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EN
The paper is concerned with the issue of safety and risks in transport with a detailed focus on rail transport. Nowadays, when it is required to prefer safe and environmentally friendly modes of transport, the knowledge of this issue is important. Part of the paper is an analysis of individual risk factors in railway transport. These include risks in the field of railway safety, natural disasters, economic risks, risks in management systems and technical equipment, and risks related to legislative changes. Attention is paid to comparison and evaluation of individual risk factors in terms of severity and probability of occurrence - frequency. Following the analysis and evaluation of the risk level, are suggest possible or optimal ways to resolve them. The outcome of it is to eliminate or minimize them in the railway transport undertaking. The final part briefly describes the current situation in rail transport, recent develop-ments and the main conditions and assumptions for its further development.
EN
Speed is a critical transportation concept – it is one of the most important factors that road users consider in relation to route convenience and efficiency; at the same time speed has been recognized as the most influential risk factor. To improve speeding analyses, an emerging data source – probe vehicle data (also known as floating car data), may be used. This data enables obtaining information on vehicle speeds, without being limited in time and space. To prove the feasibility of using this data, a study was conducted on a sample of Prague expressway and collector roads. Firstly, probe data sample validity was checked through comparison to a traditional speed measurement technique – average speed control. Secondly, descriptive analysis of speeding was performed, focusing on speeding differences across homogeneous road segments in individual hour intervals. Thirdly, statistical models were also developed to explain which road parameters contribute to speeding. Analysis utilized cross-section and geometry parameters, which may potentially be related to speed choice and driving speed and speeding. In general, the applied concept proved as feasible: particularly night time was found more prone to speeding, and the rates were significantly different between segments. Statistical models indicated the statistically significant influence on speeding: lower speed limit, lower number of lanes, absence of roadside activities, or presence of horizontal curves. Information on these factors may be generalized and used for planning adequate speeding countermeasures. Final discussion also identified and described several challenges for future research, including free-flow speed estimation uncertainty, quality of speed-safety models, and potential multicollinearity of explanatory variables.
EN
The paper analyses traffic organisation at non-signalised intersections. In such locations, the use of correct road signs is crucial. Traffic engineers should consider a balance between traffic fluency and safety. Sometimes, limited visibility necessitates the use of a ‘stop’ sign. The paper includes case studies for selected intersections in the Silesia Province, Poland.
EN
The high concentration of vehicles and pedestrians at traffic lights makes them a common place for road accidents to occur. The main reason for them is the behavior of vehicle drivers and pedestrians, who often violate the traffic law because of incorrect judgments. This study investigates a special type of traffic lights, which are located on places without roads intersection. In the present study, a concept for improving the safety of such traffic lights is suggested. The method suggests a novel algorithm for the detection of pedestrians, based on image processing and a background pattern. The concept of the detection system makes it applicable in different climatic conditions, such as rain, snow, dust, etc., and offers many advantages over the current situation in Bulgaria. The intelligent system only detects pedestrians in the waiting zones, in order to optimize the traffic problems, such as traffic delays, use by disabled people, protection against troublesome users, etc.
PL
Wysoka liczba wypadków drogowych w Polsce sprawia, że samorządy coraz chętniej inwestują w nowatorskie metody zwiększania bezpieczeństwa rowerzystów i pieszych. Przykładem takiej innowacji jest świecąca ścieżka rowerowa. Istnieją też inne rozwiązania z obszaru drogownictwa, które można z powodzeniem realizować nawet w gminach dysponujących niewielkim budżetem.
EN
Transport systems in cities must be constantly adjusted to accommodate the ongoing changes in the environment. Apart from life quality expectations, civilizational growth requires also meeting certain requirements in terms of safety and environmental protection. The aim of this study is to determine the extent of the implementation of the postulates of Target 2, Goal 11. of the UN Agenda for Sustainable Development through the projects submitted to participatory budgeting. When analysing the projects submitted by city dwellers, special attention was paid to those intended to introduce changes in the city’s transport system. The study takes into account all of the previously implemented participatory budgets. Amongst the total of 1478 projects submitted in the years 2013-2019 316 concerned transportation issues. 46 of them were selected by vote by city dwellers. They were mostly projects concerning the construction and extension of bicycle paths and increasing the safety of pedestrians. The study findings show how big interest city dwellers have in transport and communication issues. The selection of projects submitted in this regard can contribute greatly to increasing safety, reducing the impact on the environment and, in effect, improving the quality of city life.
EN
Results of public opinion survey related to drivers´ distraction is one of the most frequent causes of road traffic accidents and this problem is growing and escalating globally in recent years. The aim of the paper is present results of survey that was focused on finding out public opinion and attitudes toward selected activities and factors that reduce driver’s attention during vehicle driving. First part of paper is defining the role of drivers´ distraction in road accidents and presenting current situation of this problematic in Slovakia. Second part of paper describes the methodology and procedure for implementing public opinion survey and presents its results with focus on activities that are the most often performed by drivers affecting their attention are performed and what is the public attitude towards this issue. In last part main outcomes and findings are summarized.
EN
It is easy to skid and roll by centrifugal force and wind, which affects the safety of the vehicle. At the same time, the special location of bridge and tunnel connecting segment in the canyon will accelerate the wind, and make the transverse wind play a more important role in driving vehicles. Based on the acceleration effect of canyons on wind, the vehicle model is simulated by Carsim software, and the road and wind models are established. It is studied that the vehicle has different radius of circular curve under different wind levels, corresponding to different superelevation. The lateral acceleration, lateral deflection and transverse force coefficient are selected as the running state of the vehicle at different speeds to research the linear optimization design of bridge and tunnel connecting segment in the canyon. The result shows that when the wind force exceeds the fifth grade, it is possible for the vehicle to overturn under the limit minimum radius required by the standard value. In order to ensure the stability and safety of the vehicle, this paper considers the geographical position of bridge and tunnel connecting segment in the canyon and the relationship between the radius of the superelevation and circular curve. What’s more, it puts forward the optimal limit minimum radius of the circular curve with different wind grades of 5-9 grades. At the same time, when the road alignment cannot be optimized under the condition, this paper puts forward the speed limit that the vehicle safety can be guaranteed under different wind speed conditions. The speed limit can provide reference for traffic management and safety guarantee of mountain expressway.
EN
Driving speed is an important risk factor, especially when negotiating horizontal curves. Therefore it may be useful in extracting surrogate measures to proactively safety assessment, a practice consistent with a current shift towards a Safe System approach to addressing road trauma. Review of previous literature indicated two categories of studies: (1) studies focusing on a safe driving perspective, i.e. studies primarily interested in finding the cut-off point in FCD data characteristics between safe and unsafe driving; (2) studies focusing on relating meaningful risk rates (percentages of exceeding the risk thresholds) to specific locations, and thus identify safety critical sites. However, no study was found that specifically focused on the relationship between kinematic characteristics (other than just speed) and road curves. The presented study focused on exploring the relationship between acceleration and jerk thresholds and crashes occurring on road curves. The first objective was to determine meaningful acceleration and jerk thresholds to utilize in explaining safety performance when negotiating curves. For this purpose floating car data (FCD) from a fleet of company vehicles, driving in rural sections of national roads in the Czech Republic, was collected and used to derive and validate potential surrogate safety measures. FCD presents in-vehicle information with several benefits compared to traditional techniques, such as feasibility of data collection, relatively unlimited spatial coverage, and availability of historical data. In the analysis, lateral acceleration and longitudinal jerk were found to be the most influential measures of curve safety performance. To sum up, the exploratory study outlined a practical approach to proactive evaluation of road curve safety: FCD data can generate useful surrogate measures of curve safety (acceleration and jerks) associated with crash history. A larger study is required to strengthen robustness of the results and provide confidence necessary for practical application. Potential use cases may include conducting interim evaluations of curve road safety treatments, or in-vehicle monitoring devices for detection of potentially unsafe manoeuvers and providing real-time feedback to drivers based on a combination of identified safety thresholds.
EN
The article discusses the level of road safety in the case of the city of Sosnowiec. Traffic safety was compared over a 11-year period from 2006 to 2016. The data were obtained from the municipal police headquarters in Sosnowiec. The authors of this publication created a graphical presentation of traffic incidents with their participants and causes. Numerical data have been presented, and separated into road accidents and collisions as well as injured and fatalities. The age and sex characteristics of the perpetrators of road accidents were presented. The QGIS program was also used for the analysis, which allowed us to map the most dangerous intersections in Sosnowiec.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy kwestii bezpieczeństwa drogowego i zagrożeń wywołanych realizacją jednoczesnego manewru wyprzedzania i skrętu w lewo przez kierujących pojazdami wyprzedzającymi i wyprzedzanymi. Wskazano na regulacje prawne, jakie dotyczą kierujących pojazdami. Na konkretnych przykładach wypadków drogowych poddano analizie przebiegi zdarzeń i przyczyny ich zaistnienia. Publikacja w szczególności podejmuje problem trudności we wskazaniu sprawcy wypadku i opiniowaniu o przyczynach zaistnienia tego typu zdarzeń drogowych. Tragiczne skutki analizowanych zdarzeń skłaniają do zajmowania się tym problemem oraz sugerują potrzebę ewentualnej zmiany przepisów lub zasad szkolenia kierowców, czemu dano wyraz we wnioskach końcowych artykułu.
EN
The article concerns the matter of road traffic safety and threats caused by simultaneous overtaking and turning left by drivers who overtake or are taken over. Legal regulations were indicated, concerning drivers. On specific examples of road accidents we analyzed the course of events and their causes. The publication especially undertakes the problem of the difficulties in indicating the culprit of accident and giving opinions about the causes of such kinds of road events. The tragic results of the analyzed events create the tendency to taking up this problem and suggest the need for possible change of regulations or principles of training drivers, which was expressed in final conclusions of the article.
12
PL
W artykule ocenie poddano dwa województwa Polski Południowo-Wschodniej, lubelskie i podkarpackie, w zakresie liczby wypadków, poszkodowanych w nich osób oraz sprawców, którzy doprowadzili do ich powstania. Wymieniono także najczęstsze przyczyny zaistnienia tego typu niekorzystnych zdarzeń drogowych, tj. nadmierna prędkość, czy warunki atmosferyczne. W celu lepszej oceny bezpieczeństwa na drogach Lubelszczyzny i Podkarpacia porównano wypadkowość w tych województwach ze średnią krajową. Przedstawiono także działania zmierzające do poprawy bezpieczeństwa na polskich drogach.
EN
The article assesses two provinces of the south-eastern Poland, i.e. Lublin Province and Podkarpackie, taking into account the number of accidents, persons injured and the persons who caused the accident. In addition, the most common causes of such negative traffic incidents, i.e. speeding or weather conditions, are listed. For better evaluation of the safety on the roads of Lubelszczyzna and Podkarpacie, the road accident rate in the said provinces was compared with the national average. Also, the actions taken to improve the traffic safety on Polish roads were presented.
EN
Highway guardrail is a kind of important road traffic safety facility. When a vehicle is travelling on a highway, it can lose control because of accident. The guardrail can prevent the vehicle from rushing directly out of the road, so as to reduce the injury to the driver in the vehicle. Therefore, the guiding performance, anti-collision performance and buffer performance of the guardrail are important indexes to reflect the highway guardrail safety in the traffic accidents between vehicle and guardrail. The process of collisions between vehicles and guardrails is a complex motion, affected by multiple factors such as the movement patterns and types of vehicles, the types of guardrail, the bending stiffness of the beams, the speed of collision, the angle of collision, etc. The accuracy of energy estimation when vehicle collides with guardrail is the foundation of highway guardrail design, installation and improvement. Many experts and scholars at home and abroad have done a lot of theoretical research and experimental verifications on the safety performance of highway guardrail, and analyzed the anti-collision ability and energy absorption effect of highway guardrail. Single degree of freedom model is the most widely used mathematical model of vehicle collision in highway guardrail. The traditional model is more suitable for calculating the maximum impact force of small vehicles, but it is not accurate for large vehicles. However, due to the unreasonableness of the model in the theoretical derivation process, there is a large error in the mathematical model, especially in estimating the accuracy of the energy value of the large vehicle collision guardrail. Practice shows that the current guardrail cannot withstand the impact of large vehicles. Once large vehicles collide with the corrugated beam guardrail, the guardrail will collapse in most cases, and the vehicle will rush out of the road directly, so it is very difficult to exert the protective function of the guardrail. The anti-collision performance of guardrail is poor, which is related to the existing calculation model, which results in insufficient strength in the design of guardrail.
EN
Road safety has an extremely important role in existing transportation systems. Drivers on the road are influenced by various factors (light and temperature conditions, visual smog, environment surrounding, etc.) and driver´s distraction represents the most common cause of road traffic accidents. According our previous researches, we found that visual smog has a negative influence on drivers on the road. However, the task of placing the traffic signs on the roads is to increase road safety, thus positively influencing the driver while driving. The main objective of this article is to measure the visibility of traffic signs on selected roads in specific light conditions (in night). Secondary objective is to measure visibility of roadside advertisement (billboards) near roads that are influencing driver´s distractions in negative way. The mobile ETG technology (eye tracking glasses) has been used as a method for measuring the gaze of the driver’s eyes on traffic signs in night conditions. We compared the results from our previous research (daylight conditions) with the obtained results from the current research. On the basis of the comparison of both measurements we can find out differences (positive and negative) in influence of traffic signs and road side advertisements on drivers in various light conditions.
EN
The article addresses solutions implemented in two cities, namely, Mexico City and Katowice, with the aim of improving road traffic safety. Despite the distance of more than 10,000 km separating the two cities, a comparison revealed many similar solutions having been implemented in both of them. This comparative case study is complemented with a collation of statistics pertaining to accidents, fatalities and injured persons as reported in the period 2012-2015.
EN
Passenger transport safety is an important issue. This paper presents a method for the identification of locations at the intersection of tramlines and road traffic, which are characterized by a high level of risk. Furthermore, different aspects of risk have been determined in order to analyse the problem in a complex way. For each aspect of risk, a measure was developed to estimate the level of risk. The application of the proposed method has been presented on the basis of an analysis of documentation of traffic incidents on the tram network. Accordingly, hazardous road locations have been identified.
17
Content available Odzież poprawiająca widoczność na drodze
PL
Celem pracy było opracowanie przekształcalnej kurtki damskiej dla młodych kobiet poprawiającej widoczność na drodze. W ramach prezentowanej pracy dokonano przeglądu dostępnych materiałów oraz odzieży i akcesoriów odzieżowych o podwyższonej widzialności. Następnie przeprowadzono ankietę w celu oceny stanu wiedzy na temat bezpieczeństwa na drodze oraz preferencji w zakresie odzieży ostrzegawczej. Na podstawie dokonanego przeglądu oraz wyników ankiety przyjęto założenia projektowe do opracowania kurtki damskiej z elementami odblaskowymi. Model kurtki został wykonany zgodnie z opracowaną dokumentacją techniczno-technologiczną.
EN
The aim of presented work was to elaborate the reversible women jacket improving a visibility on the road. In the frame of work the overview of the high visibility materials and clothing accessories was done. Next, the survey was performed in order to assess the cognizance and preferences of clothing users in the topic of high visibility clothing and safety on the road. On the basis of the survey the assumption was prepared for designing the women jacked with reflective elements. The jacked was manufactured according to elaborated technical technological documentation.
PL
W niniejszym artykule w głównej mierze skupiono się na próbie systematyzacji rozwoju technologicznego tzw. pojazdów autonomicznych, koncepcji organizacji ruchu tych samosterujących się (samoprowadzących się) pojazdów drogowych, integracji takich pojazdów ze współczesnymi rozwiązaniami organizacyjnymi ruchu drogowego oraz związanych z tym problemów prawnych. Rozpatrywane są przy tym inicjatywy podejmowane w skali światowej i przede wszystkim regionalnej (Europa) mające wpływ na rozwój ww. technologii. Funkcjonowanie powyższych w ruchu drogowym rozpatrywane jest poprzez pryzmat podejmowanych prób konstrukcji prototypowych jak i ich testów w środowisku udoskonalanej, względnie dedykowanej infrastruktury drogowej.
EN
These paper is an attempt to systematize technological development of autonomous vehicles, organizational concepts of their traffic and integration with contemporary transport solutions, as well as juristic problems connectedwith this new technology. There ware took into consideration some initiatives as well as subjects and their activities taken all over the world and especially in Europe, which have influence on the improvement of safety of road traffic regarding this new technology. Simultaneously, these developments are shown taking into consideration several construction attempts and tests within improved contemporary or dedicated road infrastructure and traffic.
PL
Referat dotyczy wpływu działania fotoradarów na drogach na zmianę systemu bezpieczeństwa w transporcie drogowym. W szczególności skupiono się na związku pomiędzy wyłączeniem fotoradarów a ewentualnymi zmianami w liczbie śmiertelnych wypadków w porównywalnym okresie W referacie porównano między innymi zdarzenia niepożądane na drogach w latach 2014-2016.
EN
The paper describes impact of the operating speed cameras on the change in the road safety system. In particular, the main focus is on the relationship between disconnection of certain speed cameras and possible changes in the rate of mortal accidents in the similar period. Authors present a comparison and analysis of the accidents, which took place in the period of 2014–2016.
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