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1
EN
The authors analyses the issues inherent in implementation of a multi-sensory mobile application which uses a map as an interface for an edutainment-style city guide for tourists. Two models – the triad of tourist experiences (3E), i.e. education, entertainment, and excitement, and the hierarchy of needs of Abraham Maslow – were used as the basis for identifying what conditions should be met by such an application to encourage its use by both local residents and tourists, in equal measure. It was decided that only open source software would be used to achieve the goal of the application.
EN
Just as contemporary cartographic works, old maps were usually made for specific purposes, e.g. related to taxation, propaganda or military objectives. C. d’Örken’s map of Lublin of 1716 is an example of a cartographic work created for military purposes, as it was made in the context of negotiations of the Tarnogród Confederation. The author of the map focused on the thematic content – he marked control zones, as well as military outposts, and accommodation sites. In many instances, the base content is presented with little attention to detail. There are a few exceptions to this rule, with fortifications being the most noticeable one. It was most likely motivated by the author’s profession, as he was a military engineer. Still, although Lublin has never been a particularly well-fortified city, the aforementioned content of the map perfectly reflects not only the former shape of the city space, but also its contemporary organisation. This article, due to its detailed description of selected works and the methodology involving the use of old cartographic materials, can be used as an important source material for archaeological, restoration and regeneration works.
EN
The authors’ main goal is to highlight the additional research potential of the method of analysing changes in the routes and names of streets introduced by Paweł E. Weszpiński in 2012. The proposed method was based on the old city maps of Warsaw and, according to Weszpiński, described “wandering streets and their names”. Taking the changing routes and names of streets on Lublin city maps from the last century as the research subject, the authors demonstrate that the method can be used to analyse how urban spaces are perceived and how they function in the minds of local residents. The authors propose to modify the method by adding one more important factor – the function of the place or street affected by the “wandering”. They claim that the study of changes in streets’ topography, territorial scope and names should be supplemented each time with an analysis of the administrative, economic or social significance of the place.
4
Content available remote The tightening of censorship rules in cartography in Poland 1944–1989
EN
In this article an attempt to formulate an answer to the question what influence the apparatus of power had on Polish cartographic publications for general use in the years 1944–1989 was made. To this end, written and cartographic archival documents and conduct an analysis of maps for the deformation of their contents were analysed by the author. Three sub-periods differing in the activity of the apparatus of power in relation to maps and cartographic activities were singled out. The years 1944–1949 cover a time of relative freedom in conducting cartographic mapping ending in the development of a legal basis for its effective limitation; the period from 1950 to 1963 was one of so-called “minimum content” mapping, while the years 1964–1989 cover a time in which the apparatus of power impose a duty to deform maps in cartometric terms. The results of the analysis prove the thesis that maps intended for general use published during the period 1944–1989 are an important historical source documenting the times in which they were developed, and a fairly unreliable source of information about elements of the geographical environment, particularly anthropogenic ones. This paper not only evaluates the impact of the apparatus of power on Polish cartographic publications, but also shows the social effects of counterfeiting maps.
PL
W artykule podjęłam próbę sformułowania odpowiedzi na pytanie, jaki wpływ wywarł aparat władzy w latach 1944–1989 na polskie publikacje kartograficzne do użytku powszechnego. W tym celu przeanalizowałam archiwalne dokumenty pisane i kartograficzne oraz dokonałam analizy map pod kątem deformacji ich treści. Wyodrębniłam trzy podokresy różniące się aktywnością aparatu władzy w odniesieniu do map i działalności kartograficznej. Lata 1944–1949 obejmują czas względnej swobody w prowadzeniu prac kartograficznych zakończony tworzeniem podstaw prawnych do ich skutecznego ograniczenia; lata 1950–1963 to okres wydawania map obrazujących tzw. „minimum treści”, lata 1964–1989 obejmują czas, w którym aparat władzy narzucił obowiązek deformowania map pod względem kartometrycznym. Wyniki analizy udowodniły tezę, że mapy przeznaczone do użytku powszechnego wydane w okresie 1944–1989 są niekwestionowanym źródłem historycznym dokumentującym czasy, w których powstały i mało wiarygodnym źródłem informacji o elementach środowiska geograficznego, zwłaszcza jego elementach antropogenicznych. W artykule oceniono nie tylko wpływ aparatu władzy na polskie publikacje kartograficzne, ale także przedstawiono społeczne skutki fałszowania map.
PL
Dostępność dużej ilości danych skłania do przekazania za pomocą mapy możliwie bogatej informacji, co często skutkuje przeładowaniem opracowań kartograficznych. Tę sytuację dobrze ilustruje przykład planów miast, które należą do najbardziej złożonych prezentacji kartograficznych. Przedstawiają one bowiem obszary o największej koncentracji różnego rodzaju obiektów i form działalności człowieka. Wobec faktu, że plany miast należą do najczęściej wykorzystywanych opracowań kartograficznych problem efektywności przekazu informacji za ich pośrednictwem nabiera szczególnego znaczenia. Chociaż złożoność od wielu lat jest przedmiotem zainteresowania kartografów, jednak żadna z dotychczas stosowanych w kartografii miar złożoności nie pozwala na jej automatyczne określanie w przypadku tak graficznie skomplikowanych opracowań jak plany miast. Konieczne było więc zaproponowanie nowej metody, pozwalającej na wyznaczanie złożoności graficznej tych opracowań. W tym celu zastosowane zostały techniki cyfrowego przetwarzania obrazów. Zaproponowana metoda zapewnia porównywalność map obciążonych różnymi elementami (sygnaturami punktowymi, liniowymi, napisami etc.). Na podstawie analizy wybranych materiałów kartograficznych można stwierdzić, iż metoda ta pozwala na ilościową ocenę obciążenia graficznego planów miast przy pomocy sformalizowanego wskaźnika.
EN
During the centuries the main problem on mapping was to obtain the sufficient and reliable source data; presently, an appropriate selection of the desired information from the deluge of available data is a problem. An availability of large amount of data induces to transfer the possibly rich information by means of map. It often results in overloading the cartographic documents, that is why they become less communicative and difficult to read. This situation is well illustrated by the example of city maps which are the most commonly used and thus the most frequently published cartographic products. Many user groups with different needs as well as preparation to read maps use these high volume publications. Therefore, the maps communication effectiveness problem is of particular importance. The city maps are the most complex cartographic presentations, because the presented areas are the places with the greatest concentration of different kinds of objects and forms of human activity arising from the civilization development. Conveying these specific features on the city maps leads to the problem of selecting the most relevant elements of content in terms of user’s needs, since presenting all objects and their characteristics is impossible if the city map readability is to be kept. Although complexity has been the cartographers’ object of interest for many years, because it exerts an impact on readability and effectiveness of cartographic documents, none of the measures used so far may be applied for automatic determination of complexity of such graphically complicated objects as city maps. Therefore a novel approach was needed for these applications. For that purpose digital image processing techniques have been proposed and successfully applied by the authors. The analysis of the spatial distribution of the objects’ edges on the map surface, calculated using continuous wavelet transform, is the basis of the proposed measure. The method allows for comparison of complexity of city maps loaded by different type of graphical elements (point signatures, lines, text, etc.). Extended analyses of selected cartographic materials proved the usability of the method for quantitative estimation of city map complexity via formal index.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono klasyfikację zakresu treści planów wybranych miast europejskich. Zakres treści planów poddano analizie metodą graficznego porządkowania danych Bertina, a następnie dokonano klasyfikacji uzyskanych wyników, otrzymując w rezultacie podział planów miast na pięć grup podobnych pod względem zakresu przedstawianej na nich treści.
EN
City maps are ones of the most often published and used cartographic publications. They are used by many groups of readers with various requirements and preparation to map reading. In the last two decades particularly significant changes in richness, variety, graphic level and detail took place in the maps of cities in East and Middle Europe. They followed the political transformation of the early 90-ties which abolished censorship and introduced market economy. In Western Europe situation was quite different because cartography developed continuously, without being distracted by external factors, such as censorship. In order to compare the range of contents of European city maps 50 plans of 20 cities had been chosen, mainly capitals, published by leading private cartographic publishers from the same country as the city itself. Bertin's method of graphic arrangement of data was used to compare the range of contents. Performed analyses showed 5 groups of city maps with common features as well as plans of 5 cities the contents of which did not belong to any of the groups. The analyses showed differences between the contents of city maps published in East and Middle Europe and those published in West Europe. The contents of maps published in East and Central Europe is usually much richer than in those from the West. This results from different conditions which influenced the development of city cartography in different parts of Europe. The analyses made it possible to determine the elements of contents which constitute a frame of European city maps, and appear on each map, irrespective of the presented area, place of publication, richness of contents or editorial level, as well as elements characteristic for particular publications.
7
Content available remote Geoportale miejskie i turystyczne na przykładzie Częstochowy
EN
Internet portals and geoportals are indispensable elements of information systems created to satisfy public information needs. Local governments face particular challenge in this context. City of Częstochowa has a great tourist potential. The city council took initiative to create Municipal Tourist Information System (MSIT). Its geoportal is available in Internet and in 50 info kiosks. The system includes an information database for tourists and pilgrims. The city council cooperates with local businesses providing services to the tourists (e.g. restaurants, hotels) to keep the database up-todate. This paper presents the technical architecture of the solution as well as the process of system implementation, including formal, legal and financial aspects. Usefulness of geoportal and its relation to INSPIRE is discussed.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano metodykę kompleksowego, interdyscyplinarnego podejścia do badania dawnych planów. Podejście to zastosowano do analizy i oceny najstarszego planu Lublina - interesującego dokumentu kartograficznego i ważnego materiału historycznego o znaczeniu ponadregionalnym.
EN
Maps of the past are the focus of interest of many groups of specialists; therefore various methodologies. Complex approaches which combine mathematic-cartographical (numerical) and historical (descriptive) methods are rare. The article presents such an approach to the oldest plan of the entire city of Lublin. Plan de la ville et fauxbourgs de Lublin is linked to the events of Tarnogrod confederation, which makes it a historical document of more than regional significance. The hand drawn document dated 1716 is authored by d'Orken, possibly a military engineer. The first stage was the evaluation of the plan of Lublin as a historic cartographical item. The applied criteria included: mathematical base, legend, range of contents, graphic solutions, use of color, lettering, technical quality and composition. Two of the plan's features are especially noteworthy. First, its contents go beyond a typical general information plan - a large number of elements referring to the negotiations of Tarnogrod confederation make it more of a 'thematic' plan. Second important feature is the application of innovative linear hachures to present relief and abandoning the use of perspective. The second stage was the analysis of plan's contents. At this stage the interdisciplinary character of complex research in the field of history of cartography became evident. As a result a number of controversies concerning interrelations of various objects within the city in the early 18th century were solved. Also, some thematic contents were researched for the first time ever. The final stage was the cartometry analysis of the plan. At first a number of points were selected, which could be recognized in the plan and assigned to the points in today's city. These 30 points created a base for a metering network which made it possible to calculate average local scales, distances, areas, locations and angles (fig. 5-10). These analyses established a number of zones of similar distortion. The least distorted ones are located in the center of the plan, where most of the contents can be found. The most distorted area is in the eastern part of the plan, which was unimportant for its users taking part in the negotiations of Tarnogrod confederation.
9
Content available remote Przemiany internetowych planów miast polskich
EN
Internet maps of cities are a digital counterpart of widespread maps in printed form. These maps contain quite differentiated information about cities, with extended presentation of subjects being of interest to tourists. They are regarded as one of the most popular group of maps. City maps are intended, first of all, for visitors (but also for inhabitants) as a medium of local information, mainly useful in planning of sightseeing and in looking for the location of different institutions, facilities for tourists and other services. In recent years, great development of Internet cartography is easily observed. It refers, first of all, to the quantitative growth. Many services (especially published by local governments) were supplemented with city maps. Not long ago each project was elaborated separately, but at present there are sets of maps in regional or thematic portals. Also series of maps should be mentioned, as the publications elaborated along uniform rules. There are professional providers of Internet maps as a komplement to traditional publishing houses. There are also important changes in the contents and form of Internet maps. Extended scope of the contents requires suitable extension of user tools of the digital maps. Besides simple solutions, such as bringing to Internet a digital copy of a printed map or elaboration based on the concept of a classic atlas (an ordered set of complementary representations of parts of a given area), the number of maps performing typical Geographic Information System tasks increases. A set of specific tools enables each user to prepare cartographic visualization according to his personal preferences. User functions allow to select components of the contents of cartographic representation, including its details and theme parameters, and the scope of visualized area. Efficient usage of maps is possible by means of tools binding cartographic representation with textual part (containing additional information and description of object properties) and other multimedia components. Some maps have complex functions for searching objects meeting selected conditions, including spatial criteria. There are procedures for determining distance and route optimization: finding the shortest way or the best traffic connection between desired points. Cartographic representation is often matched with photogrammetric elaborations. The present study describes main features and layout ideas of city maps with regard to their changes that took place during last five years (2000 . 2005). The comparison and conclusions are based on the analysis of a selected set of Internet maps, comprising 470 maps of Polish cities.
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