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1
Content available Sea transportation of coal liable to liquefaction
EN
The marine industry is a vital link in the international trade, with vessels representing the most efficient, and often the only method of transporting large volumes of raw materials. Coal is a major cargo with hundreds of millions of tons being shipped every year for power consumption and industrial uses. The vast majority of coal traded is delivered by sea. The IMSBC Code specifies requirements related to the safe stowage and shipment of coal that may give rise to relevant on-board risks, for example structural damage due to improper coal distribution, chemical reaction leading to spontaneous combustion, emission of explosive gases and liquefaction. As coal is liable to liquefaction, several precautions should be taken before accepting the cargo for shipment and procedures for safe loading and carriage should be respected. According to the analysis of the data, the proportion of fines in the cargoes shipped worldwide has been accepted as an appropriate criterion to identify the potential of a coal cargo for liquefaction. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of coal properties on the ability to liquefy. The relation between the degree of fragmentation and the value of the TML was analyzed. In addition, the possibility of using different method for determination of the TML was discussed.
EN
The terminology and conceptual apparatus of modern logistics as a scientific discipline is far from being shaped. Researches and developers of legislative and norm-setting documents are obliged to use their own or barrowed terminology, in both case not shared ubiquitously. Consequently, the interpretations even of basic concepts differ significantly. In particular, there exists an academic and practical point of view that refuse the right for existence of the term “transportation logistics”. This clause is explained by the proclaimed omnipresence and universality of logistics, which has in its operational glossary the term “transportation”, treated as a local, subordinated and thus secondary function. This paper tries to set a decisive rule to distinguish between general logistics and transportation logistics, arguing that these two disciplines are well separated by the objects and methodology, knowledge and activities. In transportation logistics defined this way the authors examine two principal components of the transportation processes, storage (warehousing) and movement (shipping). This consideration lead to conclusions that the classical mathematical toolkit is not fitted for the design and management of modern global supply chains.
EN
This article discusses safety and economic issues of sea transport during transit voyages of a vessel across the North Sea Route (NSR) in the Arctic Ocean. The main obstacles to shipping and threat to vessels are the regions of ice occurrence and, in particular, clusters of ice with high and very high concentration, thickness and hummocking occurring each year in the same places, which are called ice massifs. Speed of vessels has the greatest impact on the economy of transit voyage. The safe speed of vessels, as a means of transport that ensures trouble-free navigation of the vessels depends on ice conditions. Until now, the concept of safe speed has not been precisely defined. Also, the impact of speed of the vessel in certain ice conditions on over-coming the ice and the risk of damage to vessel has not been precisely defined. Issues of direct and potential costs of vessel’s safety, damages and consequences of damages in ice were also not fully considered. The author analyzed the above relation-ships on the example of the first commercial vessel transit voyage through the NSR and obtained generalized results that can be applied to the initial, general and tactical route planning till 10 days - 6 months ahead and transit schedule of a vessel between Europe and the Far East ports via the Northern Sea Route. The presented method should increase safety and economy of sea transportation in areas covered with ice.
PL
W artykule omówiono zagadnienia bezpieczeństwa i ekonomiczne transportu morskiego podczas podróży tranzytowych statku przez Północną Drogę Morską (PDM) na Oceanie Arktycznym. Głównym utrudnieniem dla żeglugi i zagrożeniem dla statków są na niej rejony występowania lodu a w szczególności skupiska lodu o dużej i bardzo dużej zwartości, grubości i zwałowaniu, występujące każdego roku w tych samych miejscach, które są nazywane masywami lodowymi. Największy wpływ na ekonomiczność podróży tranzytowych stanowi prędkość statku. Bezpieczna prędkość statku, jako środka transportu, która zapewni bezawaryjną jego nawigację zależy od warunków lodowych. Do chwili obecnej pojęcie prędkości bezpiecznej nie zostało precyzyjnie określone. Również wpływ prędkości statku w określonych warunkach żeglugi lodowej na utrudnienie żeglugi i zagrożenie uszkodzeniami statku nie zostały precyzyjnie ustalone. Nie były rozpatrywane również kwestie bezpośrednich i potencjalnych kosztów zagrożenia bezpieczeństwa statku w lodach. Autor przeanalizował powyższe zależności na przykładzie przypadku pierwszej komercyjnej podróży tranzytowej statku przez PDM i uzyskał uogólnione wyniki, które mogą być zastosowane do wstępnego, generalnego i taktycznego planowania trasy i harmonogramu podróży tranzytowej statku pomiędzy Europą i portami Dalekiego Wschodu przez Północną Drogę Morską. Przedstawiona metoda powinna zwiększyć bezpieczeństwo i ekonomiczność transportu morskiego w rejonach pokrytych lodem.
EN
Propensity of cargoes to self-heating is determined by many factors which can be divided into two main types - properties of the cargo and environment/storage conditions. Some agricultural products are susceptible to self-heating which can cause many serious problems during handling, storage and sea transportation of such commodities. Palm kernel shells (PKS) have been shipped in bulk since 2007 but they are not a currently listed cargo in the IMSBC. PKS are a natural by-product of palm oil processing and differ materially from the palm kernel expellers currently regulated by the IMSBC Code. However, their specific characteristics and negative external influences may cause them to behave like a substance from Class 4.2 (Substances liable to spontaneous combustion) or MHB cargo. Due to the importance of spontaneous combustion, particularly with respect to the storage and sea transportation of PKS, an investigation has been conducted.
5
Content available remote Modelling of Traffic Incidents in Transport
EN
Safety is one of the most important criteria for assessing the transport process. The traffic process in available traffic space are partly organized and planned. However, these plans are subject to numerous disturbances of probabilistic nature. These disturbances, contribute to the commission of errors by the operators of vehicles and traffic managers. They lead to traffic incidents, which under certain circumstances may transform into accidents. In the paper the method of modelling traffic incidents, using different types of Petri nets is presented. Example of the serious air traffic incident shows the opportunities offered by the application of this modelling tech-nique. In addition, the possibility of its use in maritime transport, for example, modelling of traffic at the wa-terways intersection is presented.
EN
The influence has the system of the exchange on enlargement of the efficiency of the work trans-shipping land terminal and processing information, which in he will improve the processes of the flow of the individuals of the intermodal transportation which was presented in the figure of algorithms more con-siderably to the measure. The algorithmization makes possible execution mathematical analyses, as also the influence has on the quality of the executed processes of the flow of the stream of the individuals of inter-modal transportation in the trans-shipping land terminal.
7
Content available remote Maritime Transport Single Windows: Issues and Prospects
EN
In the trade, transport and shipping sector, the Single Window (SW) concept has been evolved over time in a number of forms, reflecting respective policy, regulatory, market and technological regimes of the domain. A SW primarily addresses the need for efficient electronic transactions between governmental and business entities; however the SW service model adopted by the responsible authority and the offered SW system functionality differ; currently at least two distinct approaches are observed, namely a customs-centric SW approach, and a maritime and port centric approach. In all respective cases, the SW service model, the SW ownership model (public, private or Private-Public-Partnership), legal and regulatory aspects and the SW revenue model (free or with a fee) consist pertinent SW service design issues. Thus, different types of SW systems evolve in terms of offered service bundle, namely ship clearance, cargo import/export, or port clear-ance SWs, where often vested interests and policy choices dictate the dominance of one model implementation over the other. Modern ICT tools may significantly help to organize and improve the efficiency of a SW design and implementation process. In this paper, admissible development frameworks and methodologies are examined towards the efficient implementation of SW service models that are explained. Our analysis is based on experiences gained in the Norwegian SW national initiative (http://www.sintef.no/Projectweb/MIS/) and the EU eFreight project (http://www.efreightproject.eu/).
8
Content available remote Regulacje techniczne i operacyjne w transporcie morskim
PL
Znaczenie transportu morskiego na świecie i rola Międzynarodowej Organizacji Morskiej. Próba ogólnego zdefiniowania współczesnych statków morskich, ich typy konstrukcyjne i eksploatacyjne. Analiza regulacji technicznych i operacyjnych na przykładzie konkretnych rozwiązań z zakresu konstrukcji statków pasażerskich, ro-ro, masowców i zbiornikowców oraz dodatkowego wyposażenia jednostek pływających.
EN
Importance of the sea transportation on the world and the role of the International Maritime Organization. Attempt of general defining of the contemporary sea boats, their structural and operating types. Analysis of technical and operating regulations on the example of the concrete solutions in the scope of passenger ships construction, ro-ro, bulk carriers, tankers as well as the additional equipment of water crafts.
EN
Gas carried on LNG carriers is liquefaction gas at ambient pressure and temperature minus 163 C degree is subject to boil - off and cause increase in pressure. This phenomenon makes danger of explosion. The simplest possibility to circumvent the foresail event is to release - liquefied gas to atmosphere. However, the mentioned way causes losses of cargo and air pollution. Method that is more rational is to use boil - offfuel gas as propulsion energy in dual fuel engines. This paper describes exploitation costing of main propulsion on LNG carriers trying to find out the best solution. There are presented fuel gas supply systems as well various types of engines driven by fuel gas. Moreover, author presents further design development of main propulsions of LNG carriers. In the case of cryogenic tankers intensive interest in their purchase is observed. In orders portfolio for the next several years the ships with steam turbine power plant dominate. Is this related with the large exploitation experiences: with possibility of combustion of both vaporized gas (BOF) and heavy fuel in the boilers and with the possibilities of steam utilization to heating means, including liquid fuel gasification. The possibility of the exploitation of a new kind gas ship called LNGRV (RV- regasification vessel) is poised since, which in the large distance from the shore carries out LNG gasification and through several days' forces gas to the undersea pipeline. However steam turbine propulsion is characterized by lowest efficiency, among of thermal engines. Whereas thermal efficiency of COGES system is presently higher considering growing power of steam turbines in the system jointed thermodynamically with gas turbines.
PL
Przewożony statkami naturalny gaz w postaci skroplonej, przy ciśnieniu atmosferycznym i temperaturze - 163oC, na skutek niedoskonałej izolacji ulega odparowaniu, powodując wzrost ciśnienia i stwarzając tym samym zagrożenie eksplozji. Celem uniknięcia zagrożenia wypadku, najprostszym sposobem obniżenia ciśnienia w zbiorniku jest usunięcie do atmosfery odparowanej części gazu, jednak wiąże się to ze znacznymi stratami oraz jest sprzeczne z wymogami ochrony środowiska. Innym, bardziej racjonalnym sposobem jest wykorzystanie tego gazu jako energii w silnikach napędu głównego, którymi mogą być dwupaliwowe silniki tłokowe. Niniejsza praca jest próbą analizy różnych rozwiązań, obejmujących silniki średnio- i wolnoobrotowe, zmierzającą do wyboru najbardziej dogodnego pod względem ekonomicznym. Zawiera opisy instalacji paliwowych obsługujących różne typy silników napędu głównego w tym zasilanych gazem, ponadto przedstawia oferty różnych producentów tych silników. Autor pokazuje tendencje rozwojowe dotyczące projektowania nowoczesnych gazowców typy LNG. W przypadku zbiornikowców kriogenicznych obserwuje się wzmożone zainteresowanie ich zakupem. W portfelu zamówień na najbliższe lata dominują statki z napędem turbiną parową. Jest to związane z dużymi doświadczeniami eksploatacyjnymi: możliwością spalania zarówno odparowanego gazu (BOF) jak i paliwa ciężkiego w kotłach oraz możliwościami wykorzystania pary do celów grzewczych, w tym regazyfikacji. Rozważana jest bowiem możliwość eksploatacji nowego rodzaju gazowca nazywanego LNGRV (ang. RV - regasification vessel), który w dużej odległości od brzegu dokonuje regazyfikacji LNG i przez kilkanaście dni wtłacza gaz do podmorskiego rurociągu. Jednak napęd turbiną parową charakteryzuje się najniższą, spośród silników cieplnych sprawnością. Natomiast sprawność cieplna systemu COGES jest obecnie wyższa ze względu na rosnącą moc turbin parowych w układzie skojarzonym termodynamicznie z turbinami gazowymi.
10
Content available remote The IMO instruments for ensure safety transportation of dangerous goods
EN
International Maritime Organization and Governments should have the possibility to establish permanent arrangements in order to ensure the safe transportation of dangerous goods. The successful application of regulations concerning the transport of dangerous goods is greatly depend on the appreciation by all persons concerneds of the risks involved and on a detailed understanding of the regulations.
11
Content available remote Safety and environmental concern analysis for LNG carriers
EN
The main attempt of this study is to overview and to discuss occupational safety and environmental conciseness for the transportation of LNG with gas carriers. LNG is transported by a fleet of 157 LNG tankers of varying sizes from 18,500 m3 to 140,000 m3. This study investigates the technological development and innovation in LNG transportation while considering safety and environmental standards and regulations for LNG shipping. It is also originally contributing the process safety for decision making process for the MET institutions while planning the further needs of LNG industry during the planning of their related curricula. The further research activities could also be concentrated on quantitative risk evaluations of LNG equipment, based on risk maintenance and reliability concepts.
12
Content available remote On ship systems multi-state safety analysis
EN
A multi-state approach to defining basic notions of the system safety analysis is proposed. A system safety function and a system risk function are defined. A basic safety structure of a multi-state series system of components with degrading safety states is defined. For this system the multi-state safety function is determined. The proposed approach is applied to the evaluation of a safety function, a risk function and other safety characteristics of a ship system composed of a number of subsystems having an essential influence on the ship safety. Further, a semi-markov process for the considered system operation modelling is applied. The paper also offers an approach to the solution of a practically important problem of linking the multi-state system safety model and its operation process model. Finally, the proposed approach is applied to the preliminary evaluation of safety characteristics of a ship system in varying operation conditions.
EN
Particularly sensitive sea areas (PSSAs) are areas of the seas and oceans that need special protection because of their ecological, economic, cultural or scientific significance and their vulnerability to harmful impacts from international shipping activities. When an area is approved as a PSSA, specific measures can be used to control the maritime activities in that area to improve maritime safety. In December 2005, the 24th session of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Assembly approved the proposed measures and the Baltic Sea will have the new status as of 1 July 2006. This paper presents the environmental situation in the Baltic Sea and what implications the PSSA designation may have on the Baltic environment in the future.
EN
Gas carried on LNG carriers is liquefaction gas at ambient pressure and temperature minus 163oC degree is subject to boil-off and causing increase in pressure. This phenomenon makes danger of explosion. The simplest possibility to circumvent the foresaid event is to release-liquefied gas to atmosphere. However, the mentioned way causes losses of cargo and air pollution. There is an option to re-condensate gas again nevertheless to do it extra energy is required. Method that is more rational is to use boil-off fuel gas as propulsion energy in diesel engines, gas and steam turbines. This paper describes exploitation costing of main propulsion on LNG carriers trying to find out the best solution. There are presented fuel gas supply system as well various type of engine driven by fuel gas. Moreover, author presents further design development of LNG carriers. Possibilities of cost reduction related to boil-off fuel gas, the Moss RS standard setup for gas reliquefaction system, example of dual fuel diesel engines and electric propulsion, basic design concept for two compressor units 100% type 6LP250-5S1, diagram of COGES system, thermal efficiencies for the different propulsion options, technical data of some present dual-fuel engines, as well two-stroke propulsion recommendations for LNG carriers are illustrated in the paper.
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