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EN
The combustion engine generates forced vibrations, caused by periodically acting external forces resulting from the combustion of the fuel-air mixture. Any changes in this process cause an increase in the value of vibration amplitude and a change in the distribution of harmonics dominating in the frequency domain. In order to identify selected malfunctions of the internal combustion engine of the Polaris off-road vehicle tested, its current parameters were correlated with the vibrations transmitted to the vehicle's structural elements. An integrated sensor for measuring acceleration using the direct method, made in MEMS technology, was used for the tests. The recorded signals of the acceleration components were subjected to analysis in the frequency domain, thus identifying the characteristic harmonic components in the analyzed spectrum. For the classification of incompleteness based on registered signals, a diagnostic inference matrix based on our own algorithm of conduct was used.
2
Content available General concept of the EMG controlled bionic hand
EN
The article presents a general concept of a bionic hand control system using multichannel EMG signal, being under development at present. The method of acquisition and processing of multi-channel EMG signal and feature extraction for machine learning were described. Moreover, the design of the control system implementation in the real-time embedded system was discussed.
EN
The aim of the study was to identify and compute oscillations in two different time series with similar amplitude variations using length of day data with tide model removed (LODR) and total solar irradiance (TSI) data. The combination of the Fourier transform band pass filter and Hilbert transform allows detecting amplitude variations as a function of the oscillation period. The amplitude variations in two different time series enable computation of frequency dependent or time-frequency correlation coefficients between them. It allows also identifying such oscillations in two time series which have similar amplitude variations. The method applied to LODR and TSI data, enable to detect a possible relationship between them. This comparison method can be applied to any time series which consist of oscillations with non-constant amplitudes.
PL
Zakres częstotliwości od 3 kHz do 149 kHz jest używany w Europie do wąskopasmowej transmisji PLC. W artykule przedstawiono sposób oraz urządzenie do pomiaru sygnałów prądowych w sieci energetycznej niskiego napięcia w tym paśmie częstotliwości, w celu wykrywania zakłóceń transmisji PLC. Urządzenie składa się z układu akwizycji danych pomiarowych w postaci próbek sygnałów prądowych oraz oprogramowania zainstalowanego w komputerze PC do analizy sygnałów. Jako sensor prądowy zastosowano prądowy przetwornik bezrdzeniowy, pracujący na zasadzie cewki Rogowskiego.
EN
The frequency range from 3 kHz to 149 kHz is used in Europe for narrow-band PLC communication. In the paper the method and system for measuring the current signals in low voltage power line network have been described in order to detect the interference of narrow-band PLC transmission. The system consists of a data acquisition device and a software application installed on a PC computer. As a sensor an air-core current transducer working on Rogowski coil principle has been used.
5
Content available remote Fourier Image Methods for Evolution Equations of Deep-Water Waves
EN
The velocity potential of the fluid satisfies the Laplace equation with nonlocal boundary conditions on a free surface. This differential problem is transformed to an evolution equation in Fourier variables. The Fourier transform images of boundary functions are approximated by Picard's iterations and the method of lines on meshes related to roots of Hermite polynomials. Due to convolutions of sine and cosine functions the integral terms of Picard's iterations reveal unexpected instabilities for wave numbers in a neighborhood of zero.
EN
It is convenient to analyse wireless channels and links by exploiting their input-output description. This approach relies on treating the system as a black box, whose behaviour can be fully described by the relationship between the input and output signals. In this paper, we study a relationship of the above type for linear wireless channels having time-dependent parameters, which also takes a multipath propagation environment into account. A starting point for the derivations presented here is a relationship derived in the literature for this type of model with the application of a single sinusoidal input signal. The subject of this paper is the generalization of that relationship for periodic input signals and then of non-periodic signals. To the best of our knowledge, the literature lacks a suitably convincing generalization. The derivations of this paper exploit a principle of superposition valid for linear systems as well as the relations existing between Fourier series and the Fourier integrals. The discussion is illustrated by the results of simulations performed with the help of the MATLAB program.
EN
Anomalous hollow beam has potential applications in the optical trapping and free space optical communications, etc. It is noted that, thus far, although a large number of studies have been carried out in this field, most of them are theoretical studies and only quite a few cases have experimental results. Here, we experimentally study the generating of anomalous hollow beam carrying orbital angular momentum, and measure its topological charge. We show that the number of dark rings in the Fourier transform of intensity patterns is equal to the topological charge. The experimental results agree well with the simulations.
EN
Selected parameters of an IC engine were correlated with vibrations transferred to the vehicle body with the aim of identifying engine malfunctions. Registered acceleration component signals were analyzed in the aspect of frequency. A reasoning model based on devised identification matrix was used to classify obtained data. This allowed the authors to estimate the possibility of research object damage/malfunctions with an assumed degree of probability.
9
Content available Sound Wave Radiation from Partially Lined Duct
EN
The radiation of sound waves from partially lined duct is treated by using the mode-matching method in conjunction with the Wiener-Hopf technique. The solution is obtained by modification of the Wiener-Hopf technique and involves an infinite series of unknowns which are determined from an infinite system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical solution of this system is obtained for various values of the problem parameters, whereby the effects of these parameters on the sound diffraction are studied. A perfect agreement is observed when the results of radiated field are compared numerically with a similar work existing in the literature.
10
Content available remote Composition of wavelet and Fourier transforms
EN
The paper presents the basic properties of the serial composition of two transformations: wavelet and Fourier. Two types of transformations were obtained because wavelet and Fourier transformations do not commute. The consequences of a phenomenon known as a "wavelet crime" are presented. Using wavelets with compact support in the frequency domain (e.g. Meyer wavelets) leads to the representation of signals as sparse matrices. Speech signals were used to test the presented transforms.
PL
W pracy przedstawione są podstawowe własności szeregowego złożenia dwóch transformacji: falkowej i Fouriera. Uzyskano dwa rodzaje transformacji ponieważ transformacje falkowe i Fouriera nie są przemienne. Przedstawione są konsekwencje zjawiska zwanego "przestępstwem falkowym". Zastosowanie falek ze zwartymi nośnikami w dziedzinie częstotliwości (np. falki Meyera) prowadzi do reprezentacji sygnałów w postaci macierzy rzadkich. Sygnały mowy zostały użyte do przetestowania przedstawionych transformacji.
PL
Zagadnienie sekwestracji CO2 w betonie w procesie karbonatyzacji nabiera w ostatnim czasie coraz większego znaczenia. Wynika to z faktu, iż coraz częściej zarówno konstrukcja, jak również zastosowane materiały są analizowane pod kątem ich całkowitego śladu węglowego. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań procesu karbonatyzacji betonu SCC C30/37 w formie gruzu betonowego frakcji 8 – 31,5 mm w komorze karbonatyzacyjnej przez okres 56, 112 i 168 dni. Próbki zostały poddane analizie spektrofotometrycznej FTIR (Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy). Następnie próbki badane przez 168 dni poddane zostały analizie termicznej TG/DTA (Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis) w celu określenia ilości zaabsorbowanego CO2. Otrzymane wyniki zostały odniesione do maksymalnej teoretycznej ilości zaabsorbowanego CO2 wg normy PN-EN 16757-07.
EN
Issue of CO2 sequestraion in the carbonation process has become a crucial problem. This is due the fact, that construction and applied materials are analyzed in the terems of their total carbon footprint. Resutls of research on carbonation of SCC (Self-Compacting Concrete) C30/37 in the form of concrete rubble, in fraction 8 – 31,5 mm, kept for 56, 112 and 168 days have been presented in the paper. Samples were investigated with FTIR (Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy) analysis. Next, samples kept for 168 days were analyzed with thermal analysis TG/DTA (Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis) to determine the amount of absorbed CO2. The obtained results were referred to the formula for the maximum theoretical CO2 uptake according to PN-EN 16757-07.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono podstawy rekursywnego wyznaczania dyskretnej transformaty Fouriera (ang. DFT – Digital Fourier Transform). Następnie zaproponowano uproszczoną wersję algorytmu, która umożliwia istotne oszczędności implementacyjne. Wobec ingerencji w matematyczny opis algorytmu, przeprowadzono testy funkcjonalne proponowanego podejścia. Wyniki referencyjne otrzymano za pomocą dwóch implementacji krótkookresowej transformaty Fouriera (ang. STFT – Short Time Fourier Transform). Przedstawiono zalety i ograniczenia metody oraz kierunki dalszych badań.
EN
Fundamentals of the iterative DFT (Digital Fourier Transform) computation are presented in the first part of this paper. Next, simplification of classic algorithm is proposed, which yields savings in hardware resources. As the mathematical description of algorithm is affected, functional tests of proposed approach were needed. Reference results were obtained with two implementations of STFT (Short Time Fourier Transform). Finally, advantages and limitations of proposed method are discussed and further research directions are delineated.
13
Content available Analysis of broadband antenna radiation pulses
EN
Electromagnetic energy can alter metabolic and biosynthetic processes and under certain parameters of pulsed EMF it can change pulse repetition frequency, operation cycle, power, exposure, as well as it can slow down and inhibit cell growth. MW irradiation range of RNA and DNA - containing virus reduces their infectivity. Inhibition of bacterial cultures growth, changes in phagocytic activity of protein biosynthesis, ultrastructural changes in the cells when exposed to EMF EHF. It was found in experiments with micro-organisms that biological effects of EMF on microorganisms wore a resonant character. One of the basic mechanisms of inhibitory action of EHF radiation on harmful microorganisms is the role of membranes in biological reactions of microorganisms on the EMR.
PL
Energia elektromagnetyczna może zmieniać procesy metaboliczne i biosyntezy oraz w pewnych parametrach pulsacyjnego pola elektromagnetycznego - częstość powtórzeń impulsu, cykl pracy, moc, ekspozycję, spowolnić i hamować wzrost komórkowy. Napromieniowanie w zakresie milimetrów RNA i DNA zawierających wirus prowadzi do zmniejszenia ich zakaźności. Hamowanie wzrostu bakteryjnych kultur, zmian aktywności fagocytowej, biosyntez białka, ultrastrukturalnych zmian w komórkach pod wpływem EMF w zakresie ultra-wysokiej częstotliwości. W eksperymentach z mikroorganizmami ustalono, że biologiczny wpływ działania pól elektromagnetycznych na mikroorganizmy był rezonansowy. Jednym z głównych mechanizmów hamowania promieniowania ultra-wysokiej częstotliwości na szkodliwe mikroorganizmy jest rola błon biologicznych w reakcjach mikroorganizmów na EMF. Istotne znaczenie mają zjawiska elektryczne występujące w biomembranach.
PL
Transformacja Fouriera jest fundamentalną metodą dekompozycji sygnałów, w tym przebiegów czasowych prądów lub napięć. Reprezentacja częstotliwościowa tych wielkości fizycznych, określonych w układzie trójfazowym, realizowana jest zwykle niezależnie dla każdej fazy. Istotnym ograniczeniem takiej metody jest brak bezpośredniej informacji o rodzaju asymetrii poszczególnych składowych harmonicznych. Asymetria prądów lub napięć określana jest przy zastosowaniu przekształcenia Fortescue, w odniesieniu jedynie do podstawowych harmonicznych tych wielkości. Asymetria wyższych harmonicznych jest więc pomijana. W artykule przedstawiono dwie metody reprezentacji częstotliwościowej wielkości fizycznych układu trójfazowego, zapewniające pełną informację zarówno o odkształceniach harmonicznych jak i niesymetrii, przy zastosowaniu przekształ- ceń, odpowiednio, Clarke i rozszerzonego Fortescue. Pokazano równoważność obydwu metod.
EN
Fourier transform is a fundamental method of signal decomposition, including transients of currents and voltages. Spectra of 3-phase quantities are usual independent for all the phases. The drawback of this method is that it doesn’t explicitly show the kind of asymmetry of particular harmonics. Asymmetry is usually defined in practice with Fortescue transform, regarding only fundamental harmonics, thus asymmetry of remaining harmonics is neglected. The paper presents two methods of frequency representation of 3-phase system quantities, which provides complete and explicit information both about harmonic distortion and asymmetry. The methods utilize, respectively, Clarke, and Fortescue transformations. There is also shown the equivalency of both methods.
15
Content available Analysis of Synchrophasor Estimatioo Errors
EN
This papers discusses the analytical analysis of the syochrophasor estimation employed in electrical systems. Short time Fourier trsnsform with the phase locked loop and Taylor Fourier series are analyzed for signals relating to different states which may occor in real power systems. The object is the accurate phasor estimation regardless of the shape of input signal, what for some signal types is cumbersome. As a result of active and reactive power disturbance in a power system, the frequency deviation and amplitude fluctuations may appear in power system signals. As a consequences of short circuits or overvoltages signal changes occur. Ibis leads to unacceptable errors in short time Fourier transform resulting from Fourier transform properties. This paper presents character of occurring errors and their consequences individually for any signal deviation.
EN
This paper reviews two techniques that have been recently published for three-dimensional profilometry and proposes one shot profilometry using iterative two-step temporal phase-unwrapping by combining the composite fringe projection and the iterative two-step temporal phase unwrapping algorithm. In temporal phase unwrapping, many images with different frequency fringe pattern are needed to project, which would take much time. In order to solve this problem, Ochoa proposed a phase unwrapping algorithm based on phase partitions using a composite fringe. However, we found that the fringe order determined through the construction of phase partitions tended to be imprecise. Recently, we proposed an iterative two-step temporal phase unwrapping algorithm, which can achieve high sensitivity and high precision shape measurement. But it needs multiple frames of fringe images which would take much time. In order to take into account both the speed and accuracy of three-dimensional shape measurement, we get a new, and more accurate unwrapping method based on a composite fringe pattern by combining these two techniques. This method not only retains the speed advantage of Ochoa’s algorithm, but also greatly improves its measurement accuracy. Finally, the experimental evaluation is conducted to prove the validity of the proposed method.
EN
In order to completely eliminate, or greatly reduce the number of phase wraps in 2D wrapped phase map, Gdeisat and co-workers proposed an algorithm, which uses shifting the spectrum towards the origin. But the spectrum can be shifted only by an integer number, meaning that the phase wraps reduction is often not optimal. In addition, Gdeisat’s method will take much time to make the Fourier transform, inverse Fourier transform, select and shift the spectral components. In view of the above problems, we proposed an improved method for phase wraps elimination or reduction. First, the wrapped phase map is padded with zeros, the carrier frequency of the projected fringe is determined by high resolution, which can be used as the moving distance of the spectrum. And then realize frequency shift in spatial domain. So it not only can enable the spectrum to be shifted by a rational number when the carrier frequency is not an integer number, but also reduce the execution time. Finally, the experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method is feasible.
EN
In this paper, the authors present an introduction to the new method of evaluating the indicator diagram of internal combustion engine. For several years, it was observed that analyses of combustion processes have been hardly changed since they were conducted for the first time. At the moment, the diagrams are plotted more and more precisely owing to the new sensors and digital processors. Despite all of these high technical advantages, which were obviously unavailable in the past, theoretical approach for describing indicator diagram has not changed in significant way. Nowadays, the indicator diagrams are still evaluated very generally and are presented in much too idealistic way as a smooth curve of pressure changes, without any disturbances, which are being detected very easily now. Furthermore, it appears that performance improvements of the IC engines are in need of developing new methods for analysis and evaluation. The Fourier transform is a new way to look at the combustion process in the engines. It is basically a mathematical instrument for analysing different types of signals, which are transformed, from time domain into frequency domain. It enables identifying specific sinusoidal components of arbitrary signals and separates relevant ones from the noise. This allows one to see significant differences in two or more apparently similar signals and detect the crucial parts. If we treat pressure changes in time like a common signal, we can compute Fourier transform and see basic components of the diagram.
EN
The time-fractional heat conduction equation with heat absorption proportional to temperature is considered in the case of central symmetry. The fundamental solutions to the Cauchy problem and to the source problem are obtained using the integral transform technique. The numerical results are presented graphically.
EN
The α-order fractional derivative of the Dirichlet η function is computed in order to investigate the behavior of the fractional derivative of the Riemann zeta function ζ(α) on the critical strip. The convergence of η(α) is studied. In particular, its half-plane of convergence gives the possibility to better understand the ζ(α) and its critical strip. As an application, two signal processing networks, corresponding to η(α) and to its Fourier transform respectively, are shortly described.
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