During the 20th century in Central and Eastern Europe, traditional agricultural management was either heavily intensified or abandoned due to socio-economic reasons. The land abandonment led to subsequent secondary succession reverted many wet meadows into Phragmites swamps, Salix or Alnus thickets, as well as woodlands. Therefore, the understanding of changes in abundance and structure of populations in the process of succession has become very important especially for rare and endangered species. In Poland one of strictly protected plant is Gentiana pneumonanthe L. It is a nonclonal, long-lived, iteroparous plant consisted of numerous vegetative and generative stems, bearing 1–25 flowers per year. The investigations of abundance and structure of subpopulations of Gentiana pneumonanthe were conducted in the years 2009–2011 in abandoned Molinietum caeruleae meadows dominated by low-stature species (Patch I), prevailed by tall grasses (Patch II), willows (Patch III), as well as partly overgrown by shrubs and trees (Patch IV). The average height of vegetation cover achieved from 65.3 cm (Patch I), via 85.8 cm (Patch II) and 94.0 cm (Patch III), to 142.7 cm (Patch IV). The gradually decline of abundance of Gentiana pneumonathe subpopulations and increased trend toward their senilization along the gradient of vegetation height might be due to successional closure of plant cover, preventing seedling recruitment. The total number of stems per individual and length of vegetative stems decreased with augmentation of neighbouring plants dimensions, whereas the height of generative stems, as well as flower and fruit production presented inversed trend. The greatest dimensions of capsules found in patch dominated by small meadow species might be due to greater availability of solar radiation. The conditions of studied subpopulations decrease gradually from patch dominated by small meadow species, via sites prevailed by grasses and willows, to place overgrown by shrubs and trees. Although obvious differences in abundance and structure of individuals, the prospects of all observed populations are poor, especially that patches are not subjected active protection.