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EN
Mathematical formulas are given to describe the changes with depth of concentrations of chlorophylls b, c, and photosynthetic and photoprotecting carotenoids in Baltic phytoplankton resulting from the adaptation of algal cells to ambient conditions. They take into account the spectral variability and differences in intensity, characteristic of the Baltic, in the irradiance penetrating the water, and also the spectral similarities among the spectra of different groups of phytoplankton pigments. The formulas were derived and validated on the basis of an extensive set of empirical data acquired from different parts of the Baltic Sea in 1999-2016. The standard error factor x of these formulas ranges from 1.32 to 1.73. These values are lower than those obtained for formulas derived for ocean waters, in which the influence of allogenic constituents on optical properties is negligibly small: 1.44 and 1.52 respectively in the case of chlorophyll c, and 1.32 and 1.47 respectively for photoprotecting carotenoids. With these formulas, overall levels of the main groups of pigments can be calculated from known irradiance conditions and chlorophyll a concentrations at any depth in a layer equal to one and a half thicknesses of the euphotic layer (i.e. to an optical depth of τ = 7) in theBaltic.The accuracy of these approximations is close to that of estimates of other bio-optical characteristics in this sea. This was confirmed by a validation based on an independent dataset (x from 1.27 to 1.84).
PL
Międzynarodowa droga wodna E60 jest morskim szlakiem przybrzeżnym, którego główna trasa biegnie od Gibraltaru na północ wzdłuż wybrzeża, aż do Archangielska. Jej potencjał ekonomiczny czyni ją istotnym łącznikiem między portami lokalnymi. Próby użeglownienia szlaku E60, mimo istotnego transgranicznego znaczenia tego połączenia, nigdy wcześniej nie zostały podjęte lub były podejmowane jedynie na krótkich jego odcinkach, zazwyczaj między dwoma sąsiadującymi ze sobą portami. W związku z tym należy podjąć kroki w celu dokładnego zbadania problemu i stworzenia planu uruchomienia żeglugi. W odpowiedzi na tę potrzebę rozpoczęto realizację projektu INCONE6O – Inland Blue Transport Connector E60.
EN
The international E60 waterway is an offshore route running from Gibraltar to the north along the coast, reaching as far as Arkhangelsk. Its potential makes it an important connection between local ports. However, despite its cross-bor-der importance no attempts to make E60 navigable have ever been made, or were made only in short sections of the route, usually between two neighbouring ports. Therefore, steps should be taken in order to thoroughly investigate the problem and elaborate a plan to start regular shipping. In response to this need, the INCONE6O project - Inland Blue Transport Connector E60 - has been launched.
3
Content available remote NATO’s defence policy dilemma in the Baltic States
EN
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the dilemma NATO has faced since February 2014 in its defence policy regarding the Baltic States. If NATO pursues a policy of deterrence, it might trigger war because Russia, the would-be deteree, may perceive actions taken by NATO as not intended to strengthen deterrence but rather to intimidate or coerce it. If it pursues an alternate policy of leaving the Baltic States visibly undefended, it might trigger war because Russia may see this as a sign of weakness and a gap to be exploited. This article investigates the logic of the dilemma, before considering whether NATO’s choice, made at the Warsaw Summit of July 2016, is working as intended. Ultimately, we cannot predict the answer and, therefore, we should consider all possible outcomes, including those which lead to a defensive war in the Baltic States.
EN
The coastal zone of the Puck Bay (near Mechelinki cottage), in the area protected within the Natura 2000 network (Puck Bay and Hel Peninsula PLH 220032), is subjected to the influence of two media – wastewaters discharged through a collector of the sewage treatment plant in Dębogórze and brine effluent discharged through a pipeline because of construction of the underground gas storage – UGS Kosakowo. The results of the monitoring studies in 2009, 2012, and 2015 showed that, after 40 years, macrophytes were again noted in the area (in 2012 and 2015). They occur in small amounts, but slightly increase their bottom coverage. It indicates the improvement of the environment state being under pressure of two media and points indirectly to the fact that environmentally friendly technical solutions were applied for discharge of the effluents.
PL
Strefa przybrzeżna Zatoki Puckiej (w rejonie Mechelinek), położona w obszarze Zatoka Pucka i Półwysep Helski PLH 220032 chronionym w sieci Natura 2000, znajduje się pod wpływem oddziaływania dwóch mediów – ścieków zrzucanych głębokowodnym kolektorem z oczyszczalni ścieków w Dębogórzu oraz solanki zrzucanej podmorskim rurociągiem jako efekt budowy podziemnego magazynu gazu – PMG Kosakowo. Wyniki uzyskane w trakcie badań monitoringowych w latach 2009, 2012 i 2015 wykazały, że po około 40 latach braku występowania makrofitów w tym rejonie, od 2012 roku zaczęto notować makrofity zakorzenione w dnie. Występują one w niewielkiej ilości, ale nieznacznie powiększa się zasięg ich występowania. Obserwowane zjawisko wskazuje na poprawę stanu środowiska w rejonie będącym pod presją dwóch mediów oraz pośrednio, że zastosowano dobre dla środowiska rozwiązania techniczne do odprowadzania obu zrzutów.
EN
The objective of this paper is to present an automatic monitoring system for the 3D CEMBS model in the operational version. This predictive, eco hydrodynamic model is used as a tool to control the conditions and bio productivity of the Baltic sea environment and to forecast physical and ecological changes in the studied basin. Satellite-measured data assimilation is used to constrain the model and achieve higher accuracy of its results. 3D CEMBS is a version of the Community Earth System Model, adapted for the Baltic Sea. It consists of coupled ocean and ice models, working in active mode together with the ecosystem module. Atmospheric forecast from the UM model (Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of the Warsaw University) are used as a forcing fields feed through atmospheric data model. In addition, river inflow of freshwater and nutrient deposition from 71 main rivers is processed by land model. At present, satellite data from AQUA MODIS, processed by the SatBałtyk project Operational System are used for the assimilation of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration. In the operational mode, 48-hour forecasts are produced at six-hour intervals, providing a wide range of hydrodynamic and biochemical parameters.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyzwania związane z zastosowaniem innowacyjnych platform i obiektów pływających. Przedstawiono koncepcję małego obiektu do wspomagania akcji ratowniczej na morzu. Opisano wybrane elementy modelowania koncepcji małego okrętu dwuzadaniowego do wspomagania akcji ratowniczej na obszarze Bałtyku Południowego. Przedstawiono podstawowe elementy związane z modelowaniem ruchu i ocena zachowania się szybkich bezzałogowych obiektów wodnych poruszających się na granicy wody i powietrza. Podano wnioski końcowe dotyczące prowadzonych badań.
EN
In the paper a concept of a small multi-task ship for supporting the rescue activities at the Southern Baltic Sea area is presented. An object concept, theoretical and computational models have been worked out. The preliminary investigations concerning the hydromechanic characteristics of the object have been estimated. The concept has been worked out at the Gdańsk University of Technology under supervision of Dr Habil. Eng. Mirosław K. Gerigk, Professor of Gdańsk University of Technology. The members of the interdisciplinary research group are the specialists of the Gdańsk University of Technology and other research institutions in Poland including the collaboration with the industry partners.
EN
The zones along the Baltic and the Adriatic have substantial geographical, economic and transport similarities. The strengthening of economic growth and the dynamics of the flow of goods has provided intermodality the utmost importance. The development of multimodal transport network and its connection with the TEN-T1 corridors represents a precondition for strengthening national economies. Baltic-Adriatic corridor connects the north and the south of Europe, with a more progressive intensification of the economic growth of Baltic and Central European countries. The intermodal transport system in the corridor has the ability to generate and intensify the economical-ly sustainable growth. Without doubt, there is a true need for economic growth and transport system within which intermodal transport would have particular significance as a strategic program. Strategic planning of transport development must be in the service for the overall economic growth and it should be dynamically adjusted to the objective investment possibilities in the field of intermodality.
PL
Strefy leżące na obszarze pomiędzy Bałtykiem i Adriatykiem charakteryzują się znaczącymi podobieństwami pod względem geograficznym, ekonomicznym i transportowym. Umacnianie wzrostu ekonomicznego oraz dynamiki przepływu dóbr zapewnia intermodalności najwyższe znaczenie. Rozwój sieci transport multi-modalnego i jego połączenie z korytarzami transportowymi TEN-T reprezentuje warunek wstępny dla umac-niania narodowych gospodarek. Korytarz Bałtyk-Adriatyk łączy południe i północ Europy, ze zwiększającą się intensyfikacją wzrostu gospodarczego w krajach środkowej Europy oraz krajach bałtyckich. System transportu intermodalnego w korytarzu daje możliwość generowania i nasilania utrzymywanego wzrostu ekonomicznego. Bez wątpienia, istnieje prawdziwa potrze-ba wzrostu ekonomicznego oraz tworzenia system transportowego, wewnątrz którego transport intermodalny miałby szczególne znaczenie, jako program strategiczny. Planowanie strategiczne celowane w rozwój transportu musi służyć ogólnemu wzrostowi gospodarczemu i powinno być dynamicznie dostosowane do możliwości inwestowania w obszarze intermodalności.
EN
Intensive development of infrastructure for fast processing of outsized amount of space-borne data enables now to use the satellite data for operational controlling the state of its environment. In our presentation we show some examples of analysis of processes in marine environment which are possible due to satellite data and algorithms of its processing developed in SatBaltic Project. It concerns supporting of modelling of solar energy inflow to the sea with space-borne input data, identification and analysis of sea ice cover, supporting of oil spill detection, and identification of phenomena which modify spatial distribution of the sea surface temperature.
EN
The round goby was noted for the first time in the Gulf of Gdańsk in 1990. After a few years, the round goby had invaded all suitable areas in the west part of the Gulf of Gdańsk. Generally, the sandy bottom was the factor that do not prevent the fish invasion. The effectiveness of reproduction is one of the most important factors in deciding the success of an introduction into a new area. The round goby needs a hard bottom for egg laying and subsequent embryo development in nests guarded by males. We observed the round goby nests in the Gulf of Gdańsk during three subsequent years. Distances between nests, nest size, number of eggs per nest, and depth of nest locations were investigated by underwater survey, from May till September, throughout the round goby spawning season. Our investigation led us to confirm that any solid elements on the bottom may be utilized as nest substrate when nesting areas are limited. Distances between nests decrease noticeably in comparison with native round goby areas. Taking into account these findings, we conclude that shallow water areas, of almost any type of bottom, might be invaded by the round goby.
PL
Główną przesłanką publikacji jest realne zagrożenie długofalowego utrzymania pozycji konkurencyjnej przez przedsiębiorstwa promowe na rynku przewozów pasażersko-towarowych na Morzu Bałtyckim. Jest to spowodowane rosnącymi kosztami eksploatacyjnymi promów oraz niezbędnymi nakładami inwestycyjnymi i oczekiwanym wzrostem cen paliwa o zawartości 0,1% siarki, w związku z wdrażaniem, w warunkach trwającego kryzysu gospodarczego, nowej dyrektywy siarkowej Parlamentu Europejskiego. Treścią artykułu jest przedstawienie koncepcji badań mających na celu stworzenie modelu systemowej, wielokryterialnej oceny wpływu dyrektyw środowiskowych Parlamentu Europejskiego na sytuację ekonomiczną i działalność operacyjną przedsiębiorstw żeglugi promowej na Bałtyku, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem dyrektywy siarkowej, na przykładzie linii żeglugowych Świnoujście – Skandynawia Po upadku znaczących sektorów polskiej gospodarki morskiej oraz zahamowaniu przemysłowej, miastotwórczej i regionotwórczej funkcji portów morskich należy poszukiwać nowych rozwiązań pozwalających na utrzymanie i rozwój sektora usług transportowych i portowych, które będą konkurencyjne w stosunku do portów i przedsiębiorstw promowych operujących na Morzu Bałtyckim w relacji Polska – Skandynawia, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem linii żeglugowych Świnoujście – Skandynawia.
EN
The critical premise for the publication is a real risk of losing the competitive position, in the long run, by ferry operators on the Baltic market of passenger and cargo traffic. This risk is due to growing costs of ferry operation, required investment effort and expected rise of prices of fuel with 0.1% sulphur content, related to the implementation of the new sulphur directive passed by the European Parliament, all falling on the time of economic downturn. The article presents concept of scientific research undertaken to create a model of a systems, multicriteria assessment of the impact of European Parliament's (EP) environmental directives on the economic situation and operations of ferry operators in the Baltic, particularly considering the sulphur directive, and examining the Świnoujście – Scandinavia shipping lines. After the collapse of leading sectors of Polish maritime economy and the reduction of industrial, city-forming and region-forming functions of seaports, we should seek new solutions aimed at maintaining and developing the area of transport and port services that will be competitive to ports and ferry companies operating in the Baltic Sea on Poland – Scandinavia routes, particularly shipping lines between Świnoujście and Scandinavian harbours.
PL
Funkcje turystyczne żeglugi promowej ściśle związane są z usługami, które świadczone są przez przewoźników promowych na rzecz pasażerów. Usługi te obejmują czynności na promie, a także zadania, które przewoźnicy organizują od strony obsługi lądowej. Na przestrzeni lat ograniczeniu ulega funkcja transportowa. Obecnie na szeregu rynkach bałtyckich podstawowe znaczenie ma funkcja turystyczna. Żegluga promowa na Bałtyku jest głównym segmentem turystyki morskiej w stosunku do mieszkańców RMB.
EN
The article presents the selected issues concerning the passenger services in ferry operations. Ferry shipping is the main form of maritime tourism in the Baltic Sea Region. It handles mainly inhabitants of Baltic states, who take a short sea voyages. Concerning the main aim of the trip, passengers can be selected as follows: liner passengers, shopping passengers, pleasure passengers, conference passengers, business passengers. The range of services handle by ferry operators has been increasing due to the passenger demand.
EN
Extensive sampling (450 grabs) was performed all over the inner part of Puck Bay (105 km2 area) in summers of 2007–2009. The GIS-based analysis of samples was performed to assess in detail the distribution of 32 benthic species. The minimum area of occurrence was less than 1 km2 for Lekanosphaera rugicauda and the maximum was 83 km2 for Cerastoderma glaucum. The material reveals that species with the pelagic larval stage were most widespread, with the least distance between individuals and the highest average density (e.g. Cerastoderma glaucum, Hydrobia ventrosa). The most isolated and the least dense species within the studied area were discretely mobile, non-larval crustaceans (e.g. Gammarus oceanicus and Lekanosphaera rugicauda), present at single sites with the largest distance from each other. We conclude that analysis of species distribution helps in understanding the threats to populations of marine invertebrates and marine spatial planning, through locating the isolated species and populations.
PL
W opracowaniu dokonano analizy elementów logistycznych sił morskich Cesarstwa Niemieckiego, głównego aktora jednej z pierwszych operacji desantowych typu joint venture. Zasadniczą część referatu stanowią rozważania nad znaczeniem i rozmachem zabezpieczenia logistycznego działań sił połączonych w I wojnie światowej.
EN
The paper presents logistical elements of the Baltic landing operation "Albion", carried out by the Germans in 1917 in the islands of Dagö and Ösel. Paper also presents the conditions of the preparation and conduct of operations with particular attention to the elements of logistics of the maritime transport, which had a decisive impact on the overall activities. Both the choice of venue and date of the amphibious operations turned out to be accurate. Landing troops encountered only slight resistance to the Russian troops.
EN
Body mass and body composition of 27 adult Velvet Scoters (Melanitta fusca) were studied. These birds were collected from January to March in the Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland. Body mass, fat, and protein contents of both males and females decreased significantly between mid and late winter, possibly because of a physiological process or a result of worsening environmental conditions. In mid-winter, the mean body mass of males and females did not differ significantly, whereas in late winter the difference in body mass between sexes became prominent. There was no difference in fat mass between the sexes, but females had higher lipid indexes despite their smaller size. The lack of expected fat mass increase in late winter may be due to the spring migration strategy of Velvet Scoters, which apparently opt to fly short distances rather than make long non-stop flights after departure from the Gulf of Gdańsk. Body mass was the best predictor of fat mass accumulated by Velvet Scoters wintering in the Gulf of Gdańsk.
15
Content available remote Sea surface temperature retrieval from MSG/SEVIRI data in the Baltic Sea area
EN
The aim of the paper was to confirm the proposition that the classical SST algorithms MCSST and NLSST originally prepared for AVHRR data could also be used for Meteosat/SEVIRI data with satisfactory accuracy in the mid-latitude region, where the spatial resolution is about 7x7 km. The research was performed in the southern Baltic Sea (between 13°E 53°N and 21°E 58°N). Data were collected in all the seasons of 2007. The coefficients were found by means of regression analysis. SSTs determined on the basis of AVHRR data were used in the regression analysis instead of in situ data. A set of paired AVHRR and SEVIRI images spaced no more than 8 minutes apart were compared. The results show that the method is capable of producing sea surface temperatures with a statistical error (standard deviation) of 1°C.
EN
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in recent (0-10 cm) sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk during 2003-07 and correlated with environmental parameters. Located in the south-eastern part of the Baltic and receiving the waters of the River Wisła (Vistula), this area of negligible tides and strong anthropogenic stress, highly eutrophic as a consequence, is an exceptional model basin for studying the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants introduced to the sea. Environmental conditions determine the distribution and composition patterns of parent PAHs in Gulf of Gdańsk sediments. PAHs were associated mainly with fine particle sediments, rich in organic carbon, with hypoxia/anoxia near the bottom. The highest PAH contents were found in the Gdańsk Deep (ca 110 m), where the mean concentration of Σ12PAHs was ∼3600 ng g-1, and no distinct temporal trend was observed. Lighter PAHs were found to be depleted in deeper regions. It was estimated that the Wisła discharges ∼50% of the total PAH load deposited in recent Gulf sediments.
EN
This study evaluated the extent to which depth, sediment type, exposure to waves and coastal slope inclination modulate the relationships between regional nutrient loading, weather patterns and the species composition and dominance structure of macrobenthic invertebrate feeding groups in a brackish water ecosystem of the Baltic Sea. Irrespective of feeding function, the species composition and dominance structure of benthic invertebrate communities were determined by local abiotic variables such as exposure, depth and sediment type. Regional weather variables (average southerly winds, salinity, water temperature, ice conditions) either separately or interactively contributed to the variability of benthic invertebrates. Nutrient loading had significant effects on benthic invertebrates only in interactions with local abiotic or regional weather variables. Herbivores, deposit feeders and suspension feeders exhibited a stronger response to the studied environmental variables than carnivores. All this suggests that (1) the dynamic coastal habitats studied in this work are not very sensitive to shifts in nutrient loading and (2) local abiotic conditions and weather patterns largely define the observed biotic patterns. We believe that the benthic invertebrate time series will only be a better reflection of the nutrient loading signal if more years covering extreme events are included.
18
EN
A biological valuation system to assess the value associated with ecosystem stability and richness (and not that from the point of view of users) is proposed to provide scientific decision support for marine protected areas and marine spatial planning. The system is based on the assessment of individual species and habitat/species assemblages. An extensive set of recently collected (2007-08) and archival (1970-2000) data on the occurrence of marine benthos was analysed for the Polish Marine Areas. Based on matching data sets of sediments, the euphotic zone, temperature and salinity, as well as fetch and sea current values, a GIS model was used to visualise the results; a map indicates the two areas which are considered to be biologically the most valuable (Puck Bay and the stony shallows of the central coast).
19
Content available Tsunami events within the Baltic
EN
During the deglacial period, Sweden was characterised by an extremely high seismic activity. The Swedish Paleoseismic Catalogue includes 54 events, 16 of which were associated with tsunami events.
EN
The most striking aspect of eutrophication in the Baltic are the summer blooms of cyanobacteria. Some of the blooms are toxic to marine organisms and poisonous to people. Our studies, conducted over the last three decades, report on mass occurrences of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (L.) Ralphs and Nodularia spumigena Mertens. It is generally assumed that cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are stimulated by the low ratio of N:P and initiated by high water temperatures. The mean annual value of this ratio in the Gulf of Gdańsk, since 1981, is 7:1-8:1, with the lowest values, of about 4, being seen in July when the cyanobacterial blooms begin. During three years of observations (1992-1994) the smallest number of recorded taxa was reported in 1993, concurrent with the lowest water temperature (16°C in summer). In August 1994, when the temperature increased to 22°C, a huge bloom was seen. Nodularia spumigena was very abundant in that bloom, and nodularin concentration of 2.59 mg toxin per g dry weight of bloom sample was recorded. A similar situation has also been observed in the years 2003-2006.
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