A theory of one-dimensional physical and mathematical modelling of the composite (steel-concrete) bridge/track structure/highspeed train system is developed including viscoelastic suspensions of rail-vehicles with two two-axle bogies each, non-linear Hertz contact stiffness and one-sided contact between wheel sets and rails, the viscoelastic and inertia features of the bridge, the viscoelastic track structure on and beyond the bridge, approach slabs, and random vertical track irregularities. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the physical model developed in the study accurately reproduces dynamic processes in the considered system. Division of the system into the natural subsystems, a method of formulation of the equations of motion partly in implicit form and the finite element method are applied. Vibrations in the vertical plane of symmetry are described by more than nine matrix equations of motion with constant coefficients. Couplings and non-linearity are hidden in the generalized load vectors. The equations of motion are integrated using the implicit Newmark average acceleration method with linear extrapolation of the interactions between the subsystems.