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EN
Thermal hydraulic analysis of the reactor core is important since it allows to optimize the nuclear reactor operation and to avoid too high temperature in the fuel. Enhancement of the reactor core increases the safety and the efficiency of the reactor operation and it has positive impact on the logistic in the nuclear sector. The thermal analysis of the fuel block column of the high temperature reactor is presented. The 3D power density profile has been used in the thermal calculations to obtain the temperature field within the column of the nine fuel blocks. The hot spot for the critical power profile is found. Temperature profiles obtained in the analysis have been compared with the reference data to check the numerical model, which has been used in the CFD calculations. Obtained temperatures are consistent with the reference data, it proves that the numerical model is correct.
EN
Thermal analysis of a heat and power plant with a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The main aim of the considered system is to supply a technological process with the heat at suitably high temperature level. The considered unit is also used to produce electricity. The high temperature helium cooled nuclear reactor is the primary heat source in the system, which consists of: the reactor cooling cycle, the steam cycle and the gas heat pump cycle. Helium used as a carrier in the first cycle (classic Brayton cycle), which includes the reactor, delivers heat in a steam generator to produce superheated steam with required parameters of the intermediate cycle. The intermediate cycle is provided to transport energy from the reactor installation to the process installation requiring a high temperature heat. The distance between reactor and the process installation is assumed short and negligable, or alternatively equal to 1 km in the analysis. The system is also equipped with a high temperature argon heat pump to obtain the temperature level of a heat carrier required by a high temperature process. Thus, the steam of the intermediate cycle supplies a lower heat exchanger of the heat pump, a process heat exchanger at the medium temperature level and a classical steam turbine system (Rankine cycle). The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the system considered and to assess whether such a three cycle cogeneration system is reasonable. Multivariant calculations have been carried out employing the developed mathematical model. The results have been presented in a form of the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system as a function of the temperature drop in the high temperature process heat exchanger and the reactor pressure.
PL
W referacie przedstawiono obliczenia dotyczące charakterystyk siłowni turbinowej posiadającej reaktor wysokotemperaturowy. Oceniono je w zmiennych warunkach pracy, zmienność ta dotyczyła różnej masy i zmiany pracy skraplacza. Parametry pracy obiegu potrzebne do wyznaczenia charakterystyk były wyznaczone programem DIAGAR.
EN
The report presents calculations related to the turbine characteristics with a high temperature reactor. They were rated in variable operating conditions. This variability was related to the different weight and changes in condenser work. Operating parameters needed to determine the flow characteristics were determined by the DIAGAR numerical program.
PL
Opisano wybrane urządzenia opracowywane w Przemysłowym Instytucie Elektroniki na potrzeby przemysłu półprzewodnikowego: urządzenie do syntezy i polikrystalizacji fosforku indu metodą HGF oraz urządzenie do monokrystalizacji węglika krzemu metodą PVT. Procesy te wymagają wysokotemperaturowych pól temperatury o precyzyjnie kontrolowanym rozkładzie w reaktorach o określonej atmosferze gazowej i ciśnieniu. Do syntezy i krystalizacji konieczne jest też wytwarzanie gradientów temperatury, które przesuwają się wraz z frontami krystalizacji. Temperatura pracy reaktorów opisywanych urządzeń wynosi od kilkuset do ok. 2500°C, ciśnienie od próżni do 3 MPa, a ponadto często we wspomnianych procesach stosowane są niebezpieczne materiały, takie jak na przykład fosfor. Wśród najważniejszych podstaw teoretycznych rozwoju urządzeń cieplno-chemicznych są precyzyjne matematyczne modelowanie pól temperatury w reaktorach tych urządzeń i sterowanie tymi polami z zastosowaniem wielokanałowych systemów komputerowych.
EN
The paper describes selected systems worked out in Industrial Institute of Electronics for semiconductor industry purposes: system for indium phosphide synthesis and polycrystallization by HGF method and system for silicon carbide monocrystallization by PVT method. These processes require the high-temperature fields of precise controlled distribution in the reactors of determined gas atmosphere and pressure. For synthesis and crystallization the temperature gradients moving with the crystallization fronts are necessary. Work temperature in the reactors of described systems is in the range of few hundred to 2500°C and pressure from vacuum to 3 MPa. Very often the hazardous chemicals such as phosphorus are used. One of the most important theoretical basics of development of described systems are: precise mathematical modeling of the temperature fields in the reactors and control of these fields by mean of multi-channel computer systems.
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