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EN
GNSS observations from a network of permanent stations are a complex system offering not only post-processing, but also corrections sent in real time and the creation of virtual observations. In Poland, such a system has been in operation since June 2008: the Polish Active Geodetic Network ASG-EUPOS. For users three services are provided for real-time corrections, and two services are offered for post-processing. In this paper, methods of normal height determination from static GPS measurements were analysed in the context of the technical capabilities of the ASG-EUPOS along with recommendations for such measurements. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of using to such calculations the Virtual Reference Stations (VRS). Studies have shown that height determination using VRS may reduce the length of observation sessions and improve accuracy compared to the results obtained from the NAWGEO or POZGEO services. In addition, because of the short vectors between the virtual station and measured points, accuracy is not dependent on the type of used receiver (L1 or L1/L2).
PL
Obserwacje GNSS realizowane na sieciach stacji permanentnych są obecnie złożonymi systemami oferującymi, oprócz postprocessingu, również korekty przesyłane w czasie rzeczywistym oraz tworzenie obserwacji wirtualnych. W Polsce systemem takim jest uruchomiona w czerwcu 2008 roku polska aktywna sieć geodezyjna ASG EUPOS. Dla użytkowników przeznaczono trzy serwisy udostępniania poprawek w czasie rzeczywistym oraz dwa serwisy dla postprocessingu. W pracy przeanalizowano sposoby wyznaczenia wysokości z pomiarów statycznych GPS w kontekście możliwości technicznych systemu ASG-EUPOS oraz niektórych zaleceń do takich pomiarów. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na możliwość wykorzystania do takich wyznaczeń obserwacji z Wirtualnych Stacji Referencyjnych (VRS - Virtual Reference Station). Przeprowadzone analizy wykazały, że procedura wyznaczenia wysokości punktów z wykorzystaniem VRS może pozwolić na znaczne skrócenie długości sesji obserwacyjnej oraz poprawę dokładności w stosunku do wyników uzyskanych z serwisu NAWGEO czy POZGEO. Ze względu na krótkie wektory między stacją wirtualną a wyznaczanymi punktami dokładność ta nie jest uwarunkowana wykorzystanym w czasie pomiaru typem odbiornika (L1 bądź L1/L2).
PL
W artykule przedstawiono możliwości wykorzystania radionawigacyjnych technik satelitarnych, telefonii komórkowej oraz AIS klasy B na wodach śródlądowych. Powszechność pozycjonowania satelitarnego i usług je wspomagających, dostępność szerokopasmowych łączy komórkowych (a tym samym internetu) i coraz bliższa realizacja e-nawigacji na jednostkach pełnomorskich pozwalają przypuszczać, że już w najbliższych kilku latach nawigację śródlądową również zdominują techniki elektroniczne, w których urządzeniem pobierającym, wysyłającym, przetwarzającym i obrazującym dane będzie przenośny „organizer” – notebook, palmtop, PDA (i-PAD), telefon.
EN
The paper presents possibilities of radionavigation technologies use such as satellite, mobile telephony and AIS class B in inland shipping. Common use of satellite positioning and augmentation services, availability of broadband cellular links (mobile internet) and incoming realization of e-Navigation concept in sea-going vessels allow us to expect that navigation on inland waterways will be dominated by electronic technologies in the nearest future with notebook, palmtop, PDA or smartphone downloading, sending, processing and visualising data.
5
Content available ASG-EUPOS w terenach przygranicznych
PL
Uruchomienie przez GUGiK z początkiem czerwca 2008 r. wielofunkcyjnego systemu precyzyjnego pozycjonowania na obszarze Polski ASG-EUPOS dało możliwość wykonania prac geodezyjnych na obszarze całego kraju. System ASG-EUPOS został zrealizowany w ramach europejskiego projektu EUPOS. Jednym z założeń projektu EUPOS jest stosowanie ujednoliconych standardów technicznych w systemach wszystkich krajów członkowskich. Ma to zapewnić jednorodne pozycjonowanie na całym obszarze działania systemu EUPOS, także w terenach przygranicznych, gdzie poleganie jedynie na stacjach referencyjnych pojedynczego kraju skutkowałoby pogorszeniem jakości wyznaczeń. Jednakże wykonywanie pomiarów w terenach, gdzie do wyznaczenia pozycji oprócz krajowych stacji referencyjnych niezbędne jest też korzystanie ze stacji zagranicznych, budzi pewne obawy co do rzetelności wyznaczeń, jak również integracji systemu ASG- -EUPOS i systemów zagranicznych z krajową osnową geodezyjną. W pracy opisane zostały systemy GBAS, a w szczególności założenia ogólne i standardy techniczne europejskiego systemu EUPOS oraz szczegółowe opisy jego polskiej i czeskiej realizacji, odpowiednio systemu ASG-EUPOS i systemu CZEPOS. Opracowana została koncepcja przeprowadzenia badań w zakresie weryfikacji działania serwisów systemu ASG-EUPOS w terenach przygranicznych. W myśl tej koncepcji wykonane zostały prace pomiarowe na obszarze o charakterystyce badanego problemu. Na ich podstawie przeprowadzona została analiza dokładności pozycjonowania z wykorzystaniem poszczególnych serwisów systemu ASG-EUPOS i zagranicznych stacji referencyjnych względem danych katalogowych. Dodatkowo przeprowadzona została praktyczna weryfikacja zaleceń zawartych w projekcie wytycznych technicznych G-1.12.
EN
Activating by GUGiK at the beginning of June 2008 multifunction system for precise positioning over the area of Poland, gave possibility for conducting geodesic work in the whole territory of the country. ASG-EUPOS system has been conducted within the EUPOS project. One of the assumptions of EUPOS project is usage of unified technical standards in the systems of all the member countries. It is done to ensure unified positioning over the whole coverage area of EUPOS system, also in the border areas where relying only on the reference stations of one country would result in decrease of the positioning accuracy. However doing measurements in the areas where for designating position, except from using national reference stations, usage of foreign stations is necessary raises concerns regarding reliability of positioning as well as integrating ASG-EUPOS and foreign systems with national geodesic warp. In this work the description of GBAS system has been done with particular interest in general assumptions and technical standards of European EUPOS system, together with its detailed Polish and Czech implementation, ASG-EUPOS and CZEPOS respectively. The concept of research verifying the operability of the ASGEUPOS in the border areas was done. Following this concept measurement work was done in the area with the characteristic features of problem. Based on it the analysis of positioning precision with usage of ASG-EUPOS and foreign reference station was done against catalogue data. What is more the practical verification of recommendations included in project of technical guidelines G-1.12 was done.
EN
EUPOS (European Position Determination System) is a new European initiative of establishment of the multifunctional reference station system in Central and Eastern European countries. The Project EUPOS was initiated in 2002 by the Berlin Senate Department for Urban Development and European Academy of the Urban Development Berlin. The project consisted previously in establishment of multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe, but lately also some Asian countries request to join the EUPOS Project and to be admitted to EUPOS ISC as EUPOS members. Number of member countries is steadily increasing. In 2008 Moldova was intended to participate in the project and at the last conference in Tallinn in April 2009 at the EUPOS International Steering Committee Kazakhstan was admitted as the EUPOS country. So, EUPOS network will contain more than 1000 stations in the area of 19 European and Eurasian countries. Currently 19 following countries are the members of the EUPOS Project: Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine. The number of planned stations in particular countries are given in attached table. One common project standard set is observed by all countries, however the project will include the existing or developed infrastructure in participating countries. Experiences of all participating countries in establishing and operating satellite systems will also be used. The system will be compatible with the German network SAPOS and in future will use as main signal the signal of the European system Galileo. The network of reference stations will provide services for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for navigation. Several levels of services of positioning accuracy will be offered.
PL
System ASG-EUPOS jest rozwinięciem projektu pilotowego Aktywnej Sieci Geodezyjnej ASG- PL założonej na obszarze województwa śląskiego oraz częścią projektu EUPOS obejmującego swoim zasięgiem kraje Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej. System składa się z 98 stacji referencyjnych, odbierających sygnały z satelitów GNSS (GPS, GLONASS, a w przyszłości GALILEO), rozmieszczonych równomiernie na obszarze kraju oraz krajowego centrum zarządzającego z lokalizacjami w Warszawie i Katowicach. System ASG-EUPOS umożliwia wyznaczenie pozycji w dowolnym miejscu na obszarze Polski z dokładnością od jednego metra do kilku milimetrów - w zależności od użytej metody pomiaru i posiadanego przez użytkownika sprzętu pomiarowego GNSS. Dzięki zastosowaniu międzynarodowych standardów wymiany danych, z usług systemu będą mogli korzystać użytkownicy posiadający sprzęt pochodzący od różnych producentów. Korzystanie z serwisów systemu ASG-EUPOS daje możliwość skrócenia czasu wykonywania pomiarów przy podniesieniu jakości i dokładności wyznaczeń współrzędnych. Ponadto założenie ASG-EUPOS umożliwia stworzenie jednolitego w skali kraju, stabilnego systemu odniesień przestrzennych. Uruchomienie systemu umożliwia także przyspieszenie działań związanych z odstąpieniem od stosowania lokalnych układów współrzędnych i wprowadzeniem do użytku układu współrzędnych płaskich "1992" oraz "2000", a także dokonanie weryfikacji istniejącej osnowy szczegółowej i pomiarowej oraz wykonanych przeliczeń współrzędnych punktów. Jednocześnie z uruchomieniem systemu ASG-EUPOS został opublikowany projekt wytycznych technicznych dotyczący stosowania serwisów systemu i przekazywania wyników pomiarów do państwowego zasobu geodezyjnego i kartograficznego. Pod koniec 2008 r. zostanie także rozpoczęty cykl szkoleń pracowników Służby Geodezyjnej i Kartograficznej w zakresie stosowania systemu ASG-EUPOS w pracach geodezyjnych i kartograficznych.
EN
The ASG-EUPOS System has been developed from the pilot project of the Active Geodetic Network, ASG-PL, which has been established in the Silesian Voivodship (Province). The System is also a part of the EUPOS Project, which covers the Central and East European countries. The System consists of 98 reference stations, which receive signals from GNSS satellites (GPS, GLONASS, and GALILEO in the future); they are evenly distributed within the country and of the national controlling centre with its headquarters in Warszawa and Katowice. The ASG-EUPOS System allows for position determination in an arbitrary location in Poland, with the accuracy between 1 meter and several millimetres, depending on the applied method of measurements and GNSS measuring equipment. As a result of utilisation of the international standards of data exchange, the System can be used by users of devices of various manufacturers. Using the services of the ASG-EUPOS System allows to shorten the time of measurements with increase of the quality and accuracy of determination of co-ordinates. Besides, establishment of the ASG-EUPOS enables creation of a unified and stable system of spatial reference at the national level. Implementation of that System allows acceleration of activities aiming at renouncement of utilisation of local co-ordinate systems and at introduction of plain co-ordinate system "1992" and "2000", as well as at verification of the existing detailed control network and performed calculations of point co-ordinates. At the time of implementation of the ASG-EUPOS System, the draft technical guidelines has been published; they refer to utilisation of the system services and transfer of results of measurements to the State Geodetic and Cartographic Resources. Series of training courses for employees of the Geodetic and Cartographic Service in the field of utilisation of the ASG-EUPOS System for geodetic and cartographic works will be commenced at the end of 2008.
8
EN
Geographic information systems and satellite technologies have been more and more important in the last years. Also, regulations of the European Union imply the need to implement specific systems. Taking this into account, the State Vocational College (PWSZ) in Chełm made an attempts to link satalite technologies and GIS. For this purpose two laboratories with 25 GIS workstations, a RTK DGPS station and satellite receivers were set up. This is the nucleus of a regional centre of GIS/RTK system to serve a variety of users. In May 2006, the Department of Geodesy, Cartography and Geographic Information Systems of the Main Board of Geodesy and Cartography (GUGiK), after conducting localisation research decided to locate a reference station of the ASG-EUPOS system at the State Vocational College (PWSZ) in Chełm. It follows from the assumptions taken and the undertakings performed that the GIS/RTK DGNSS laboratories in PWSZ in Chełm will make it possible to test the geoinformation software and to undertake research aimed at linking data originating from GIS with data from the European Network of GNSS Multifunctional Reference Stations to gather, archive, process (to perform network and spatial analyses) and to make these data available to users through the Polish network of reference stations. A result of these efforts was transfer in April 2006 by the Civil Aviation Board to the PWSZ of the DEMETER 2000 programme which is used for determination of spatial characteristics of radiolocation centres. The results of the tests of the DEMETER 2000 programme are presented in the paper.
EN
EUPOS (European Position Determination System) is a new European initiative of establishment of the multifunctional reference station system in Central and Eastern countries. The Project EUPOS was initiated by the Berlin Senate Department for Urban Development and European Academy of the Urban Development Berlin. The project consists in establishment of about 440 multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe. Fourteen countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia & Montenegro, Slovakia and Slovenia) intend to participate in the project. One common project standard set will be observed by all countries, however the project will include the existing or developed infrastructure in participating countries. Experiences of all participating countries in establishing and operating satellite systems will also be used. The system will be compatible with the German network SAPOS and in future will use as main signal the signal of the European system Galileo. The network of reference stations will provide services for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for land, air and marine navigation. Several levels of positioning accuracy will be offered. The participating countries decided to form a Steering Committee. Eight working conferences of the Steering Committee were held up to now. The conferences were devoted to discussions on practical aspects of realisation of establishment of the network, the standards and possible sources of financial support for realisation of the Project. The project EUPOS was also presented at many international conferences and symposia.On 12 November 2003 the representatives of the EUPOS International Steering Committee have held consultations in Brussels with Galileo Joint Undertaking and the European Commission EuropeAid Co-operate Office. The objectives of consultations were to inform the EC about the Project EUPOS, its organisation, standards and services, links to the European Project Galileo and expected benefits for all participating countries. As positive aspects there were recognised short time (2,5-3 years) of realisation of the Project and the fact that the organisational structures of the project are already available. It was advised that the attempt could be made to request for financial support from different EU Programmes: ERDF for EU member countries (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia), ISPA - for EU candidate countries (Bulgaria, Romania), CARDS - for West-Balkan countries (Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro), TACIS - for the Russian Federation and INTERREG III C - for Germany (Coordinator of the Project). In August 2006 the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography has signed with the Polish Ministry of Economy the agreement on financial support for establishment of EUPOS reference stations in Poland. The respective fund as given in the Project EUPOS was accepted and support will be given from structural ERDF EU programme. The detailed technical design of the network is already prepared. In order to cover the whole territory of Poland and to achieve the proper cross-border links there will be finally established 87 reference stations. According to the agreement the establishment of all stations should be concluded by September 2007. The tirst GPS receivers for some stations will be purchased in 2006.
10
Content available remote Laboratorium DGNSS/GIS POLPOS w ramach europejskiego systemu EUPOS
EN
Four European Parliament and European Council Resolutions of 10 March 2004 (No. 549/2004 The Framework Regulation, No. 550/2005 The Provision Regulation, No. 551/2004 The Airspace Regulation, and No. 552/2004 The Interoperability Regulation) obliged Member States to implement GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). Additional guidelines can be found in Annex 10 to the Convention of International Civil Aviation. In view of the above, a document on the realization of these Resolutions, entitled Local Convergence and Implementation Plan . Poland 2005-2009 has been prepared in our country. Poland treats the issues connected with GNSS implementation with priority which is confirmed by the fact that an ordinance on the issue in question is being prepared by the Minister of Transport (Infrastructure). Since 2002 European Network of Multifunctional Reference GNSS Stations (EUPOS . European Position Determination System) has been developed, and ultimately it is going to have 420 stations deployed in 14 countries. It is assumed that EUPOS will be based on Galileo system standards, but it will also be possible to make use of other available signals, like for example GPS, GLONASS, and EGNOS. Permanent stations are successively deployed within the radius of 70 km. Their coordinates are marked by means of EUREF points, taking into account ETRS 89 and some other conventional geodetic reference systems. Within the framework of the Polish Multifunctional Reference GNSS Stations Network i.e. POLPOS (Polish Position Determination System), which holds a central position of the EUPOS system, it is planned to have 75 stations that in turn should provide three fundamental types of services, mainly EUPOS DGNSS (in real times or post-processing with submeter accuracy), EUPOS RTK (in real time with centimeter accuracy), and EUPOS Geodetic (for accurate geodetic needs). Nowadays, 18 reference stations within the framework of EUPOS operate in our country. Some new ones will be established in the future, including in the State Higher School of Vocational Education in Chelm. Accordingly, new GIS/RTK DGNSS laboratory has been created. The aim of the laboratory is to perform tests on geoinformation software as well as make research on procedures to link this information with the data provided by European Network of Multifunctional Reference GNSS Stations. As a result, it will be used to collect, record, process (perform network and spatial analyses), and make the data available to users by means of the new Polish Multifunctional Reference GNSS Stations Network i.e. POLPOS.
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