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Many ship collisions have been caused by a navigator’s error in the situation awareness (SA) of the navigator. In congested sea areas, navigators classify ships on the basis of different priority levels. For safety measures against ship collision, it is imperative for navigators to recognize the ships with high priority levels. In previous study, navigators’ SA was measured in a ship maneuvering simulator using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT). From the results of the previous study, we proposed a new risk category, named as “attention area,” that covers ships with high priority level in the SA of navigators. However, the extent of data for navigators’ SA was limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to confirm the validity of the category using additional data of navigators SA. In this study, the validity of the proposed category was confirmed, and a limit line surrounding ships with high priority levels was identified. In addition, it was evident that the category was able to detect ships with high priority level around the time when the collision avoidance was performed.
Poor lookouts, i.e. one of errors in situation awareness, are pointed out as the major cause of collisions of ships, through investigations of collision accidents. In order to evaluate safety measures for preventing collisions caused by poor lookouts, it is necessary to understand background factors, so called “contexts”, of errors in situation awareness regardless of occurrence of collisions. The purpose of this study is to point out the possible significant contexts, using a navigator’s situation awareness model. As a result, we point out that one of the possible significant contexts is a problem on judgment of priority levels of other ships with regard to attention.
Content available remote On the Development of an Anchor Watch Supporting System for Small Merchant Ships
This paper describes the results of a study that aimed at developing an effective anchor watch supporting system to prevent dragging anchor accidents of small domestic merchant ships. The authors performed an experimental study using a training ship in order to investigate the characteristics of the hull movement of a ship lying at single anchor, the cable tension caused by the above movement and etc. Based on the results of the study, the authors propose a standard procedure for safe anchor watch and a new anchor watch supporting system using a PC, a DGPS and an anemometer.
Content available remote Glow-plug assisted cold start of premixed compression-ignition natural-gas engines
A glow-plug assisted procedure is examined herewith to try to establish easy start and warm-up processes of the premixed-compression-ignition (i.e. homogeneous charge compression ignition, HCCI) natural-gas engines easy. A confirmation experiment is shown using a single cylinder engine and the natural gas/air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.6. The wall temperature of the combustion chamber was an important controlling factor to obtain the heat release of hot-flame explosion for the engine starting and warming, even though the glow plug would assist the ignition process of the mixture. It is necessary to get blue-flame dominant charge temperature, 850 K, near the top dead center by the piston compression of the mixture to establish self-sustaining engine operations. A glow plug installation will raise the local mixture temperature, which will result in the higher local temperature of compressed mixture. The formaldehyde addition into the charge makes it easy to obtain the hot-flame ignition during the starting and warming.
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