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1
Content available remote Willingness to defend one's own country and to resist in the Baltic states
EN
This article addresses the question of willingness to defend one’s own country and a similar notion of resistance, should Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia be attacked. The study principally relies on quantitative data from a dedicated nationally representative survey across all three countries. The data acquired thereof reaffirm findings from previous studies concluding that the highest level of willingness to defend one’s own country is in Estonia, while it is lower in Latvia and in Lithuania. Asked if and how respondents would resist in case of an attack, more willingness to resist either non-violently or violently was expressed by respondents in Lithuania, ahead of the number of willing to do so in Estonia and more so in Latvia. Demographic background of the respondents visualized and discussed in the article provides further nuances of both research questions. While situation with the willingness to defend Estonia is relatively comfortable, this should not be treated as a reason for complacency. There is still room for progress within some groups of the society. Meanwhile, valuable lessons could be drawn for policies of Latvia and more so of Lithuania to avert some of the less flattery trends identifed in this study.
PL
Porty morskie w krajach bałtyckich połączone z siecią kolejową (1 520/1 524 mm) po przekształceniach gospodarek Litwy, Łotwy i Estonii po 1991 r. szybko przystosowały się do funkcjonowania w realiach gospodarki rynkowej, a więzi z Europą zostały wzmocnione po akcesji do Unii Europejskiej w 2004 r. Historycznie kraje te były swoistymi pośrednikami pomiędzy Rosją i Europą w zakresie wymiany handlowej, a obecnie ów trend – z pewnymi modyfikacjami nadal jest utrzymany. Wynika to także ze specyfiki rosyjskiego i częściowo także białoruskiego eksportu bazującego na towarach masowych – węglu kamiennym, produktach naftowych, zbożu, nawozach, słowem ładunkach idealnych do przewozu koleją (towary o znacznej masie, przewożone na duże odległości). Atutem państw bałtyckich jest także fakt położenia geograficznego względem Rosji – na wybrzeżu Bałtyku, co jest wykorzystywane do eksportu ładunków masowych z Rosji, ewentualnie kontenerów z Chin. Obecny stan wydaje się w perspektywie średnioterminowej raczej niezagrożony, niezależnie od panujących napięć pomiędzy UE i Rosją. Nowym bardzo ambitnym projektem jest linia Rail Baltica, czyli planowana normalnotorowa linia zelektryfikowana (25 kV 50 Hz) biegnąca od granicy polsko-litewskiej przez Kowno (z pominięciem Wilna), Rygę i Tallinn, a także do Helsinek przez tunel pod Zatoką Fińską.
EN
Seaports in the Baltic States are connected to the railway network (1 520/1 524 mm), and after transformations of the economies of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia and after 1991, have been quickly adapted to functioning in the market economy, and their ties with Europe were strengthened after accession of these countries to the European Union in 2004. Historically, these states were specific intermediaries between Russia and Europe in the field of trade, and now this trend, with some modifications, is still maintained. This is also due to the specificity of Russian and partly Belarusian exports, based on mass goods – coal, petroleum products, grain, fertilizers, in short, ideal loads for rail transport (goods of considerable weight, which are transported over long distances). The asset of the Baltic states is also the fact of geographical location with respect to Russia – on the Baltic coast, which is used to export bulk cargo from Russia, or containers from China. The current state seems unlikely in the medium term, regardless of the political turbulences between the EU and Russia. The new very ambitious project is the Rail Baltica line, a planned standard-gauge electrified line (25 kV 50 Hz) from the Polish-Lithuanian border through Kaunas (excluding Vilnius), Riga and Tallinn, and to Helsinki via the tunnel under the Gulf of Finland.
PL
(1 520/1 524 mm) po przekształceniach gospodarek Litwy, Łotwy i Estonii po 1991 r. szybko przystosowały się do funkcjonowania w realiach gospodarki rynkowej, a więzi z Europą zostały wzmocnione po akcesji do Unii Europejskiej w 2004 r. Historycznie kraje te były swoistymi pośrednikami pomiędzy Rosją i Europą w zakresie wymiany handlowej, a obecnie ów trend – z pewnymi modyfikacjami – nadal jest utrzymany. Wynika to także ze specyfiki rosyjskiego i częściowo także białoruskiego eksportu bazującego na towarach masowych – węglu kamiennym, produktach naftowych, zbożu, nawozach, słowem ładunkach idealnych do przewozu koleją (towary o znacznej masie, przewożone na duże odległości). Atutem państw bałtyckich jest także fakt położenia geograficznego względem Rosji – na wybrzeżu Bałtyku, co jest wykorzystywane do eksportu ładunków masowych z Rosji, ewentualnie kontenerów z Chin. Obecny stan wydaje się w perspektywie średnioterminowej raczej niezagrożony, niezależnie od panujących napięć pomiędzy UE i Rosją. Nowym bardzo ambitnym projektem jest linia Rail Baltica, czyli planowana normalnotorowa linia zelektryfikowana (25 kV 50 Hz) biegnąca od granicy polsko-litewskiej przez Kowno (z pominięciem Wilna), Rygę i Tallinn, a także do Helsinek przez tunel pod Zatoką Fińską.
EN
Seaports in the Baltic States are connected to the railway network (1 520/1 524 mm), and after transformations of the economies of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia after 1991, have been quickly adapted to functioning in the market economy, and their ties with Europe were strengthened after accession of these countries to the European Union in 2004. Historically, these states were specific intermediaries between Russia and Europe in the field of trade, and now this trend, with some modifications, is still maintained. This is also due to the specificity of Russian and partly Belarusian exports, based on mass goods – coal, petroleum products, grain, fertilizers, in short, ideal loads for rail transport (goods of considerable weight, which are transported over long distances). The asset of the Baltic states is also the fact of geographical location with respect to Russia – on the Baltic coast, which is used to export bulk cargo from Russia, or containers from China. The current state seems unlikely in the medium term, regardless of the political turbulences between the EU and Russia. The new very ambitious project is the Rail Baltica line, a planned standard-gauge electrified line (25 kV 50 Hz) from the Polish-Lithuanian border through Kaunas (excluding Vilnius), Riga and Tallinn, and to Helsinki via the tunnel under the Gulf of Finland.
4
Content available remote Lithuania in European Union common security and defence policy context
EN
Objectives:EU Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) that encompasses 29 nations is gaining momentum. The aim of this study is to acknowledge ongoing developments in EU CSDP and define their impact for Lithuanian defence and security policy. Methods: Comparative scientific literature and document analysis method was used throughout this study. Article firstly reviews a path of EU CSDP developments, outlines roles and responsibilities of EU structures and examines current activities in CSDP framework with the focus to Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO). Second part is devoted to consider Lithuanian’s role in current EU CSDP context, to outline decisions that Lithuanian authorities made to implement new PESCO initiative. Results: Study reveals that: CSDP remains adaptive framework for EU; established procedures ensure CSDP is in compromise with all of nations; PESCO initiative signals positive outcomes while reinforcing idea of “EU Strategic autonomy”. Furthermore it was indentified that: approved National Security Strategy backs current EU initiatives; PESCO could provide flexible response options without duplicating NATO’s efforts; national participation in PESCO initiatives will enable improvements in cyber security and will enable rapid access for possible EU and NATO troops deployments; participation in PESCO negotiation phase reached given political aims to seek more extensive projects and position nation within core members of EU. Conclusions: Lithuanian policies’ shift for deeper engagement in CSDP is likely shaped by recognition that strategic trans-Atlantic partnership is not certain anymore, as well as UK role at post-Brexit period as 3rd party.
PL
Przedstawiono problemy związane z działaniem zabezpieczeń nadprądowych dławików kompensacyjnych, zainstalowanych w linii 400 kV Ełk Bis – Alytus.
EN
The principle of functioning of surcurrent compensating coils installed in 400 kV Ełk Bis – Alytus Line is presented in the article.
PL
Przedstawiono analizę wpływu połączenia polskiego systemu elektroenergetycznego z systemem Litwy na detekcję zakłóceń przez zabezpieczenia odległościowe linii 400 kV znajdujących się w najbliższym otoczeniu stacji Ełk Bis.
EN
Analysis of influence of Polish and Lithuania power systems integration on faults detection by distance protection of 400 kV transmission lines in the surroundings of Ełk Bis substation is presented.
7
Content available Komunikacja kolejowa pomiędzy Polską i Litwą
PL
Granica polsko-litewska w okresie ostatnich 25 lat ewoluowała od całkowicie zamkniętej do całkowicie otwartej, co jest spowodowane m.in. przynależnością obu krajów do UE oraz strefy Schengen. Dostępność unijnych funduszy pomocowych spowodowała, iż w Polsce i na Litwie rozpoczęto proces modernizacji infrastruktury, w tym kolejowej – liczne linie zostały zrewitalizowane lub zmodernizowane, pozyskano także nowoczesny tabor. Proces ten jest znacznie bardziej odczuwalny na Litwie niż w Polsce, z powodu nadrabiania przez północno-wschodniego sąsiada Polski znacznie większego zapóźnienia cywilizacyjnego. Przykładem jest tabor zachodniej produkcji na sieci LG, przed 1991 r. praktycznie nieobecny. Jednym z elementów łączących oba kraje będzie projektowana linia Rail Baltica, czyli linia normalnotorowa biegnąca z Berlina przez Warszawę, Białystok, Ełk, Suwałki, Kowno, Rygę do Tallina, i być może do Helsinek (wybudowano już odcinek od granicy z polsko-litewskiej do Kowna). I choć nie wszystkie plany kończą się sukcesem, np. niewielkie wykorzystanie potencjału przejścia granicznego Trakiszki– Mockava, to symbole przeszłości takie jak nienowoczesna seria M62 powoli odchodzą w niebyt.
EN
The Polish-Lithuanian border has evolved over the past 25 years from completely closed to fully opened, which is caused by membership of both countries to the EU and the Schengen zone. The availability of EU funds has led to the modernization of infrastructure in Poland and Lithuania, including railway lines - many of them have been revitalized or modernized, and modern rolling stock has been acquired. This process is much more advanced in Lithuania than in Poland, due to catching up by the North-Eastern neighbor of Poland considerably larger civilization lags. An example is the Western-built rolling stock used on the LG network now, before 1991 absent in fact. One of the elements connecting the two countries will be the proposed the Rail Baltica line - the normal gauge line from Berlin through Warsaw, Bialystok, Elk, Suwalki, Kaunas, Riga to Tallinn, and possibly to Helsinki (already a stretch from the Polish-Lithuanian border to Kaunas has been built). However, not all plans are successful, for example the lack of passenger communication between Warsaw and Vilnius, including the abandonment of the SUW 2000 system, or the limited use of the Trakiszki - Mockava border crossing point, but symbols of the past such as the mysterious M62 class are gradually removed from normal exploitation.
EN
In this research, variability of spring (from 1 March to 30 May) and flash (from 1 June to 30 November) floods in rivers of different regions was analysed. The territory of Lithuania is divided into three regions according to hydrological regime of the rivers: Western, Central, and Southeastern. The maximum river discharge data of spring and flash floods [a total of 31 water gauging stations (WGS)] were analysed. Comparison of the data of four periods (1922–2013, 1941–2013, 1961–2013, and 1991–2013) with the data of the reference period (1961–1990) was performed. Analysis included the longest discharge data set of the Nemunas River at Smalininkai WGS (1812–2013) as well. Mixed patterns of flood changes in Lithuanian rivers were detected. The analysis of flood discharges of the Nemunas River indicated that both spring and flash floods in Lithuania were getting smaller.
EN
The Gėluva regional stage stratigraphically corresponds to the late Wenlock. This time interval witnessed significant graptolite extinctions and turnovers of conodont faunas, as well as a large positive Mulde carbon isotopic excursion. Thus, the development of a detailed stratigraphy is a necessary step in understanding the complex patterns of regional and global variations in the sediments accumulating during the time interval studied. Therefore, in this contribution we present a cyclostratigraphic analysis of gamma ray (GR) logs from four wells, which are located in the deep water facies belt of the Lithuanian part of the Silurian Baltic Basin of the Gėluva regional stage. The analysis was performed using REDFIT spectral estimation, continuous wavelet transform and signal filtering techniques. As a result two 4th order and five 5th order cycles were distinguished and named in all sections. The correlation of cycles between sections was calibrated with the graptolite biozones. The comparative analysis revealed that intra-basinal cyclostratigraphic correlation could achieve resolution of the order of several tens of thousands of years.
EN
Lithuania is situated in a highly forested Northeastern Europe area and has a great variety of wooden buildings. Among the wooden structures we can enumerate the religious buildings, rich of historic values, presenting different shapes and sizes and also a complex design and stratified construction phases. The oldest wooden churches began to built in Lithuania in the 13th century. Currently, there are more than 600 existing wooden sacral buildings, which not yet have detailed studies about their constructive and structural aspects. The main objectives of the research are: – knowledge of the rituals, related to the building types and stylistics and architectural solutions which were adapted to the Lithuanian sacred architecture; – systematization of the all sacred Lithuanian wooden buildings, with a particular attention to a detailed study of the more significant examples; – systematization of the building types and design of a constructive techniques catalogue, useful to the future recovery and preservation of timber structures; – schedules of the technological solutions, implementation of analyzed wooden buildings, related to the damage mechanisms and detected failures; – architectural and constructive terms glossary (Italian-Lithuanian-English languages). The research project proceeds – according to the direct knowledge of the building and through the analysis of the actual conditions – to define a geometric – dimensional and constructive survey, the analysis of the constitutive geometries, the history of construction techniques, the analysis of the main failures and degradations, the retrieval of the literature of the churches and their construction techniques.
PL
Litwa położona jest na gęsto zalesionych terenach Europy Północno-Wschodniej, stąd bogactwo budownictwa drewnianego w tym kraju. Wśród budynków drewnianych wyróżniają się obiekty sakralne, o dużej wartości historycznej, różnorodnej formie i rozmiarach, złożonych projektach i wieloetapowej realizacji. Najstarsze kościoły drewniane zaczęto budować na Litwie w XIII wieku. Obecnie na terenie kraju znajduje się ponad 600 drewnianych obiektów sakralnych, których aspekty konstrukcyjne i strukturalne nie zostały jeszcze szczegółowo zbadane. Główne cele przedstawionych badań to: - poznanie tradycji i rytuałów związanych z typami budynków oraz rozwiązań stylistycznych i architektonicznych wykorzystywanych przy wznoszeniu obiektów sakralnych na Litwie; – usystematyzowanie wszystkich drewnianych obiektów sakralnych na Litwie oraz szczegółowe badania najważniejszych przykładów; – usystematyzowanie typów budynków oraz opracowanie katalogu technik budowlanych, przydatnego w przyszłych pracach konserwatorskich i rekonstrukcyjnych obiektów drewnianych; – rozwój i zmiany w stosowanych rozwiązaniach technologicznych, zachodzące na przestrzeni wieków, analiza obiektów drewnianych pod kątem mechanizmów zniszczenia i zidentyfi kowanych uszkodzeń; – opracowanie słownika zwrotów architektonicznych i konstrukcyjnych (w językach włoskim, litewskim i angielskim). W ramach projektu przeprowadzono analizę obiektów pod kątem ich geometrii, wymiarów, konstrukcji, geometrii elementów składowych, historii technik budowlanych, głównych uszkodzeń i degradacji drewna – na podstawie badań obiektów i ich rzeczywistych warunków, a także na podstawie znalezionej i zgromadzonej dokumentacji dotyczącej kościołów i technik zastosowanych do ich budowy.
12
Content available remote Ceramika pod szklanym niebem
14
Content available A methodology for flood risk appraisal in Lithuania
EN
This paper presents a methodology for flood risk mapping as envisaged by the Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks [Directive 2007/60/EC]. Specifically, we aimed at identifying the types of flood damage that can be estimated given data availability in Lithuania. Furthermore, we present the main sources of data and the associated cost functions. The methodology covers the following main types of flood threats: risk to inhabitants, risk to economic activity, and social risk. A multi-criteria framework for aggregation of different risks is proposed to provide a comprehensive appraisal of flood risk. On the basis of the proposed research, flood risk maps have been prepared for Lithuania. These maps are available for each type of flood risk (i.e. inhabitants, economic losses, social risk) as well as for aggregate risk. The results indicate that flood risk management is crucial for western and central Lithuania, whereas other parts of the country are not likely to suffer from significant losses due to flooding.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodologię mapowania ryzyka powodziowego zgodnie z zaleceniami Dyrektywy 2007/60/EC w sprawie oceny ryzyka powodziowego i zarządzania nim. Celem Autorów było w szczególności zidentyfikowanie typów szkód powodziowych, które można oszacować pod warunkiem dostępności danych na Litwie. Ponadto przedstawiono główne źródła danych i powiązane funkcje kosztów. Metodologia obejmuje następujące główne typy zagrożeń powodziowych: zagrożenia dla mieszkańców, zagrożenia dla działalności gospodarczej i zagrożenia społeczne. Zaproponowano wielokryterialne ramy do powiązania różnych rodzajów zagrożeń celem zapewnienia całościowej oceny ryzyka powodziowego. Na podstawie proponowanych badań sporządzono mapy zagrożenia powodziowego dla Litwy. Mapy te są dostępne dla każdego typu zagrożeń (tzn. mieszkańców, gospodarki i zagrożeń społecznych) i dla łącznego ryzyka. Wyniki dowodzą, że zarządzanie ryzykiem powodziowym ma zasadnicze znaczenie dla zachodniej i centralnej Litwy, inne obszary kraju nie powinny doznać istotnych strat w wyniku powodzi.
EN
The aim of this article is to assess critically institutional and policy arrangements for evaluation within Lithuanian public administration in order to manage the support of the European Structural Funds and the use of evaluation requirements of EU structural funds as a limited cased study. What has been changed in the administrative arrangements of EU Structural funds support during the two programming periods 2004-2006 and 2007-2013? A key research question is to assess administrative arrangements for evaluation within Lithuanian public administration in order to manage the support of the European Structural Funds and use of evaluation requirements of the EU structural funds as a limited case study to map how these arrangements are or are not developed, and isolating the key explanatory factors. Methodologically, we used semi-structured qualitative interviews and quantitative online surveys of officials, academics and evaluators. The research results show that isomorphism and donor-oriented evaluation dominates in the evaluation system of the EU Structural and Cohesion funds. Lithuania transfers the elements necessary for support evaluation to the public administration systems. From the intervention approach, supporting many programmes and projects, there is a change to the approach based on long-term planning, programming and consulting with the stakeholders. The current paper covers three significant topics (a) the evaluation of the EU Structural support to Lithuania; (b) the institutional and policy arrangements for evaluation within Lithuanian national government; (c) evaluation capacity for public policy evaluation within Lithuania. The research itself contributes to the spread of evaluation theory and practice in the new EU member states. State officials will be able to learn and compare the implementation of evaluation in other member states, what aims were reached, what the scope and significance of evaluation is dependent on evaluation coordination and system centralization-decentralization and what the influence of cultural aspects on evaluation implementation is. The evaluation community could learn about the differences of evaluation systems, possibilities and restrictions, the applied evaluation methods and means of evaluation quality management in order to work in a certain market.
EN
Investigations have been carried out in order to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental changes during the earliest Pleistocene interglacials and to establish their relation to global environmental changes. Three sections in east Lithuania exposing the earliest Pleistocene lacustrine deposits lying between the Kalviai (Glacial B, Nidanian?) and Dzūkija (Sanian 1) and between Dzūkija (Sanian 1) and Dainava (Sanian 2) glacial deposits were selected for study. Until now the Šlavė-2 and Vindžiūnai-136 successions were considered to have formed during the Vindžiūnai (Augustovian?, Malopolanian) Interglacial and the Kudrė-915 succession during the Turgeliai (Cromerian IV, Ferdynandovian) Interglacial. Geochemical, palaeomagnetic, magnetic susceptibility, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and palaeobotanical proxies were applied to establish the cyclicity and dynamics of palaeoenvironmental change. The data obtained enable the subdivision of the section into units related to changes in the sedimentary environment. The Matuyama/Brunhes boundary and Jaramillo subchron of the Matuyama chron have been recognized in the Šlavė section. The results enable correction of the stratigraphic position of the sections studied. The sedimentation in the Šlavė section took place during the Early Pleistocene, while that at the Vindžiūnai-136 and Kudrė-915 took place during two different Middle Pleistocene interglacials.
17
Content available Nowy tabor kolei litewskich
PL
W ciągu ostatnich kilku lat koleje litewskie (LG) dokonały znacznych zakupów nowoczesnego taboru - od lokomotyw spalinowych (towarowych i pasażerskich) po spalinowe i elektryczne zespoły trakcyjne oraz spalinowe wagony silnikowe. Wśród oferentów dominują producenci z krajów Unii Europejskiej (zwłaszcza z Niemiec), wypierając dotychczasowych dostawców (podmioty z b. ZSRR). Wśród nowych pojazdów zakupionych przez LG można także dostrzec polskie akcenty (bydgoską Pesę). LG są także przykładem racjonalnego korzystania z funduszy UE, które służą nie tylko do wymiany taboru, ale także do utrzymania i remontów infrastruktury. Można powiedzieć, iż spośród krajów bałtyckich, koleje Litwy prezentują najwyższy poziom techniczny czy organizacyjny, stając się przedmiotem podziwu sąsiadów.
18
Content available remote Spontaneous regeneration of rhododendron plants: first evidence from Lithuania
EN
The spontaneous seedlings of Rhododendron luteum Sweet and Rhododendron calendulaceum (Michx.) Torr., Rhododendron maximum L., and Rhododendron japonicum Suringer were documented in Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University in 2006. More seedlings of these four rhododendron species were observed in 2007, 2008 and 2009. In 2010, altogether with aforementioned species, seedlings of Rhododendron dauricum L., Rhododendron schlippenbachii Maxim. and Rhododendronminus Michx were observed. The assessment of climatic conditions suggests that the self-regeneration of rhododendron genus plants was possibly provoked by global climate change – warmer winters and increased amount of precipitation in summers.
EN
Two sections (Daumantai-1 and Daumantai-3) in East Lithuania expose Early-Middle Pleistocene lacustrine-alluvial, deposits which lie on a thin Neogene layer and on older Devonian rocks. They are overlain by glacigenic deposits. Geochemical, palaeomagnetic, magnetic susceptibility, plant macrofossil, and diatom investigations were performed to determine the changes in the sedimentary environment. Cluster analysis of the geochemical variables (10 major elements, 16 trace elements, total organic and inorganic carbon) revealed the element groups and factors. The lowermost units are characterized by a major influence of local material and significant fluctuations in heavy mineral content. These fluctuations might reflect short-term climate changes. The transitional units have more expressed trends, especially as regards the trace elements and Zr/Ti. The uppermost units are characterized by a slight influence of local material and small fluctuations in trace elements. The data analysed enable the subdivision of the section into units related to changes in sedimentary environment. The boundary of the Bruhnes/Matuyama reversal in the Daumantai-1 and Daumantai-3 sections was detected by palaeomagnetic studies and enables the stratigraphical correlation of these deposits.
EN
Abundant wood remains and buried trees have been found in the western part of Lithuania near Zakeliškiai and Lyduv?nai on Dubysa River (a tributary of Nemunas River) where deposits are rich in organic remnants and buried soils. In Zakeliškiai and Skiručiai sections of Dubysa River ox-bow sediments were investigated by various methods (dendrochronological, carbonate, granulometric, pollen and mollusc fauna analysis). In addition, these sections were dated using the radiocarbon method. Samples were collected from deposits of Dubysa River outcrops. The studied oxbow lakes have existed for more than 5 thousand years (from ca. 4300 BC to 1000 AD). During this period or-ganic rich deposits with trees and branches were formed in the oxbow lake. This indicates that at the end of Atlantic, during Subboreal and in the early Subatlantic periods there was a forest growing that contained mainly oaks which were falling down into an oxbow lake and later were covered by sandy and silty deposits. The granulometry of alluvial deposits, as well as the mixture of medium-grained sand and silt show different stages of Dubysa River palaeochannel formation: riverbed and oxbow lakes. Three climate warming cycles were revealed according to carbonate analysis data in all investi-gated sections. The rheophile thermophilous Holocene age molluscs species Bithynia tentaculata L., Unio cf. crassus Philipsson, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linnaeus) have been found. The pollen composition and sequences have been divided into five local pollen assemblage zones (LPAZ) and described according to pollen spectra in each zone. In this way it is possible restore palaeoclimatic coherent evolution, trends and cyclical change.
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