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EN
Purpose: The aim of the presented investigations was to explore the possibilities of the effective use of the 8D method to improve the merchandise distribution processes. Design/methodology/approach: The application of the 8D method involved the use of support tools, such as 5Why or ABC. These tools helped to identify and categorize problems involved in the distribution of goods. Next, major problems and their causes were identified. The 8D method enabled establishing improvement, corrective and remedial actions. The last stage of the analysis was verifying the effectiveness of the implemented actions, which proved that the application of the 8D method to improve distribution processes was justified. Findings: The 8D method turned out to be an effective tool for solving problems identified in the distribution process, which proves its effective transfer from the automotive industry. Research limitations/implications: The correct use of the 8D method, which guarantees obtaining reliable and useful results, is only possible if an interdisciplinary research team is appointed. Such a team should consist of a leader and specialists from organizational units responsible for the process correctness. Small and medium-size companies may have insufficient resources to conduct investigations and analyses in a proper way. Practical implications: The discussed case study proves that it is possible to use advanced management methods in the company. Creating an efficient and experienced team should result in developing an effective mechanism for identifying the causes and solving problems in the company’s logistic processes. Originality/value: An original solution is implementation of the 8D method from the automotive industry to improve logistic processes.
EN
This paper addresses an application of the specific methods of multi-criteria decision analysis to specify the appropriate supplier of an autonomous train in a certain production–distribution company. This company identifies three potential suppliers dealing with the development and purchase of autonomous train systems. In terms of the multi-criteria decision analysis, the WSA method, the Scoring method and the TOPSIS method were used to define a suitable compromise solution. To apply each method, individual suppliers were sorted depending on the appropriateness for the examined company based on relevance with all the identified criteria and their weights. The evaluation criteria include procurement cost, time of the whole autonomous train system project implementation, references from plants where such a technology has already been introduced, service department availability and battery charge time. Thereafter, the outcomes obtained using individual methods were compared to each other and the compromise supplier of the autonomous train system to be implemented in the selected company was determined.
EN
The purpose of the paper is to present the issues of ensuring the safety of machinery and equipment in accordance with the requirements of the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC of May 17, 2006 on the essential requirements for machines, with regard to the sphere of their import and distribution. This issue is related to the dynamically developing trade in cheaper new machines, mainly from countries outside the EEA (including China) and is a priority for ensuring safety and protecting the health and life of users of this type of equipment in accordance with EU regulations. The use of a variety of machines in industry, in addition to general safety requirements, which may also include quality criteria, care for the environment and industry-specific safety management requirements (e.g. food, automotive, medical devices).
EN
This publication is a presentation of the methodology to determine the degree of diversification and allocation of water resources in water supply systems; with a differentiated level of need based on the example of the municipality of Benissa Spain. The article shows a frequency of the changes and factors that affect the functioning of the water supply system. Moreover, its presents the calculation of the diversification indices for the selected water supply system while the methodology offers the possibility of evaluating the diversification of water resources in two parameters according to an adapted form of the Shannon-Weaver index.
PL
Publikacja przedstawia metody wyznaczenia współczynnika dywersyfikacji i alokacji zasobów wodnych dla systemu zbiorowego zapotrzebowania wody cechującego się zróżnicowanym jej zapotrzebowaniem na przykładzie miasta Benissa w Hiszpanii. W pracy przedstawiono obliczenia stopnia dywersyfikacji zasobów wodnych, metodą dwu-parametryczną, wg zaadaptowanego wskaźnika Shannona-Weavera.
EN
The struggle for the customer is symptomatic of the companies operating on contemporary markets. Developing new distribution channels and sales techniques is manifestation of the struggle. Dynamic market changes determine how vendors operate and induce them to implement innovation concepts in distribution, sales and logistics. These original solutions create new shopping modes and possibilities. The purpose of the paper is to present new solutions in this area, which are implemented and used within the alcohol industry in Poland. Scope of the study relates to beverages of low alcohol excluding beer. The authors focus mainly on solutions for distribution and sales, but they won’t pass over complementary solutions for customer communication, including those aimed at education of consumers, which is essential in this industry. The structure of the paper makes it possible to present transformation of alcohol market in Poland, taking into account changes in the processes and the value they create for the consumer.
EN
This work presents the results of Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) investigations of the structure of lamellar stacks in ethylene-1-octene copolymer during heating and cooling. The SAXS curves were analysed using the Intensity Superposition Method (ISM). By means of this method, not only the average values of the parameters of lamellar stacks but also the stacks crystallinity distribution function were determined. Based on this function, the structure of lamellar stacks during crystallization and melting of the copolymer was compared and observed differences were indicated.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań struktury stosów lamelarnych w kopolimerach etylen-1-okten, wykonane metodą małokątowego rozpraszania promieni rentgenowskich (SAXS) w trakcie ogrzewania i chłodzenia. Krzywe SAXS analizowano przy użyciu Metody Superpozycji Intensywności (ISM). Metoda ta pozwoliła wyznaczyć nie tylko średnie wartości parametrów stosów, ale także funkcję rozkładu stopnia krystaliczności stosów. Na podstawie analizy tej funkcji wykazano istotne różnice w strukturze stosów lamelarnych w procesach krystalizacji i topnienia.
EN
The consequences of global climate change are a decrease in precipitation as well as an increase in the length of the period with high temperatures from spring to autumn. The climate change intensified the negative consequences of land reclamation and regulation of rivers by dams in Ukraine in the 20th century. The modern landscape of the Circum-Pontic and Circum-Azov regions in Ukraine has undergone desertification, and a multiple reduction in the freshwater runoff has manifested itself in a violation of the water balance of soils and their salinization. In addition to the climate change and anthropic landscape transformations, most upland areas in southern Ukraine have been converted into farmland, systematically fertilized and treated with pesticides and herbicides. Total plowing of the territory also led to soil erosion and degradation. The global climate change and the impact of human activity have affected the diversity of the steppe fauna as well. The questions of the influence of soil humidity on the diversity of epigeic arthropods were considered on the example of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Soil moisture is one of the key factors that determines their diversity.
EN
The problem of delivering aviation fuel to military aircraft in the field includes not only ensuring the appropriate fuel quality, but also the safety of its transport. Delivering the appropriate amount of fuel to a specific place, irrespective of the terrain conditions, brings many difficulties. They are related to the availability of the appropriate transport equipment that would enable the safe delivery of high-quality aviation fuel to aircraft, regardless of the condition of access roads to airports and airfields. The article analyzes mobility capabilities of the available transport equipment, as well as its suitability and functionality under field conditions.
EN
The article concerns modern, flexible adhesive joints, which might be used in timber construction. The article discusses the test results carried out for timber elements joints using polymeric adhesives produced by Sika®. The scope of the tests includes the analysis of strength criteria, tests of polymer adhesion to the timber with a pull-off method, tests of polymer layer shearing between timber elements as well as examination of bending of timber elements joined with polymer. The conclusions indicate the types of these polymers which are recommended for the creation of polymeric joints of timber-polymeric type in timber constructions.
PL
Dynamiczny rozwój połączeń klejowych, umożliwia ich zastosowanie już nie tylko w naprawach, czy wzmocnieniach głównie konstrukcji żelbetowych oraz murowych. Coraz częściej mówi się o zastąpieniu tradycyjnych łączników przez połączenia klejowe. Szczególnie interesujący jest rozwój połączeń na bazie polimerów w zastosowaniu w konstrukcjach drewnianych, który umożliwia eliminację lub znaczne ograniczenie występowania zjawiska koncentracji naprężeń, jak ma to miejsce w przypadku najbardziej powszechnych połączeń trzpieniowych. Szczególne znaczenie ma eliminacja tego zjawiska w obiektach drewnianych, poddanych oddziaływaniu silnych wiatrów, trzęsień ziemi, czy też dużych gradientów temperaturowych oraz wilgotności. Głównym celem artykułu jest omówienie wyników badań przeprowadzonych dla połączeń elementów drewnianych przy wykorzystaniu podatnych klejów polimerowych produkcji Sika®. Zakres badań obejmuje analizę kryteriów wytrzymałościowych, badania przyczepności polimeru do drewna metodą pull-off (na odrywanie), badania ścinania warstwy polimeru pomiędzy elementami drewnianymi oraz badania zginania elementów drewnianych zespolonych polimerem.
EN
The paper analyzes the costs of production of wood sawdust briquettes, manufactured by the company Brykiet-Pol2, based in Goleszów in southern Poland. In addition, production technology, raw material supply and distribution of the finished product were analyzed. The costs of producing one ton of briquettes for the four assessed variants ranged from PLN 364.8 (option D) to PLN 648.7 (option A). The cost structure was dominated by the purchase of raw material and depreciation of the technological line. The most economically advantageous production variant was option C, currently implemented in the company (production costs: PLN 458.7·t-1 ), and the proposed option D, using two briquetting presses. The latter option increased production efficiency and reduced unit costs of briquette production in a three-shift system around the clock.
PL
W pracy dokonano analizy kosztów produkcji brykietów z trocin drzewnych w przedsiębiorstwie produkcyjno-handlowym Brykiet-Pol2, mającym siedzibę w Goleszowie leżącym w południowej części Polski. Dodatkowo przeanalizowano technologię produkcji, zaopatrzenie w surowiec i dystrybucję wyrobu gotowego. Koszty produkcji jednej tony brykietów dla czterech ocenianych wariantów wahały się od 364,8 PLN (wariant D) do 648,7 PLN (wariant A). W strukturze kosztów dominował zakup surowca oraz amortyzacja linii technologicznej. Najbardziej korzystnym z ekonomicznego punktu widzenia był realizowany w przedsiębiorstwie wariant produkcji C (koszty produkcji 458,7 PLN·t-1 ) oraz proponowany wariant produkcji D. Wtedy wykorzystywane były dwie brykieciarki, co zwiększyło wydajność produkcji i zmniejszyło jednostkowe koszty produkcji brykietów w systemie trzyzmianowym przez całą dobę.
EN
The provision of quality fuels to the aircraft requires compliance with a number of procedures during the transport, storage and distribution processes. Depending on the needs and organisational conditions, the air fuel distribution process is carried out using various types of transport means. The operational procedures and specificity of the functioning of the Armed Forces and other public law enforcement entities require the use of various construction and technological solutions allowing the efficient functioning of state aviation. The means of transport should not only ensure the appropriate quality of aviation fuel delivered to the aircraft but also enables the delivery of appropriate fuel practically to any place where it is required by the specific activities of particular services or aviation types units of the Armed Forces. This paper presents specific types of transport and distribution means used in state aviation and attempts to select features that determine their suitability for particular types of state aviation.
EN
The aim of the article was to analyse distribution logistics on the example of a selected meat processing plant, as well as to assess existing distribution channels according to the criteria determining the usability, efficiency and nature of the channel. Based on the research and analysis (analytical and point method), the distribution channels operating in this company were characterised and evaluated. Based on the results, one can determine which of the existing channels is the best and present the directions for their further development.
EN
This paper discusses logistics models of e-commerce implemented by Polish clothing companies. The author has conducted research on Polish clothing companies and logistics operators serving e-commerce branches, and here presents and compares these models. There are various logistics models of e-commerce, which differ from each other in organisation of deliveries, level of outsourcing, location for keeping stocks, level of logistics in customer service, and organisation of returns (goods returned by customers). The impact of the different e-commerce models on ecological, economic, and social priorities is then discussed.
PL
W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono system wodociągowy, który służy do zaopatrywania w wodę mieszkańców oraz zakładów produkcyjnych w jednostkach osadniczych. Opisano także zalety i wady materiałów dotychczas stosowanych do budowy sieci wodociągowych. Przedstawiono również innowacyjny system rur BLUTOP z żeliwa sferoidalnego dedykowany dla systemów wodociągowych o małym zakresie średnic.
EN
This article presents a water supply system that is used to supply residents in settlement units and production plants in water. The advantages and disadvantages of materials used in the construction of water supply networks have also been described. Also presented is an innovative system of BLUTOP pipes made of ductile iron dedicated for water systems with a small diameter range.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki pomiarów temperatury skóry człowieka podczas próby wysiłkowej. Ponieważ uzyskane wyniki nie podlegają rozkładowi normalnemu, wyznaczono wartości pięciu różnych estymatorów menzurandu. Otrzymane rezultaty wykazały, że w rozważanym przypadku najlepszy estymator menzurandu otrzymujemy z metody bootstrap, ponieważ charakteryzuje się on najmniejszym odchyleniem standardowym.
EN
The article presents results of the skin temperature measurement during an endurance test. The resulting observations are not normally distributed, for this reason the values of five different measurand estimators were determined. The obtained results showed that in the considered case the best measurand estimator is the bootstrap method obtained, because it has the smallest standard deviation.
EN
Mollusk species associated with Cystoseira barbata were examined in the Sea of Marmara in 2012 at 14 sampling sites with a depth ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 m. A total of 18 468 specimens belonging to three classes (Polyplacophora, Gastropoda and Bivalvia) and 30 species were identified. Alvania mamillata Risso, 1826 is a new record for the marine mollusk fauna of the Sea of Marmara. The number of species at the sampling sites varied from 2 to 11 (400 cm–2), the density ranged between 758 and 63 083 ind. m–2, and wet weight between 0.4 and 34.3 g m–2. Gastropoda were the richest class, represented by 22 species and 7611 individuals. The families Rissoidae, Mytilidae and Pyramidellidae were represented by the largest number of species. The most dominant mollusk species in C. barbata facies were Mytilaster minimus (Poli, 1795) (37.77%), Rissoa splendida Eichwald, 1830 (27.20%), Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin, 1791) (18.69%) and Bittium reticulatum (da Costa, 1778) (6.89%). However, the mollusks R. splendida (86%), M. lineatus (71%), M. minimus (69%) and Steromphala adansonii (Payraudeau, 1826) (67%) were characterized by the highest values of the frequency index. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the main factors affecting the assemblages of mollusks were the content of total nitrogen, the maximum thallus height, algal wet weight and temperature.
18
Content available Lamprophyric rock locations in Greece
EN
Twenty-four areas with lamprophyric formations have been located through a bibliographic search in Macedonia, Thrace, the islands and Attica. Most lamprophyre types have been identified including rare "alkali minette”. In most localities the dikes/sills appear to be late mantle products associated with deep faulting following extensional activity in granitoids.
EN
The purpose of this article is to analyze distribution logistics on the example of a selected meat processing establishment, as well as to assess existing distribution channels according to criteria determining the usability, efficiency and nature of the channel. Based on the research and analysis (analytical and point method), five distribution channels existing in the company were characterized and evaluated. Based on the results, it was determined which of the existing channels is the best one, and also the directions for their further development were presented.
20
PL
Artykuł ma na celu zwrócenie uwagi na wpływ roli opakowań w sprawnej realizacji przepływów w ramach łańcucha dostaw. Analiza oparta na podstawie literatury przedmiotu, ukazuje że opakowanie pełni podstawową funkcje w dystrybucji towarów. Opakowania podczas potencjalnej drogi od nadawcy czyli producenta wyrobu opakowanego, do klienta, czyli odbiorcy, przechodzą wiele „prób jakościowych”. Owe próby weryfikują, czy produkt jest odpowiednio chroniony i czy narażenia jakie czyhają na niego podczas transportu mogą zaniżyć jego wartość. Przeprowadzona analiza miała na celu udowodnienie, że właściwie zaprojektowane oraz wykonane opakowanie może mieć istotny wpływ na obniżenie kosztów, zapewnienie jakości oraz bezpieczeństwo procesów w łańcuchach dostaw.
EN
The article aims to draw attention to the impact of the role of packaging on the efficient implementation of flows in the supply chain. The analysis based on the literature shows that the packaging is the basic functions in the distribution of goods. Packaging is subjected to many quality tests during the potential route from the sender or producer to the customer. These tests verify not only if the product is temper-proof but also whether transport damage may underestimate the value. The analysis was conducted to prove that properly designed packaging can affect significantly costs reducing, workmanship and process security in supply chains.
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