustlandet and Southwest Spitsbergen near various tidal glaciers terminus. The data are related to tidal phenomenon, calving glacier, drifting ice, hydrology of brackish water from ice of glacial origin and theirs consequences on safety of navigation. Thus, results of analysis of hydrological data may serve for improvement of safety of maritime transport in polar regions on high latitudes in vicinity of tidewater glaciers. The research work was part of the reconnaissance of hydrological and hydrographic conditions for the needs of other studies. Measurements were taken at the Kamavika inlet leading from the Hans Glacier to-wards Hornsund fjord (Southern Svalbard). Based on above data, the causes of disturbances and errors of hydrographic measurements that may occur in area of occurrence of brackish water layer and their influence on errors of digital information displayed in ECDIS systems as well as prediction of ice conditions and safety of watercrafts in vicinity of glacier terminus and on anchorage were described.
5
Content available General average in Polish maritime law
EN
The law of general average is one of the oldest institutions in maritime law, which is still applicable in contemporary shipping. Although the role and function of general average have naturally changed throughout centuries of its history (the main reasons therefor being the popularization of maritime insurance, which evolved much later than the general average) and general average has been and is subject to criticism pointing to its anachronistic nature and redundancy in today’s maritime economic realities. However practice shows that general average continues to resist these accusations and is commonly used in the practice of maritime commercial trade. This article deals with the issue of general average in light of Polish maritime law regulations, the essence and specificity of these legislative solutions concerning the safety of shipping in Poland, and also gives examples of events that occurred at sea that permit the announcement of an act of the general average. This article also presents considerations with regard to arguments in favour of maintaining the institution of general average as a legal instrument used in shipping, as well as critical voices emphasizing the need to eliminate general average as an institution of maritime law aimed at distributing losses, incurred to avoid a common peril, to the participants of a maritime adventure.
EN
The port areas are specific in terms of navigational accidents. Usually, accidents with low consequences dominate, but due to many users with contradictory needs, there is a requirement to keep the balance between business and safety. This balance is usually achieved by the Port Authority or like in Poland by Maritime Office together with Port Authority. Maritime Offices are the governmental body responsible to maintain the acceptable navigational safety level. Such an approach leads to several frictions between the users that needs are often contradictory. To ensure minimal safety level and introduce new or amended port regulations the scientific methods are demanded to support this process. The paper present methodology to adjust the port regulations of Kołobrzeg Port where the passenger ship owners moored in close vicinity of the waterway and therefore restricted it to the other users. The compromise was achieved with the application of real-time simulation method. Moreover, the paper presents the important role of harbor regulations in whole navigation risk management process within the port area. Today’s port regulations are created mostly based on good practice of pilots and experts, whereas the quantitative methods are used less frequently. The intention of the presented case study was to demonstrate how the quantitative risk assessment could be used in port policy development.
EN
Safety, along with the issue of security, is the most substantial and critical issue to any society and nation of the mankind. The fact that human elements contribute dominantly, in particular, to the transportation – marine, air and road traffic – accidents requires not only the technical approaches, but also cultural configuration inherent to the accidents. This paper tries to incorporate Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture to identify possible interaction with accidents. It will be of help to figure out the need to consider the aspect of national culture to be efficient in dealing with policies for safer communities and nations.
EN
One of the primary factors that affect the safe maritime navigation is the insufficient experience and skill of an apprentice officer, which may be improved using simulation-based training by ensuring operational efficiency. This study aims to determine appropriate factors for achieving effective and intensive simulation-based training of apprentice officers and present the guidelines for such a training scheme. Initially, a marine traffic risk model, which interprets and accurately measures the risk of collision with other vessels, is analyzed to derive the most influential factors in safe navigation. Subsequently, simulation experiments are conducted by applying machine learning to verify the required safe navigation factors for effectively training the apprentice officers. As a result of the above analysis, it was confirmed that the factor affecting safe maritime navigation was the distance from other vessels. Finally, the differences between these distances in the simulations are analyzed for both the apprentice officers and the experienced officers, and the guidelines corresponding to both these cases are presented. This study has the limitation because of the difference between the ship maneuver simulation and the actual ship navigation. This can be resolved based on the results of this study, in combination with the actual navigation data.
EN
LNG terminals are built to handle tankers of specific size, with cargo capacities within a narrow scope. This is related to the differences in cargo, fender and mooring systems used for LNG tanker handling of various sizes. The research problem solved in the article is the development of the method for optimal design of a universal LNG cargo handling facility that enables safe operations of LNG tankers in a wide range of cargo capacity that covers almost entire spectrum of global fleet tanker sizes. The article presents a methodology of optimizing the parameters of LNG cargo terminals to accommodate both small bunker ships with cargo capacity of 500 m3 (50 metres in length) to Q-flex type tankers capable of carrying up to 220 000 m3 (320 m in length). The authors have determined conditions for the safe operation of these tankers in sea LNG terminals and described differences in the construction of cargo, fendering and mooring systems. The optimization of both location and terminal parameters for a wide range of gas tanker sizes as well as approach channels leading to the LNG berths was performed using a specially designed two-stage simulation method of optimization. In the first stage the best location of a universal LNG terminal and its berths in the existing port basin is determined. The second stage defines optimal parameters of approach waterways to the berths of a universal LNG terminal. The optimization criterion at both stages was the minimization of the costs to build and to operate a universal LNG terminal. The developed optimization methodology was actually used in the design of the universal LNG terminal in the outer port of Świnoujście. The tests made use of real time simulation (RTS) and non-autonomous models of ships, in which ship movement is controlled by a human (pilot, captain). Simulation tests were performed on a multi-bridge ship handling Polaris simulator with a 3D projection, from Kongsberg Maritime AS. This full-mission bridge simulator (FMBS) is located at the Marine Traffic Engineering Centre, Maritime University of Szczecin. Two simulation ship movement models were built and verified for testing the manoeuvres of port entry and berthing. These are: Q-flex type tanker (length: 320 m) and an LNG bunker ship, 6,000 m3 capacity, 104 m in length. The test results were used in the design of the universal LNG terminal in the outer port of Świnoujście and approach waterways leading to the berths (now this investment project is in progress).
EN
Ship domain is one of navigational safety assessment criteria. Its shape and size depend on many factors, including visibility. This article examines the influence of visibility on the shape and dimensions of ship domain in restricted waters. The research was conducted using a simulator of the ECDIS system with the participation of experts’ navigators. The domains of ships in good and restricted visibility have been compared.
PL
Domena statku jest jednym z nawigacyjnych kryteriów oceny bezpieczeństwa. Jej kształt i rozmiar zależą od wielu czynników, włączając widzialność. W artykule zreferowano badania nad wpływem widzialności na kształt i rozmiary domeny statku na wodach ograniczonych. Badania były prowadzone z użyciem symulatora systemu ECDIS z udziałem nawigatorów ekspertów. Przedstawiono porównanie domen statków w warunkach dobrej i ograniczonej widzialności.
EN
Implementation of ERIKA III, the third package of EU legislation intended to integrate international standards of marine accident investigation, has significantly changed the way Polish public authorities investigate marine accidents. Until the implementation, maritime chambers conducted the investigation of marine accidents. Since October 2012 there has been a dual system in place whereby public authorities are entitled to investigate marine accidents in Poland. This article reviews distinctive features of both approaches and the impact thereof on the system of investigating marine accidents. Beside a theoretical description of the legal basis for the functioning of both maritime chambers and the State Marine Accident Investigation Commission, this paper includes analytic data of investigations conducted by both these bodies in order to prove that the number of investigations conducted by maritime chambers has drastically decreased since the establishment of the State Commission, and that the number of investigations conducted by the State Commission itself cannot be sufficient, leading to a decrease of safety in maritime navigation.
EN
This paper presents the process of quantitative assessment of selected factors influencing the probability of grounding. All grounding accidents that occurred during one year (2013) in the Baltic Sea area were analysed. The research area was chosen because of very high traffic intensity and a large number of narrow passages that make it difficult for navigation. The research period was limited by the latest data reported by HELCOM up to the year 2013. The Method of Grounding Probability Coefficient (GPC) calculation is proposed to reach the assumed goal. Either internal factors such as the ships size and ship type or external factors such as time of day, wind force and season were taken into account. As a result the values of coefficients describing the impact of various factors on the probability are evaluated. This coefficients, taking into consideration coupling effect, can be used in future in the navigational safety simulation models based on the assumed value of accident probability.
EN
The development of offshore renewable energy installations can introduce additional hazards to the safe navigation of shipping in often already crowded waterways. Developers and decision makers must predict and properly manage the potential risks imposed on navigating vessels from wind farm developments, in a complex and uncertain environment. Considerable analysis has been undertaken to model navigational risks to vessel traffic around wind farms; however this work is generally predictive and there is little understanding as to whether the modelling, central to the consideration of navigation safety, accurately reflects the postconstructed navigation risks. It is therefore important for decision makers to understand the uncertainties present in the analysis, both in terms of the assessment of risk and the implementation of any risk reduction measures. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the change in vessel traffic in the Thames Estuary before and after the construction of five offshore wind farms. The analysis demonstrates how the impact on vessel traffic is specific to the location of each development, driven by traffic management measures and other local constraints. Therefore the accurate modelling of this impact requires the input of experienced navigators, regulators and other knowledgeable stakeholders. The results of this analysis can be used to improve the predictive modelling of vessel traffic around offshore wind farms and other offshore installations, leading to a reduction in the uncertainty of vessel traffic modelling in the future.
Logistyka
|
2015
|
nr 3
4812--4826, CD 1
PL
Bezpieczeństwo manewrowe statku na drogach wodnych jest ściśle związane z bezpieczeństwem nawigacji. Głównym czynnikiem mającym wpływ na bezpieczeństwo nawigacji ma szerokość bezpiecznego akwenu manewrowego lub szerokość pasa ruchu. Na podstawie w/w wskaźników bezpieczeństwa nawigacji oblicza się niezawodność nawigacyjną. W artykule zostały zaprezentowane próby szacowania niezawodności nawigacyjnej statku innymi metodami niż bardzo droga metoda symulacyjna.
EN
Safety of a ship maneuvering in waterways is closely connected with safety of navigation. The major factor affecting on safety of navigation is a width of safe maneuvering area or traffic lane width. According to those facts, the reliability of navigation is calculated. In the article have been presented samples of estimation of navigation reliability of the ship in different ways than very expensive simulation method.
PL
W przedstawionej pracy wykorzystano nowe możliwości, jakie pojawiły się wraz z wprowadzeniem systemu automatycznej identyfikacji statków AIS. Jest to system, który umożliwia nie tylko monitoring ruchu statków, ale również badania nad podstawowymi procesami rządzącymi ruchem jednostek na danym akwenie. Badania autorów wskazują, iż analizując dane o pozycjach statków można wyznaczyć obszar domeny probabilistycznej wokół statku, której przekroczenie jest uważane za incydent nawigacyjny oraz sprawdzić zależności między wypadkami nawigacyjnymi a incydentami. Autorzy opierając się na teorii trójkąta Heinrich'a stwierdzili, iż znalezienie zależności między incydentami a wypadkami nawigacyjnymi umożliwia podjęcie oceny bezpieczeństwa nawigacyjnego na badanym akwenie. Wyznaczenie stosunku liczby incydentów do wypadków na badanym obszarze, ma na celu znalezienie miejsc potencjalnie niebezpiecznych. Zakładanym wynikiem pracy jest zwiększenie świadomości nawigatorów o miejscach potencjalnie niebezpiecznych, co może skutkować zmniejszeniem liczby wypadków na badanym obszarze Morza Bałtyckiego.
EN
In the work the authors use new possibilities appeared with the implementation of the automatic identification system AIS. It is a system that allows not only the monitoring of maritime traffic, but also research into fundamental processes governing the movement of each vessel. The authors of the study indicate that by analyzing data on the positions of ships, you can designate an area of a probability domain around the ship, which the overrun is considered as a navigational incident and to examined the relationship between accidents and incidents. Based on the theory of the Heinrich's triangle it was assumed that finding the relationship between incidents and accidents allows you to take the assessment of navigational safety in the study area. The intended result of that work is to increase the awareness of the navigators of the potentially dangerous places for navigation, which may result in a reduction in the number of accidents in the Baltic Sea area.
EN
The paper presents an analysis of the accident between a passenger ship moving on the route Swinoujscie Ystad with tanker carrying hazardous substances category X. In order to assess the safety of navigation in the study area the authors have developed a probabilistic domain, which aims to estimate the number of incidents of navigation on the basis of real data from AIS and to find potentially dangerous areas, where there is the highest number of incidents. Then the vessel traffic model was built and the model of navigational safety assessment to evaluate the probability of Ro-Pax Ferry-Chemical tanker collision. Finally the consequences assessment of collision between Ro-Pax and chemical tanker carrying ammonia was performed, taking into consideration ammonia release.
EN
LNG import terminals are under construction in the Baltic Sea ports Klaipeda and Świnoujście and should start operations in 2014. LNG tankers in Klaipeda port should cross port up to the end of the port. Probability of possible emergency situations with LNG tankers is very low, but in the same time it is necessary to take all possible precaution measures to avoid accidents with LNG tankers in any cases, especially in port areas. “Black out” on the LNG ships is very dangerous in ports areas, because there is very limited channel’s width and other port water areas, and it is necessary to steer vessel in such situations as well. Theoretical calculations of the precaution measures, simulations and practical training of the ship and tugs masters, port pilots and VTS operators should help in such emergency situations. This article is oriented to explain theoretical calculation methods for the LNG tankers steering by tugs in case of “black out” situations, simulations’ results and practical recommendations for the Port Authorities, port pilots, ships’ and tugs’ masters that will be possible to minimize LNG ships’ incidents and accidents probability in port areas.
EN
Paper presents results of a real-time simulation experiment which was carried out to study an influence of speed reduction on the navigational safety of container ships. In order to determine changes in the vessels manoeuvrability set of simulated sea trials was carried out. The tests included the measuring of the movement parameters of ships proceeding with different initial speed in different external conditions.
EN
The ship domain – the area around the ship that should be clear of other vessels or objects – depends on many factors. In this paper authors present results of simulation research on ship domain determination. The influence of ship size on domain shape and dimensions in the restricted area have been analyzed. The method of determining ship domain is characterized. The results have been presented. The domains of ships of different sizes have been compared and conclusions formulated.
20
Content available remote Ship’s Navigational Safety in the Arctic Unsurveyed Regions
EN
High traffic of the vessels in many regions of the world pressed maritime nations to issue good quality nautical charts. Vessels could proceed safely on planned voyage using nautical chart and GPS position receiver. Above popular assumptions were right in well recognized and charted regions. But some regions were not sufficiently surveyed or not surveyed at all. In this case position fixing system was useless. The only way was to follow the vessel’s hydroacoustic equipment to find out safe route in between dangers. The goal of the author was to settle matters of the unsurveyed regions. First question was quality of the in-formation on charts and role of the vessel’s autonomous hydroacoustic equipment in safety of the navigation. Second question were safety parameters kept by the research vessel.
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