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EN
The reed bed system is one types of phytoremediation technology for removing pollutants from the environment. This technology provides an environmentally friendly approach to treating contamination with competitive cost, compared to the physico-chemical treatment. The design of reed bed system is highly important in order to achieve the highest pollutant removal efficiency. The design of reed bed system affects the natural oxygen transfer from the environment. The reed bed system was proven to have a good efficiency in removing Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Dissolve Solid (TDS), Total Nitrogen (TN) and a number of bacteria. In addition to the oxygen transfer from the environment, the interaction among pollutant-plants-medium-microbes also plays a vital role in the removal of pollutant using the reed bed system. It was suggested that the future related research should accommodate the importance of several environmental conditions to the interaction between pollutant, plants, medium and microbes as well as the impact of those interactions on the pollutant removal efficiency.
EN
Immersive technologies, like Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality (MR) have undergone technical evolutions over the last few decades. Their rapid development and dynamic changes enable their effective applications in medicine, in fields like imaging, preprocedural planning, treatment, operations planning, medical students training, and active support during therapeutic and rehabilitation procedures. Within this paper, a comprehensive analysis of VR/ AR/MR application in the medical industry and education is presented. We overview and discuss our previous experience with AR/MR and 3D visual environment and MR-based imaging systems in cardiology and interventional cardiology. Our research shows that using immersive technologies users can not only visualize the heart and its structure but also obtain quantitative feedback on their location. The MR-based imaging system proposed offers better visualization to interventionists and potentially helps users understand complex operational cases. The results obtained suggest that technology using VR/AR/MR can be successfully used in the teaching process of future doctors, both in aspects related to anatomy and clinical classes. Moreover, the system proposed provides a unique opportunity to break the boundaries, interact in the learning process, and exchange experiences inside the medical community.
EN
This paper includes the behaviour of RC column, using the steel strength data employed by Rafi et al. (2014). Eccentric short columns are studied for this purpose, both tension and compression controlled sections, are analysed considering the current design practice of Pakistan. Three cross sections were analysed using different steel percentages against load-moment interaction and the strength analyses. Concrete strength is also varied in this analysis. The load moment interaction diagrams were observed in major and minor axes and strength analysis is made for compression controlled and tension controlled sections. In this analysis it is observed that a section designed as a tension controlled is giving brittle failure at certain limit which should be avoided. Considering this scenario, several random cross sections are analysed, strength reduction factors for eccentric and pure axial columns are computed. Conclusions are made on behalf of this analysis for different types of column design.
EN
This paper includes the behaviour of RC column, using the steel strength data employed by Rafi et al. (2014). Eccentric short columns are studied for this purpose, both tension and compression controlled sections, are analysed considering the current design practice of Pakistan. Three cross sections were analysed using different steel percentages against load-moment interaction and the strength analyses. Concrete strength is also varied in this analysis. The load moment interaction diagrams were observed in major and minor axes and strength analysis is made for compression controlled and tension controlled sections. In this analysis it is observed that a section designed as a tension controlled is giving brittle failure at certain limit which should be avoided. Considering this scenario, several random cross sections are analysed, strength reduction factors for eccentric and pure axial columns are computed. Conclusions are made on behalf of this analysis for different types of column design.
PL
Wytyczne dla decyzji planistycznych powinny wykorzystywać analizy uwarunkowań przyrodniczych wykonywanych w opracowaniu ekofizjograficznym. Kluczowym etapem transparentnej analizy jest synteza wyników, pozwalająca na przejście od analizy danych do formułowania wniosków. Przy wykorzystaniu analiz wielokryterialnych etap ten związany jest z właściwym doborem funkcji agregującej. Najczęściej stosowanym podejściem jest liniowa suma ważona. Jednak zastosowanie liniowej, addytywnej funkcji agregującej nie zawsze jest właściwe. Nie pozwala na uwzględnienie interakcji między kryteriami. W artykule omówiono własności wybranych funkcji agregujących oraz opracowano analizę wielokryterialną możliwości infiltracji wód opadowych do gruntu. Badania przeprowadzono na obszarze miasta Starachowice. Wyniki potwierdziły rozważania teoretyczne. Zastosowanie funkcji agregującej, uwzględniającej interakcje między kryteriami, dostarczyło bardziej wiarygodne wyniki niż zastosowanie liniowej sumy ważonej.
EN
Planning decisions should be based on analyses of natural conditions performed as eco-physiographic studies. The key step in the transparent analysis is the synthesis of results, allowing the transition from data analysis to formulation of conclusions. When using multi-criteria analyses, this stage is related to the selection of the proper aggregation function. The most commonly used approach is a linear weighted sum. However, the use of an additive aggregation function is not always appropriate. It does not allow taking into account the interaction between criteria. The paper discusses the properties of selected aggregation functions. The multi-criteria analysis of possibilities of the rainwater infiltration into the ground was developed. Research works have been carried out in the area of the city of Starachowice. The results confirmed theoretical considerations. The use of an aggregate function that considers interactions between criteria provided more reliable results than the use of a linear weighted sum.
6
Content available remote Analiza interakcji w układach hybrydowych MIDC
PL
Celem niniejszego artykułu było opracowanie modelu symulacyjnego układu HMIDC (Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC) oraz analiza interakcji układów HVDC różnej topologii (LCC oraz VSC). W ramach pracy przeprowadzono badania symulacyjne, z zakresu stanów nieustalonych wywołanych zwarciami, w oparciu o układ testowy HMIDC. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono, że układy VSC mogą zarówno korzystnie, jak i niekorzystnie wpływać na pracę sąsiadującego układu LCC, w zależności od rodzaju zakłócenia.
EN
The goal of this article was to develop a simulation model of the HMIDC system (Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC) and study of the interaction between HVDC systems with different topologies (LCC and VSC). As part of the work, simulation tests were conducted in the field of transient states caused by short-circuits, based on the HMIDC test system. Based on the conducted tests, it was found that VSC systems can both favorably and adversely affect the operation of the neighboring LCC system, depending on the type of disturbance.
EN
The paper presents the results of computational evaluation of the hull-propeller interaction coefficients, also referred to propulsive coefficients, based on the unsteady RANS flow model. To obtain the propulsive coefficients, the ship resistance, the open-water characteristics of the propeller, and the flow past the hull with working propeller were computed. For numerical evaluation of propeller open-water characteristics, the rotating reference frame approach was used, while for self-propulsion simulation, the rigid body motion method was applied. The rotating propeller was modelled with the sliding mesh technique. The dynamic sinkage and trim of the vessel were considered. The free surface effects were included by employing the volume of fluid method (VOF) for multi-phase flows. The self-propulsion point was obtained by performing two runs at constant speed with different revolutions. The well-known Japan Bulk Carrier (JBC) test cases were used to verify and validate the accuracy of the case studies. The solver used in the study was the commercial package Star-CCM+ from SIEMENS.
8
EN
Selected examples of using in-line ATR FTIR technique to control the synthesis of coating materials and analyze the interactions of coating components and functional additives will be presented. React IR™ system (Mettler Toledo), composed of portable ATR FTR spectrometer, fiber conduit probe tipped with diamond sensor and software Processing the acquired spectroscopic data, was successfully applied for monitoring of real-time conversion of reactants during the addition of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and maleic acid, emulsion polymerization of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, synthesis of polyester resin for powder coatings by transesterification and study on the interaction of isophorone diisocyanate with hydrotalcite nanofiller.
PL
Zaprezentowane zostaną wybrane przykłady zastosowania techniki ATR FTIR in-line do kontroli syntezy materiałów powłokowych i analizy wzajemnego oddziaływania składników wyrobów lakierowych i dodatków funkcjonalnych. System React IR™ (Mettler Toledo), składający się z przenośnego spektrometru ATR FTIR, sondy światłowodowej zakończonej czujnikiem diamentowym i oprogramowania przetwarzającego uzyskane dane spektroskopowe, z powodzeniem zastosowano do monitorowania konwersji reagentów w czasie rzeczywistym podczas dodawania dicyklopentadienu (DCPD) i kwasu maleinowego, polimeryzacji emulsyjnej oktametylocyklotetrasiloksanu, syntezy żywicy poliestrowej do farb proszkowych przez transestryfikację i badania wzajemnego oddziaływania diizocyjanianu izoforonu z nanowypełniaczem w postaci hydrotalcytu.
9
Content available remote Role of EDDS and ZnO-nanoparticles in wheat exposed to TiO2Ag-nanoparticles
EN
Nanotechnology is a manipulation of nature that has emerged through the use of basic sciences, material science and engineering at the nano-scale. The interaction between biological environment and nanoparticles -nanoparticles or nanoparticles-organic materials is not yet well-understood. The toxic effects of nanoparticles on plants were investigated and it was proved that they caused morphological and physiological changes in plants. This study aimed to determine the effects of TiO2Ag nanoparticles alone, co-application of ZnO nanoparticles -TiO2Ag nanoparticles, and co-application of EDDS-TiO2Ag nanoparticles on seed germination, seedling vigor, radicle and plumule elongation of two different wheat species. In the experimental stage, ten seeds were placed in petri-dishes with a double layer of fi lter paper which was used as an inert material. Then 5 mL of TiO2Ag, ZnO+TiO2Ag, and EDDS+TiO2Ag suspensions were added to every petri dish. Results showed that the maximum SVI was determined at the concentration of 50 mg·L-1 TiO2Ag±EDDS for bread wheat and the minimum SVI was observed at 100 mg·L-1 TiO2Ag nanoparticles concentration for durum wheat. The effect of both nanoparticles -nanoparticles interaction and the other chemicals-nanoparticles interaction on the ecosystems should be evaluated.
EN
The paper presents methods for analyzing the impact of stray currents generated by DC electric traction on nearby earth-return circuits (pipelines). Various simulation models were developed and compared. First the current and potential of the rail were determined using two models. A model with distributed parameters and a model with lumped parameters consisting of chain-connected two-ports of the π type, for which the potential values in the nodes and currents in the branches were determined using the node potential method. The results obtained were used to further analyze the interaction between the railway rail and the pipeline. The pipeline model is presented in the form of a chain connection of π type two-ports. To determine the impact of stray currents on the pipeline, an analysis of the electric field in its vicinity was carried out. For this purpose, two methods have been developed. First, the analysis of the distribution of the scalar potential in the ground for a rail section of finite length was performed. Second method required taking into account the mutual conductivity of the two circuits (rail and pipeline), which in connection with the knowledge of the leakage current from the rail made it possible to determine the potential of the tested pipeline (using controlled voltage sources). The paper presents the implementation of methods and a comparison of the results obtained. The usefulness and applicability of the developed models for the analysis of the impact of stray currents from DC electric traction on earth-return circuits were also assessed.
11
Content available Ecoenergetic cutting techniques
EN
The article discusses the relationship between energy quality technologies cutting and their environmental friendliness. Based on the energy analysis shows that energy consumption in the individual technological process is connected with the cutting power and power loss, which form the environmental indicators of the cutting process and reduce its energy efficiency. In addition, it is shown that at implementation of technological processes on the equipment, electrical systems are AC systems the implementation of the cutting process occurs when excessive consumption of currents. The article presents the results of studies on the energy efficiency of cutting processes, definition of the complex influence of cutting processes on the environment and humans, the formation of ways of improving environmental and energy performance quality of these processes.
EN
Purpose: The current study aimed to quantify the main influences and the interactions (joint effects) of gender, leg and type of target on the biomechanics of front kick quality. Through the quantification, we tried to identify the relevant factors related to the kick accuracy and maximum velocity for coaching practice. Methods: A ten-camera NIR VICON MX40 motion capture system (250 Hz) was used to determine the kicking foot maximum velocity from two well-trained subject groups (8 males and 6 females). Each subject performed both left and right front kicks in a lateral standing position into the air (without a physical target), to a board, to a table tennis ball and to a training shield. The target were set on a height corresponding to a height of solar plexus of each participant. Results: The results showed that all the three factors (gender, leg and type of target) have significant influences on kicking speed ( p < 0.001) and significant interaction (joint effect) was only found between gender and target ( p < 0.001). Further analysis revealed that the males’ kicking maximum velocity was affected more by board, while females’ one was affected by the size of the target. Conclusions: The results would seem to suggest that, for males, kick-to-a-board may be the more effective method for increasing kick quality, compared to other type of target. For females, kick-to-a-small-ball appears to be effective method for increasing kick maximum velocity.
EN
The paper presents the problem of interaction between an LCC HVDC system and a VSC HVDC system. It was shown that the separate operation of an LCC HVDC system under low short circuit power conditions is possible and that at this level of short circuit power it is possible to transfer the same active power through the VSC HVDC system operating in parallel, under the condition that the inverter of this connection operates in AC voltage regulation mode. On the other hand, in certain circumstances it is this mode that may cause the LCC system operating conditions to worsen, which indicates the need for a careful analysis of such cases in order to properly adjust the settings of the relevant control systems. It has been shown that the settings of the voltage regulation system and the PLL system under normal short circuit power conditions can improve the process of the LCC HVDC system returning to operation post-disturbance, while in the conditions of reduced short circuit power they make this process more difficult.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono problem interakcji pomiędzy układem LCC HVDC a VSC HVDC. Pokazano, że samodzielna praca układu LCC HVDC w warunkach niskiej mocy zwarciowej jest możliwa oraz że przy tym poziomie mocy zwarciowej możliwe jest dodatkowe wyprowadzenie takiej samej mocy czynnej przez równolegle pracujący układ VSC HVDC, pod warunkiem że falownik tego łącza będzie pracował w trybie regulacji napięcia AC. Z drugiej strony w określonych okolicznościach to właśnie ten tryb może być przyczyną pogorszenia warunków pracy układu LCC, co wskazuje na potrzebę dokładnej analizy takich przypadków w celu właściwego doboru nastaw odpowiednich układów regulacji. Pokazano bowiem, że nastawy układu regulacji napięcia i układu PLL w warunkach normalnej mocy zwarciowej potrafią usprawnić proces powrotu do pracy układu LCC HVDC po zakłóceniach, natomiast w warunkach obniżonej mocy zwarciowej ten proces utrudniają.
PL
Analiza wybranych zagadnień równoległej pracy dwóch układów przesyłowych prądu stałego (HVDC) o odmiennych technologiach, tj. układu tyrystorowego (LCC – Line Commutated Converter) i tranzystorowego (VSC – Voltage Source Converter) jest przedmiotem niniejszego referatu. Pokazano, że równoległa praca układów jest możliwa w warunkach niskiej mocy zwarciowej tam, gdzie sam układ LCC o równoważnej mocy nie mógłby pracować stabilnie w trybie regulacji mocy. Warunkiem jest praca falownika łącza VSC HVDC w trybie regulacji napięcia AC. Z drugiej strony w określonych okolicznościach to właśnie ten tryb może być przyczyną pogorszenia warunków pracy układu LCC, co wskazuje na potrzebę dokładnej analizy takich przypadków celem właściwego doboru nastaw odpowiednich układów regulacji.
EN
This paper describes the results of an analysis of selected problems in the parallel operation of two HVDC systems based on different technologies, namely Line Commutated Converter (LCC HVDC) and Voltage Source Converter (VSC HVDC). Using Maximum Power Curves (MPC) technique it is shown that the parallel operation of the two systems in low short circuit power conditions is possible where a single LCC HVDC scheme of equivalent rated power would fail to operate stably in constant power mode. However, the prerequisite for such operation is active AC voltage control offered by the VSC inverter. It is also shown that the positive influence of the VSC converter is noticeable if the two inverters are a considerable distance apart (e.g. 100 or 200 km). On the other hand, EMTP simulations reveal also adverse effects of the mutual influence, particularly apparent in low ESCR systems where the so-called voltage and power instability problem of the AC/DC systems is be more evident. This phenomenon is the basic cause of the undesirable interaction between the LCC HVDC and VSC HVDC resulting in more difficult return to nominal operating conditions after a commutation failure in the LCC system. The proposed and demonstrated solution is to tune down the PLL and voltage controller gains in order to make the overall system less stiff.
EN
Interaction between mineral particles during ascharite flotation was investigated by flotation, zeta potential, Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, atomic force microscope (AFM) and SEM-EDS tests. Flotation results showed that the ascharite recovery decreased significantly in the presence of serpentine. In order to improve the ascharite recovery, negative charged quartz was used to limit the detrimental effect of serpentine on ascharite flotation in this research. The effect of quartz on improving ascharite recovery was attributed to the particle surface interactions. The DLVO theory was applied to study the particles interaction in the aqueous solution. The fitting curves showed that serpentine could attach to the surface of quartz easily, and quartz would be well dispersed with ascharite. Therefore, quartz can improve the ascharite flotation performance effectively by interaction between particles. Zeta potential tests showed the opposite charges on the surfaces of mineral particles, which was the basic reason leading to particles interaction. The force measurement results of AFM indicated that the attraction force existed between serpentine and ascharite, as well as serpentine and quartz, but the force between quartz and ascharite was repulsive. The DLVO theory was in a good agreement with the results of AFM. Eventually, particles coating were observed by SEM-EDS, which supported the results of DLVO theory and AFM measurements. During the flotation process, addition of quartz would lead to attachment of serpentine to the quartz surface, so the adverse effect of serpentine on decreasing floatability of ascharite was weakened.
EN
Insecticidal soil fungi are used for the biological control of pests of cultivated plants. Fungi of the Fusarium genus are economically important phytopathogens that produce mycotoxins. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of selected insecticidal fungi on the growth and development of Fusarium fungi. Study material were the strains: F. culmorum, F. avenaceum, F. poae, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae. Identification of interactions between strains was conducted in laboratory conditions using three media: Potato Dextrose Agar, Sabouraud Agar, Czapek-Dox. The cultures were incubated and surface growth of colonies was observed. After culturing, interactions between species were assessed using the individual biotic effect score by Mańka. Fusarium fungi prevailed over entomopathogenic fungi in plate cultures. In most cases, Fusarium fungi obtained a positive and relatively high score when cultured in the presence of entomopathogenic fungi. It was demonstrated that entomopathogenic fungi have a poor antagonistic potential against Fusarium fungi. The entomopathogenic species I. fumosorosea, in some cases limiting the growth of phytopathogens, constituted the exception.
PL
Glebowe grzyby owadobójcze wykorzystuje się do biologicznego zwalczania szkodników roślin uprawnych. Grzyby z rodzaju Fusarium to ważne gospodarczo fitopatogeny wytwarzające mykotoksyny. Celem badań było rozpoznanie wpływu wybranych grzybów owadobójczych na wzrost i rozwój grzybów z rodzaju Fusarium. Materiał badawczy stanowiły szczepy F. culmorum, F. avenaceum, F. poe, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea i Metarhizium anisopliae. Badanie wzajemnych oddziaływań pomiędzy szczepami przeprowadzono w warunkach laboratoryjnych z wykorzystaniem trzech podłoży: Potato Dextrose Agar, Sabouraud Agar, Czapek-Dox. Kultury inkubowano i obserwowano wzrost powierzchniowy koloni. Po hodowli oceniono interakcje między gatunkami według skali indywidualnego efektu biotycznego Mańki. Grzyby Fusarium dominowały w hodowli szalkowej nad grzybami entomopatogennymi. W większości przypadków uzyskano dodatni i stosunkowo wysoki wskaźnik skali dla grzybów Fusarium hodowanych w obecności grzybów entomopatogennych. Wykazano, że grzyby entomopatogenne posiadają słaby potencjał w zakresie działania antagonistycznego względem grzybów Fusarium. Wyjątkiem był entomopatogenny gatunek I. fumosorosea, który w pewnych przypadkach ograniczał wzrost fitopatogenów.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono przykład analizy numerycznej MES wzajemnego oddziaływania tuneli komunikacyjnych drążonych tarczą TBM i projektowanego obiektu biurowego z parkingiem podziemnym posadowionego 1,4 m nad tunelami. Przedstawiono założenia obliczeniowe i omówiono wyniki obliczeń czterech wariantów (modeli) uwzględniających różnicowanie sposobu wzmocnienia gruntu pod budynkiem. Analizie poddano też osiadania płyty fundamentowej budynku i przemieszczenia stropu tunelu.
EN
The paper presents an example of numerical FEM analysis of the interaction of communication tunnels constructed using TBM and the designed office building with underground parking located 1,4 m above the tunnels. The four models taking into account the differentiation of soil strengthening methods under the building were analyzed. Settlements of the foundation slab of the building and displacement of the top vault of the tunnel are compared for each model and discussed.
EN
We present an extension of logical structures, called interactive logical structures, for reasoning about interactive computations performed by Intelligent Systems or Complex Adaptive Systems. Reasoning based on such structures is called adaptive judgment and it goes beyond deduction, induction, and abduction. An extension of logical structures, based on complex granules, couples the abstract world and the physical world of an agent’s environment, and transmits the features of interactions of physical objects realized in the physical world to the abstract world. This allows us to consider the problems of perception and action.
EN
Nanomaterials are very important in the field of packaging of food, medicines and dietary supplements. Modern packagings often contain nanoparticles that provide them new feature - nanoparticles are used to activate mainly the packaging inner surface. Carbon occurs in several allotropic forms, such as diamond, graphite (including nanotubes and fullerenes), carbides, and nanocrystalline diamond which is produced in a process of radio frequency plasma activated chemical vapor deposition (RF PA CVD). Variety of allotropic forms of carbon results in different chemical and biological interactions between carbon nanoparticles and the polymer matrix material. Carbon nanopraticles can be used to activate the inner surface of packagings. There is a growing demand for food free of harmful chemicals such as chloramphenicol or toxic food colorings (metanil yellow, auramine, orange II or red aura). The use of nanotechnology in the food packaging sector opens up new possibilities for creating sensors to detect certain harmful analytes. These sensors are easy and quick to use. The basis of their actions is to understand the interactions between nanoparticles and chemicals. Nanoparticles can be utilized to create intelligent high performance packaging materials for contact with food, drugs and biologically active molecules, which will be safe for health of the consumers.
PL
W czasach kiedy to inwestorzy tworzą urbanistykę i architekturę, potrzebny jest dialog pomiędzy developerem a mieszkańcami miasta. Doświadczenia i opinie mieszkańców (relacje wynikające z użytkowania danej przestrzeni miejskiej) istniejących już osiedli powinny być uwzględniane i badane przy tworzeniu nowych planów rozwoju miasta. O rozwoju miasta należy rozmawiać. Jeśli chcemy rozmawiać o rozwoju całego miasta potrzebujemy nie tylko planu i makiety miasta. Należy stworzyć miejsce wymiany opinii i poglądów dla każdego zainteresowanego. (Mieszkańcy – Planiści – Projektanci – Inwestorzy). Miejsce, w którym mieszkańcy mają realny wpływ na zmiany zachodzące w ich mieście. Miejsce, w którym na żywej tkance miasta (np. makiecie) można obserwować zmiany zachodzące w mieście i mieć na nie wpływ. (Przykładem może być INFOBOX w Gdyni). Przestrzeń w której każdy, nie tylko mieszkańcy ale również inwestorzy, radni, architekci, urbaniści mogą wymieniać swoje opinie. Udział i zaangażowanie mieszkańców w tworzeniu miasta powinno być coraz większe. Warto, by świadoma polityka marketingowa władz miasta wykorzystywała potencjał z już istniejących osiedli mieszkaniowych przy tworzeniu kolejnych planów miasta. Stawiając na wymianę wiedzy i poglądów. W „nowym”, kształtującym swe oblicze i swą specyfikację mieście trzeba na to kilku pokoleń. (do wymiany poglądów) np. istniejące po dzień dzisiejszy założenia urbanistyczne z epoki modernizmu dostarczają wielu cennych wskazówek. Nie tylko założenie urbanistyczne ale i opinia mieszkańców mogą dać nowy kierunek i pogląd do kształtowania nowych przestrzeni w mieście. Przykładami mogą być już istniejące założenia w mieście. Np osiedle Pułaskiego, którego wyrazista kompozycja oraz spełnienie zapisów planów miejscowych pokazują jak architekci poprzez szczegółową analizę tego terenu wyrazili formę i usytuowanie budynków. Zmagając się z uciążliwymi warunkami środowiska stworzyli zabudowę ciekawą w formie i funkcji. Dalsza analiza przeprowadzona na podstawie osiedli i założeń urbanistycznych: osiedle Baranówka, osiedle przy ulicy Hetmańskiej, osiedle przy ulicy Dąbrowskiego, osiedle Zalesie.
EN
In times when developers are creating architecture there is a need of dialog between investors and inhabitants. Inhabitants’ experience and opinions (relations that are made when you use the town space) of existing estates should be included and considered in creating new developing urban plans. Development of the city should be openly discussed. Plans and models could be not sufficient in this case. Creating a special, dedicated place for such discussions, interchange of opinions and ideas might be a solution. Place where inhabitants have a real influence on changes in their city. Such a place, called INFOBOX, exists in Gdynia. Inhabitants together with architects, investors and city councils use it as a platform of exchanging, sharing their visions. This place encourages all inhabitants to participation and involvement in the city development. With this approach process of changing our mindsets could be started. Nevertheless it will take years. City is a constantly changing structure but it doesn’t mean that we cannot take solutions and ideas from the past. Heritage of previous generations can and should be a direction for further changes. We should take a closer look to compositions, forms and locations of existing estates. In this context few areas in Rzeszow (e.g. Baranowka, Nowe Miasto, Zalesie) were considered.
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