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EN
Are showed the necessity of the functioning of control automatization systems of conditions of bulk power system with renewable energy sources (RES) by taking into account the sensitivity. It is advisable to carry out optimal control of the bulk power system by introducing control parameters into the optimality (insensitivity) area. The permissible deviation range of the control parameters from their optimal values is determined by the solution of the direct and reverse sensitivity of the task. The direct and indirect tasks of the sensitivity can and should be solved in relative units using similarity theory methods. Showed that in this case the limits of the permissible optimality range are determined analytically. Comparing the allowable values of the optimality of the individual control parameters, it is possible to rank them and set the appropriate order and intensity of their actions. This makes it possible to compensate for the disturbances in the bulk power system that are carried out due to the instability of RES generation, in the most rational way.
PL
Wskazane jest przeprowadzenie optymalnej kontroli systemu zasilania jałowego poprzez wprowadzenie parametrów kontrolnych w obszarze optymalności (niewrażliwości). Dopuszczalny zakres odchyleń parametrów kontrolnych od ich wartości optymalnych jest określony przez rozwiązanie bezpośredniej i odwrotnej czułości zadania. Zadanie czułości bezpośredniej i odwrotnej można i powinno być rozwiązywane w jednostkach względnych przy użyciu metod teorii podobieństwa. Wykazanoź, że w tym przypadku granice dopuszczalnego zakresu optymalności są ustalane analitycznie. Porównując dopuszczalne wartości optymalności poszczególnych parametrów kontrolnych, można je uszeregować i ustawić odpowiednią kolejność i intensywność ich działań. Pozwala to w najbardziej racjonalny sposób zrekompensować zakłócenia w systemie zasilania, które są spowodowane niestabilnością wytwarzania odnawialnych źródeł energii.
EN
We propose a design of series-connected one-dimensional photonic crystal nanofiber cavity sensor (1-D PC-NCS) and one-dimensional photonic crystal nanofiber bandgap filter (1-D PC-NBF). The proposed structure can get a single air mode for refractive index sensing with its extinction ratio of 58.64 dB. It filters out the high order mode and reduces the interaction between signals. By 3D FDTD, the calculated sensitivity is 848.18 nm/RIU (RIU – refractive index unit). Compared with general silicon on-chip nanobeam cavity, the sensitivity is increased by eight times. The additional 1-D PC-NBF will not change the sensitivity and the position of the resonance wavelength. Therefore, the new design we propose addresses the issue of crosstalk, and can be applied to ultra-high sensitivity index-based gas sensing and biosensing without the need for complicated coupling systems.
EN
1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) based composites with different molecular weights and molecular structures of poly(vinylidene fluoride-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (poly(VDF-CTFE) binder were studied to investigate their effect on the physical, thermal, mechanical and explosive properties. The poly(VDF-CTFE) with three different kinds of molecular weights (FKM1, FKM2 and FKM3 samples) and three different kinds of molar ratios of VDF and CTFE (FKM4, FKM5and FKM6) was chosen as the polymeric binder. The experimental results indicated that all of these kinds of TATB-based composites do not show any measurable changes in the particle density, detonation velocity and impact sensitivity. The thermal data revealed that weight loss occurs in two steps and, that the thermal stability deceases slightly with an increase in the molecular weight. On other hand, the weight loss occurred in a single step and the thermal stability increases slightly with an increase in the molar ratio of the CTFE to VDF monomer units. The adhesion properties between the two phases of TATB crystals and polymeric matrices rely on the properties of the interface, which is expressed in terms of the mechanical properties. The storage modulus decreases with increasing molecular weight. On other hand, an increase in the CTFE to VDF molar ratio in the poly(VDF-CTFE) binder remarkably improves the mechanical strength. FKM5-9505 shows a significant reduction in creep deformation and dramatically increases the elongation failure, compared to those of the FKM4-9505 sample. Finally, SEM observations clearly suggested that the coating of the polymer matrix onto the surface of the TATB crystals is clearly demonstrated.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki pomiaru wrażliwości charakterystyki amplitudowej na kwantowanie współczynników dla różnych realizacji filtrów cyfrowych. Przeanalizowano filtry separowalne FIR 3D w realizacji bezpośredniej (splot) i ortogonalnej z zastosowaniem rotatorów. Pomiar wrażliwości sprowadzono do wyznaczenia błędu średniokwadratowego charakterystyki amplitudowej. Wykorzystano trzy poziomy kwantowania współczynników (8-, 16- i 24-bity) oraz cztery rodzaje filtrów (dolnoprzepustowe, górnoprzepustowe, środkowoprzepustowe i środkowozaporowe).
EN
Measurements for sensitivity of amplitude characteristic on coefficients quantization for different realisation of digital filters is presented in the paper. Separable 3D filters in direct realisation (convolution) and orthogonal realisation with use rotation are analysed. Sensitivity is measured like a mean squared error of amplitude characteristic. Three quantization levels of coefficients (8-, 16- and 24bits) and four type of filters (low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop) are used.
5
Content available remote GATE Simulation Study of the Siemens Biograph mCT 20 Excel PET/CT System
EN
We used GATE simulation to study the effect of the coincidence time window (CTW) along with the block gap and the intercrystal gap on the count rate performance and the spatial resolution of the Biograph™ mCT 20 Excel. We ran simulations on our local cluster to reduce computation time. The task was split into several jobs that were then triggered simultaneously on the cluster nodes. The BiographTM mCT 20 Excel was validated using the NEMA NU 2-2012 protocol. Our results showed good agreement with experimental data. The simulated sensitivity, peak true count rate, peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR), and scatter fraction showed agreement within 3.62%, 5.77%, 0.6%, and 2.69%, respectively. In addition, the spatial resolution agreed within <0.51 mm. The results showed that a decrease in the coincidence time window and the block gap and an increase in the intercrystal gap increase the count rate performance and improve the spatial resolution. The results also showed that decreasing the coincidence time window increased the NECR by 27.37%. Changing the intercrystal gap from 0 to 0.2 mm and the block gap and from 4 to 0.4 mm increased the NECR by 5.53% and improved the spatial resolution at 1 cm by 2.91 % and that at 10 cm by 3.85%. The coincidence time window, crystal gap, and block gap are important parameters with respect to improving the spatial resolution.
EN
In this paper, we theoretically analyze the slow-light π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (π-FBG) and its applications for single and multipoint/quasi-distributed sensing. Coupled-mode theory (CMT) and transfer matrix method (TMM) are used to establish the numerical modeling of slow-light π-FBG. The impact of slow-light FBG parameters, such as grating length (L), index change (Δn), and loss coefficient (α) on the spectral properties of π-FBG along with strain and thermal sensitivities are presented. Simulation results show that for the optimum grating parameters L = 50 mm, Δn = 1.5×10−4, and α = 0.10 m-1, the proposed slow-light π-FBG is characterized with a peak transmissivity of 0.424, the maximum delay of 31.95 ns, strain sensitivity of 8.380 με-1, and temperature sensitivity of 91.064 °C-1. The strain and temperature sensitivity of proposed slow-light π-FBG is the highest as compared to the slow-light sensitivity of apodized FBGs reported in the literature. The proposed grating have the overall full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.2245 nm, and the FWHM of the Bragg wavelength peak transmissivity is of 0.0798 pm. The optimized slow-light π-FBG is used for quasi-distributed sensing applications. For the five-stage strain quasi-distributed sensing network, a high strain dynamic range of value 1469 με is obtained for sensors wavelength spacing as small as 2 nm. In the case of temperature of quasi-distributed sensing network, the obtained dynamic range is of 133°C. For measurement system with a sufficiently wide spectral range, the π-FBGs wavelength grid can be broadened which results in substantial increase of dynamic range of the system.
EN
This paper presents a critical analysis of a current typical method to measure sensitivity of solar blind ultraviolet cameras using a high temperature blackbody as a calibrated source of ultraviolet light. It has been shown that measurement of sensitivity of solar-blind ultraviolet (SBUV) cameras defined as minimal detectable blackbody irradiance at optics plane of the tested SBUV camera generates inflated, misleading and prone to measurement errors' results that should not be used for evaluation of SBUV cameras' performance.
EN
In this paper, sensitivity enhancement of a nanocomposite-based optical fiber sensor with platinum nanoparticles is investigated. This optical fiber sensor is based on the surface plasmon resonance in the nanocomposite layer coating the core of optical fiber. A comparison is carried out for sensitivity between an optical fiber sensor based surface plasmon resonance with platinum layer and the one with nanocomposite layer. The nanocomposite layer consists of platinum nanoparticles with varying volume fraction which is arrayed in a host dielectric material of InN or TiO2. We show that the sensitivity of the sensor with a nanocomposite layer containing platinum nanoparticles is bigger than the sensitivity of the sensor with a platinum layer for all the values of refractive index of sample media. Also, the effect of the thickness of the nanocomposite layer and the volume fraction of platinum nanoparticles on the spectrum of the transmitted power has been investigated.
EN
To reveal energy transfer characteristics of a hybrid energy-regenerative suspension during the driving process, a two-degree-of-freedom suspension model considering the nonlinearity of the tire damping is proposed. Meanwhile, energy efficiency, the unified index for all driving conditions, is obtained, and its sensitivity to different influencing factors is deeply analyzed. The results obviously show that the influence of the same structural parameters on energy efficiency varies with the excitation frequency of the road surface, especially at 1 Hz and 10 Hz. Based on these results, the damping values under different frequency bands are optimized to balance the energy recovery and dynamic performances of the suspension.
EN
The paper describes the use of matrix game theory for the synthesis of safe control of a ship in collision situations. An analysis of the sensitivity of the ship control algorithm to the inaccuracy of process state information and changes in its parameters was presented. Sensitivity characteristics were compared on the example of the navigational situation in the Kattegat Strait for good and restricted visibility at sea.
11
Content available Zamieszkiwanie w betonie
PL
Piękne odnosi się do tego co już uformowane, ukształtowane, a nie do budynku architektonicznego. Sama forma nie jest jeszcze budynkiem architektonicznym, ale dopiero tym co estetyczne. Zakładając, że forma jest już stworzona, twórca stoi na progu. Z jednej strony jest to, co uformowane, z drugiej strony budynek architektoniczny. Czynność, która polega na nadaniu formie znaczenia, nazwiemy transmutacją. Wiele transmutacji składa się na zamieszkiwanie. Im wrażliwiej transmutujemy materie z której jest zbudowana forma, tym bardziej zamieszkujemy.
EN
Beauty relates to what has been formed, shaped, and not to an architectural building. The form itself is not yet an architectural building, but only that, which is aesthetic. Assuming that the form has been created, the creator is at a verge, with that, which is formed on one hand, and the architectural building on the other. The act of giving meaning to form will be called transmutation. Many transmutations make up dwelling. The more sensitive we are in transmuting the matter of which the form is built, the more we dwell.
EN
A highly sensitive photonic crystal fiber based on the surface plasmon resonance (PCF-SPR) biosensor for the detection of the density alteration in non-physiological cells (DANCE) is described. Human acute leukemia cells are determined by the discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation (DSGC) in which the cells are separated into several bands. The separated cells with different intracellular densities and refractive indexes (RI) ranging from 1.3342 to 1.3344 are distinguished in situ by means of the differential transmission spectrum. The biosensor shows a maximum amplitude sensitivity of 2000 nm/RIU and resolution as high as 5 × 10⁻⁵ RIU. According to the wavelength interrogation method, a maximum spectral sensitivity of 9000 nm/RIU in the sensing range between 1.33 and 1.53 is achieved, corresponding to a resolution as high as 1.11 × 10⁻⁵ 5RIU for the biosensor. The proposed PCF-SPR biosensor has promising application in biological and biochemical detection.
EN
Single phase, adherent films of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) were successfully grown on a glass substrate. Titanium nanofilm was pre-coated on the glass substrate to assist the growth of a layer adherent to the substrate. The copper film of 1.5 μm thickness was deposited via physical vapor deposition technique followed by thermal oxidation in air at various temperatures for 4 h. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to find the crystal structure, morphology, phases, and optical properties of the deposited films. The CuO NWs film with 60 % transmittance at wavelengths greater than 800 nm was obtained. It can be used as an infrared thermal imaging filter and in optoelectronic devices. The fabricated temperature sensor exhibited high sensitivity in the temperature range of 20 °C to 180 °C.
EN
Cluster validity indices are proposed in the literature to measure the goodness of a clustering result. The validity measure provides a value which shows how good or bad the obtained clustering result is, as compared to the actual clustering result. However, the validity measures are not arbitrarily generated. A validity measure should satisfy some of the important properties. However, there are cases when in-spite of satisfying these properties, a validity measure is not able to differentiate the two clustering results correctly. In this regard, sensitivity as a property of validity measure is introduced to capture the differences between the two clustering results. However, sensitivity computation is a computationally expensive task as it requires to explore all the possible combinations of clustering results which are very large in number and these are growing exponentially. So, it is required to compute the sensitivity efficiently. As the possible combinations of clustering results grow exponentially, so it is required to first obtain an upper bound on this possible number of combinations which will be sufficient to compute the value of the sensitivity. In this paper, we obtain an upper bound on the number of possible combinations of clustering results. For this purpose, a generic approach which is suitable for various validity measures and a specific approach which is applicable for two validity measures are proposed. It is also shown that this upper bound is sufficient to compute the sensitivity of various validity measures. This upper bound is very less as compared to the total number of possible combinations of clustering results.
EN
Production parameters have been established to play a fundamental role in dictating the physical characteristics and sensing properties of knitted sensors. This research studied the influence of elastic yarn type and rib fabric structure variation on the physical, tensile and conductive properties and sensitivity performance of knitted underwear strain sensors to be used for breathing mensuration. Four different structures in 1×1, 1×2, 1×3 and 2×2 mock ribs were knitted using covered elastic (CY) and bare strand elastic yarn (BS) combinations. These two parameters proffered unique physical, conductive and tensile characteristics to the samples. Wear and machine tests were conducted to ascertain the sensor’s piezoresistive responses. The machine test showed a higher piezoresistive response, with an average peak value (APV) from 1.70 Ω to 0.24 Ω, while those for the wear test recorded were around 0.0110 Ω to 1.867 Ω for all sample categories. However, sensors knitted with covered elastic yarns produced the best breathing test results (APV of 1.089 Ω – 1.86 Ω) compared to bare strand elastic yarns (APV 0.0027 Ω – 0.0790 Ω) when used in a wearable environment. Fabric structure variation had influences on both conductive and tensile characteristics; however, the effects on the piezoresistive response were negligible. The influences of the unique characteristics provided by these core parameters on sensor resistance values, piezoresistance, aging, ease of deformation and dimensional stability have also been discussed.
PL
W pracy badano wpływ struktury dzianiny i rodzaju przędzy na właściwości fizyczne, rozciągające i przewodzące oraz czułość dzianinowych czujników umieszczonych w wyrobach bieliźnianych. Czujniki mają znaleźć zastosowanie w pomiarach napięcia oddechowego. Badaniom poddano cztery różne dzianiny: 1 × 1, 1 × 2, 1 × 3 i 2 × 2, w procesie dziania wykorzystano kombinacje przędz elastycznych powlekanych (CY) i niepowlekanych (BS). Dało to unikalne właściwości fizyczne, przewodzące i rozciągające próbki. W celu ustalenia reakcji piezorezystywnych czujnika przeprowadzono dwa rodzaje testów. Test maszynowy wykazał wyższą reakcję piezorezystywną, ze średnią wartością szczytową (APV) od 1,70 Ω do 0,24 Ω, podczas gdy dla testu zużycia zarejestrowano około 0,0110 Ω do 1,867 Ω dla wszystkich kategorii próbek. Jednakże, czujniki dzianinowe z powleczonymi przędzami elastycznymi dały najlepsze wyniki testu oddychania (APV o wartości 1.089 Ω – 1.86 Ω) w porównaniu do niepowleczonych przędz elastycznych (APV 0,0027 Ω – 0,0790 Ω), podczas stosowania ich w środowisku noszenia. Zmiana struktury dzianiny miała wpływ na właściwości przewodzące i rozciągające, jednak wpływ na reakcję piezorezystywną był znikomy. Omówiono również wpływ unikalnych cech tych podstawowych parametrów na wartości rezystancji czujnika, odporność na piezorezystencję, starzenie, łatwość deformacji i stabilność wymiarową.
EN
Five novel high-nitrogen content (N>50%) derivatives of tetrazole are introduced in the study reported here. The assessment of various properties of these compounds were performed, which include physicothermal properties (crystal density, condensed phase heat of formation, melting point, enthalpy of fusion and entropy of fusion), detonation performance (velocity and pressure of detonation, detonation temperature and power), sensitivity with respect to external stimuli (impact, shock, friction and electric spark) and combustion performance (specific impulse). The predicted results of these compounds are compared with dihydroxylammonium 5,5’-bistetrazole-1,1’-diolate (TKX-50) and octanitro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) as a high performance ionic salt and a neutral explosive, respectively. The novel energetic compounds were found to have higher detonation and combustion performance than either TKX-50 or HMX. The new explosives are therefore good candidates to obtain high detonation and combustion performance in plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) and composite solid propellants, respectively.
EN
Boron and potassium nitrate are the key components for the ignition system of the igniter composition for rocket propellants. Boron-potassium nitrate-ethyl cellulose (B:KNO3:PEC) in proportions of 30:70:10 is a well established igniter composition. The composition delivers a maximum pressure in the range 4.0-4.6 MPa in closed vessel firing at a loading density of 0.01 g/cm3. For the effective ignition of a large booster stage propellant (length more than 4 m), an enhancement in the maximum pressure, without affecting safety, is a prime requirement. The use of guanylurea dinitramide (GUDN) in an igniter composition has not been reported in the literature. Hence, the present study on the effect of GUDN on the combustion behaviour and sensitivity of the B/KNO3 composition (30/70) has been carried out. Several compositions containing different weight percents of GUDN were prepared. Their thermal behaviour was determined by thermal analysis DSC-TGA. Their sensitivities to external stimuli such as impact, friction and spark were evaluated. The results of closed vessel firings indicated that GUDN-based igniter compositions produced higher peak pressures (up to 4.5 MPa to 5.8 MPa), with invariably lower burning times, compared to the control composition. The REAL computer programme indicated an increase in the flame temperature of the composition from 2238 K to 2425 K on addition of GUDN. All of the compositions were insensitive towards friction up to 36 kg, and towards spark up to 5 J energy.
EN
Objective: The aim of the study is to demonstrate the possibility of increasing the sensitivity, resistance to electromagnetic interference and response speed of point smoke detectors on the basis of using laser processing and fibre optics technology. Project and methods: In order to achieve the above goal an optical point smoke detector was designed and produced. The detector uses a laser radiation source and fibre-optic communication line with a radiation receiver. Results: The combined laser-based fire alarm device which includes two smoke detection methods (controlling the intensity of radiation scattered by smoke particles and passed through the smoke without scattering) and carbon monoxide detector are produced. The tests of the fire detector to determine its basic functional parameters and the performance of detecting the test fire sources in accordance with standard SТB 16.03-2009. The minimum threshold quantity of optical smoke density detected in the control channel of the intensity of scattered radiation is 0.05 dB/m. The minimum threshold quantity of optical smoke density detected in the control channel of the intensity of radiation passing through the smoke without scattering is about 0.9 dB/m for controlled optical length 25 mm. The minimum concentration of carbon monoxide detection by the CO gas detector is 40 ppm. The testing results of combined laser-based fire alarm device on the detection efficiency of the standardised fire source bear record to its hypersensitivity for different types of smoke and a higher speed of detection of fires in comparison with single-channel point smoke detector. The tests of the combined laser fire detector to determine the efficiency of the fire detection model point to its increased sensitivity to different types of smoke and fire detection speed in comparison with a conventional single-channel point smoke detector. Using fibre optics for recording radiation getting through smoke without dissipation showed us the possibility of developing a point smoke detector on the linear principle of smoke detection with signal processing at a distance from the controlled zone in a well-screened box, for instance, inside a fire alarm control panel. Obviously, the signaling device will be highly resistant to electromagnetic interference due to the reliable screening of the sensitive elements of the electronic signal processing system and the lack of wiring connected to the fire alarm control panel. Conclusions: The advanced functional characteristics of the fire alarm device are provided thanks to the application of a laser source with a high intensity and a low divergence of radiation. The unique properties of laser radiation in the sensor’s structure made it possible to apply a number of design and technical solutions which provided a substantial increase in the sensitivity and fire detection rate of the sensor compared to the currently used traditional LED smoke detectors.
PL
Cel: Celem pracy jest przedstawienie możliwości zwiększenia wrażliwości i odporności na interferencje elektromagnetyczne optycznych (punktowych) czujek dymu oraz poprawienia ich szybkości zadziałania poprzez zastosowanie technologii laserowych i światłowodowych. Projekt i metody: W celu osiągnięcia powyższego celu zaprojektowano i wyprodukowano optyczną punktową czujkę dymu wykorzystującą laserowe źródło promieniowania i połączenie światłowodowe z odbiornikiem promieniowania, a także przebadano jej charakterystyki użytkowe. Wyniki: Opracowano laserową czujkę dymu wykorzystującą dwie metody wykrywania dymu (kontrolę intensywności promieniowania rozproszonego cząsteczkami dymu oraz promieniowania przechodzącego przez dym bez rozproszenia) oraz czujnik tlenku węgla (CO). Przeprowadzono badania czujki mające na celu określenie jej podstawowych parametrów użytkowych oraz skuteczność wykrywania testowych źródeł pożaru zgodnie z normą STB 16.03-2009. Minimalna wartość progowa gęstości dymu wykrywana w komorze kontroli intensywności promieniowania rozproszonego wynosi 0,05 dB/m. Z kolei minimalna wartość progowa gęstości dymu w kanale kontroli intensywności promieniowania przechodzącego przez dym bez rozproszenia wynosi 0,9 dB/m przy kontrolowanej odległości 25 mm. Minimalne stężenie tlenku węgla, na które reaguje czujnik tlenku węgla to 40 ppm. Wyniki badań laserowej „łączonej” czujki pożarowej pod kątem skuteczności wykrywania przez nią testowych źródeł pożaru świadczą o jej zwiększonej wrażliwości na różne rodzaje dymu i szybszym wykrywaniu pożaru, w porównaniu ze standardową jednokanałową punktową czujką dymu. Zastosowanie światłowodów do rejestracji promieniowania przechodzącego przez dym bez rozproszenia wiązki pokazało, że możliwe jest opracowanie punktowej czujki dymu na jednej „liniowej” zasadzie wykrywania dymu i jednoczesne przetwarzanie sygnału w oddalonym od kontrolowanej strefy osłonionym bloku, na przykład wewnątrz centrali sygnalizacji pożarowej. Oczywiście, dzięki właściwej osłonie wrażliwych elementów układu elektronicznego przetwarzającego sygnał i rezygnacji z przewodów elektrycznych do połączeń z centralą, czujka tego typu będzie charakteryzowała się wysoką odpornością na zakłócenia elektromagnetyczne. Wnioski: Wysokie właściwości użytkowe czujki były możliwe do osiągnięcia dzięki zastosowaniu źródła laserowego o wysokiej intensywności i małej dywergencji promieniowania. Unikalne cechy promieniowania laserowego w konstrukcji czujki pozwoliły na zastosowanie wielu rozwiązań konstrukcyjnych i technicznych, które znacznie zwiększyły wrażliwość czujki i szybkość wykrycia pożaru w porównaniu z konwencjonalnymi diodowymi pożarowymi czujkami dymu.
19
Content available Światło i ciemność
PL
Światłość i ciemność. Dwa zjawiska zupełnie sobie przeciwstawne. Światło to prawda, która pozwala poznawać. Droga poznania to droga nawracania, zawracania z ciemności do światła. Światło rozumu, wiedzy, które nie rozgrzewa, pozwala poznawać świat, ludzi, nie przynosi jednak miłości, nie rozwija duchowo. Jest w artykule kojarzone z symbolem życia, stanowi syntezę pozytywnych wartości, które szczególnie dla młodego pokolenia są istotne. Noc, ciemność stanowić może również, symbolicznie wyobrażenie rzeczywistej egzystencji w świecie, które wielokrotnie nie dorównuje marzeniom. Punktem wyjścia artykułu są pozytywne wartości, światło jest znakiem nadziei, radości, szczęścia, optymizmu. Żar młodzieńczy w konfrontacji z nieczułym światem zabija złudzenia, czasami również marzenia. Nasza rzeczywistość jest często szara, przepełniona ludźmi egoistycznie nastawionymi, konsumpcyjnym stylem życia ukierunkowanym na dobra doczesne. Człowiek zmuszony jest żyć w świecie przedmiotów, które jaśnieją światłem niedoskonałym. Stąd potrzeba człowieka, by nieustannie poszukiwać źródła najwyższego światła. Naturalnym, wynikającym z wewnętrznej potrzeby, jak również ratunkiem dla człowieka, jest odzyskanie duchowego słuchu i wzroku – jego rozwój wewnętrzny, duchowy. Dotarcie do najwyższego dobra, stanowi realizację potencjału duchowego człowieka.
EN
Light and darkness. Two completely opposite phenomena. Light stands for the truth which allows to learn. The path to cognition is a path of conversion, of returning from darkness to light. The light of reason, knowledge, which does not warm up, allows to learn about the world, people; it does not, however, bring love, it does not develop spiritually. In this paper it is associated with the symbol of life, it constitutes a synthesis of positive values, particularly important for the young generation. Night, darkness can also serve as a symbolic image of the actual existence in the world, which only too often has little in common with one’s dreams. The starting point for this paper are positive values; light is a symbol of hope, joy, happiness, optimism. Confrontation of youthful zeal with cold-hearted world deprives of illusions, sometimes even of dreams. Our reality is often grey, full of selfish people, consumerist lifestyle directed towards worldly possessions. Man is forced to exist in the world of objects, the light of which is not perfect. Hence man’s need to constantly search for the source of the utmost light. An element which is quite natural and results from man’s inherent needs, which is also man’s salvation, is recovering the spiritual sense of hearing and seeing – man’s internal, spiritual development. Reaching the utmost good constitutes the fulfilment of man’s spiritual potential.
20
Content available Control system defined by some integral operator
EN
In the paper we consider a nonlinear control system governed by the Volterra integral operator. Using a version of the global implicit function theorem we prove that the control system under consideration is well-posed and robust, i.e. for any admissible control u there exists a uniquely defined trajectory xu which continuously depends on control u and the operator [formula] is continuously differentiable. The novelty of this paper is, among others, the application of the Bielecki norm in the space of solutions which allows us to weaken standard assumptions.
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