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EN
Foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton from the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) transition in the Hyżne section (Outer Carpathians, south-eastern Poland) show a relatively complete biostratigraphic record. Despite the absence of the Pa Zone in turbiditic deposits of the Polish Carpathians, the planktonic foraminiferal zones of the Late Cretaceous-Early Paleogene interval are well defined, including (1) the late Maastrichtian Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone and its equivalents, (2) the earliest Danian Guembelitria cretacea second bloom Zone (P0 Zone), and (3) the top of the early Danian Parasubbotina cf. pseudobulloides (P1a) Zone. The foraminiferal events recorded in the studied section at the K-Pg transition are stratigraphically important. They include: (1) the interval with A. mayaroensis occurrence, (2) the interval with gradual disappearance of planktonic foraminifera from the most complex K-strategy forms, through the less specialized species to the large Heterohelicidae turnovers, and (3) the G. cretacea first and second blooms. Furthermore, the bloom of the opportunistic, benthic Bolivinita sp., the size reduction event, and the dissolution of the tests of the planktonic foraminifera are recorded. The K-Pg interval bioevents can be useful for better stratigraphic resolution of the flysch deposits of the Outer Carpathians. The nannoplankton event is represented by the appearance of Cruciplacolithus primus, which marks the onset of the return to more stable environmental conditions after the perturbations at the K-Pg boundary. The K-Pg boundary occurs within dark grey marly mudstones, above the upper boundary of the G. cretacea first bloom, and above the highest occurrence of the agglutinated foraminifera Goesella rugosa, at the top of the nannofossil CC 26 Zone, and below the deep-water agglutinated foraminifera (DWAF) dominance. The foraminiferal assemblages derive from different bathymetric zones corresponding to (1) the upper bathyal zone in the late Campanian (nannoplankton CC 22 Zone) and early late Maastrichtian (A. mayaroensis Zone), (2) the shelf margin in the latest late Maastrichtian (CC 26 nannoplankton Zone, G. cretacea first bloom), (3) the shelf margin in the earliest Danian (G. cretacea second bloom, Np1/2 Zone), and (4) the middle-lower bathyal depth, below a local foraminiferal lysocline and above CCD, in the latest early Danian (P. pseudobulloides Zone). As the foraminifera could have been redeposited by turbiditic currents, they do not necessarl ly show real bathymetric changes in the area of deposition. Such changes have not been observed in sedimentary features of the studied deposits. Foraminiferal and nannoplankton assemblages are typical of the “transitional zone” between the Tethyan and Boreal domains.
EN
Well preserved Late Cretaceous–Palaeogene planktonic and benthic foraminiferal assemblages were studied in the Zabratówka section of the Ropianka Formation in the Skole Nappe. The Racemiguembelina fructicosa and Abathomphalus mayaroensis standard foraminiferal biozones were distinguished. The K-T boundary was recognized within the interval between samples ZB10B–ZB9A, mainly composed of marly mudstones, interlayered with thin-bedded sandstones, and is characterized by the disappearance of planktonic taxa and an abundance of agglutinated species. Foraminiferal assemblages, collected from the turbiditic flysch-type sediments, indicate a primary depositional environment on the outer shelf to the upper part of the continental slope, with shallowing during the Maastrichtian in the part of the Skole Basin studied. The foraminiferids correspond to the assemblages of a palaeobiogeographical “transition” zone, located between the Boreal and Tethyan domains.
EN
The oil accumulations discovered in the Skole Synclinorium (eastern part of Polish Outer Carpathians) are located in zones of pinch-out of the Kliva Sandstone. An example is the Wańkowa Oil Field, which contains the largest oil reserves in the region. As the seismic identification of this type of hydrocarbon trap is ambiguous, a surface geochemical survey was carried out in the vicinity of the Wańkowa Oil Field along an experimental line perpendicular to the fold axes. A traverse across the zones with anomalous seismic records indicated the presence of undiscovered lithological traps. During the surface geochemical survey, 94 samples of soil gas were collected from a depth of 1.2 m and then investigated chromatographically. The spacing of sampling sites was 100 m, which was reduced to 50 m in the Wańkowa Oil Field area. The maximum concentrations of CH4 and total alkanes C2-C5 detected in samples were: 4250.0 ppm (0.425 vol. %) and 0.43 ppm, respectively. The first of these was detected at measurement point no. 86, located over the Wańkowa Field and the second at point no. 59, about 1,300 m south of the Wańkowa Field. The chemical analyses also detected maximum values of total alkenes C2-C4, H2 and CO2: 0.147 ppm, 0.042 vol. % and 4.4 vol. %, respectively. The results of the surface geochemical survey were integrated with observations on subsurface geological structures, which were interpreted on the basis of seismic data. This procedure permitted the documentation of anomalous concentrations of alkanes in the near-surface zone and contributed to an understanding of the tectonics of the hydrocarbon reservoirs in depth. The pattern of geochemical anomalies here is controlled by anticlines made up of Early Oligocene–Paleocene sediments and by overthrusts that displace these structures. The hydrocarbons migrated from condensate and/or oil accumulations located at various depths. The character of the anomalous zone discovered over the Wańkowa Oil Field is related to the effective sealing of hydrocarbon traps and/or the relatively low pressure caused by the production of oil for 130 years. However, this anomaly also may be the result of hydrocarbon migration from deeper, as yet undiscovered gas or gas-condensate accumulations, hosted in older reservoirs forming the hinge of the Ropienka-Łodyna Mine Anticline. The most pronounced anomalies were detected over the Wańkowa Village - Bandrów and Grabownica-Załuż anticlines. The active hydrocarbon dispersion in this zone may have resulted from the presence of overthrusts displacing the structures. Moreover, these anomalies may indicate the presence of shallow, maybe poorly sealed hydrocarbon accumulations.
EN
Tourmaline populations studied from the Campanian-Maastrichtian part of the Ropianka (Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene) and Menilite (Oligocene) formations of the Polish Carpathians, represent a mixture of first-cycle and polycyclic grains. The tourmalines of the deposits studied display very strong resemblance in terms of optical features and chemical composition. They belong mostly to the schorl-dravite series with a minor contribution of tourmalines of foititic or Mg-foititic composition. Euhedral tourmalines originated from metasedimentary rocks, while the rounded grains crystallised in Li-poorgranitic rocks or in pegmatites, Al-poor and Al-rich metasedimentary rocks. Most of the tourmalines studied crystallised during a single igneous or metamorphic event. However, tourmal ines form ng in evolving chemical conditions as well as polymetamorphic grains (having a metamorphic detrital core and metamorphic overgrowths) are also present. The chemical composition of the metamorphic tourmalines studied indicates theirformation in medium-grade metamorphic conditions. This is supported by the crystallisation temperature of the garnet-biotite inclusion present in one of rounded metamorphic tourma l ines from the Ropianka Formation. The euhedral grains derive from metasediments, directly from a massif located close to the Skole Basin. The scarcity of euhedral grains in the tourmaline populations studied suggests that their source rocks were poor in these minerals. The direct sources of rounded tourmalines (most probably polycyclic grains), may have been Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Skole Basin foreland or crystalline rocks of remote source areas. The initial igneous and metamorphic host rocks of the tourma l ines may have been crystall ine domains of the Bohemian Massif and/or the crystalline basement of Brunovistulicum.
EN
The zircon populations from the Campanian–Maastrichtian part of the Ropianka (Upper Cretaceous– Palaeocene) and Menilite (Oligocene–lower Miocene) formations in the northern part of the Skole Nappe in Poland were examined to evaluate interpretations of the external morphology of detrital zircon in provenance research. The advantage of the zircon typology method, supplemented with elongation measurements, is that it may be applied successfully to comparisons of euhedral zircon populations from sedimentary deposits of different ages and unknown provenance. The zircon typology method, along with elongation measurements of zircons, contributes valuable data that supplement conventional heavy-mineral analyses. It also permits the recognition of potential source areas and rock types for further comparative research.
PL
Wynikiem naftowych prac poszukiwawczych w obszarze depresji strzyżowskiej (płaszczowina skolska) było odwiercenie w 1991 roku otworu Wiśniowa-1. Na głębokości 3793 m uzyskano przypływ wody o mineralizacji 15,15 g/dm3, wydajności 180 m3/h i temperaturze 85°C. Poziom zbiornikowy stanowią zeszczelinowane piaskowce warstw spaskich (kreda dolna) z anormalnie wysokim ciśnieniem złożowym. Skonstruowany trójwymiarowy model porowatości efektywnej, przepuszczalności szczelinowej i temperatury, poddano symulacjom z użyciem symulatora Eclipse (Schlumberger). W modelowaniach wykorzystano istniejące otwory wiertnicze:Wiśniowa-1, Szufnarowa-1 i Nawsie-1, oraz zaprojektowany otwór zrzutowy (INJ1), oddalony o 1km na NW od otworu produkcyjnego. Przeprowadzone modelowania dynamiczne pozwoliły na wyliczenie optymalnej pracy dubletu geotermalnego, gdzie wielkość produkcji otworem Wioeniowa-1 przy jednoczesnym zrzucie tej samej objętości otworem zatłaczającym (INJ1) wyliczono na poziomie 640 m3/dobę. Dla modelu wyjściowego zapewnia ona ciągłość eksploatacji jedynie przy kilku stopniach spadku temperatury produkowanej wody przez okres niemal 50 lat. Wykonano analizę czułości systemu ze względu na różne scenariusze modelu parametrycznego (model pesymistyczny, model wyjściowy i model optymistyczny).
EN
Well Wiśniowa-1 was drilled in 1991 in the Strzyżów Depression (Skole Nappe) for petroleum exploration. At a depth of 3793 m, low-mineralized water was encountered. The water exhibits temperature of 85°C and inflow rate of 180 m3/h. Water reservoir consists of fractured sandstones belonging to the Spas Beds (Lower Cretaceous) and displays anomalously high pressures. A three-dimensional model of effective porosity, fracture permeability and temperature was constructed and subjected to dynamic simulations using Eclipse simulator (Schlumberger). In modelling process, three existing wells (Wiśniowa-1, Szufnarowa-1, Nawsie-1) and the new designed well (INJ1), located about 1 km to the NWof the production well, were used. The modelling results have shown that at the level of 640 m3/day of water production and injection the geothermal doublet will work most efficiently. For the base case model, this would ensure a continuous operation with only a few degree drop in the temperature of the produced water over a period of almost 50 years. We have also made sensitivity analysis of the system for various scenarios of the parametric model (low case, base case and high case).
EN
Conventional and high-resolution analyses of heavy minerals from the gravity flow-deposited sandstones of the Campanian–Maastrichtian interval of the Ropianka (Upper Cretaceous–Paleocene) and Menilite (Oligocene) formations of the Polish Carpathians display similar compositions in terms of mineral species. Zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet, staurolite and kyanite belong to the main constituents in both formations. Apatite is common in the Ropianka Fm., while the Menilite Fm. almost lacks this mineral. Furthermore, individual hornblende grains were found in the Ropianka Fm., while andalusite is present only in the Menilite Fm. The Ropianka Fm. is relatively richer in zircon, tourmaline, garnet and apatite, while the Menilite Fm. contains more staurolite and kyanite. Zircon and tourmaline colour and morphological varieties are similar in both formations. The similarities of the heavy mineral assemblages studied suggest origin of these minerals from lithologically similar rocks. Negative correlations between the zircon + tourmaline + rutile (ZTR) values and the content of garnet and staurolite in the Ropianka Fm. may indicate, to a large extent, first-cycle delivery of garnet and staurolite to the formation. Negative, but low, correlation valid only for ZTR and garnet and positive correlations for ZTR and staurolite and kyanite in the Menilite Fm. suggest delivery of these minerals from sedimentary rocks or/and palimpsest sediments. The data obtained on mineral relationships and their morphology suggest mixed first-cycle and recycled provenance of the heavy minerals studied. Additionally, the first-cycle material input seems to be larger during the Ropianka Fm. sedimentation, while during the deposition of Menilite Fm. the contribution of material delivered from erosion of recycled sediments appears more prominent. The heavy mineral evidence suggests a change at the northern margin of the Skole Basin from an immature passive margin with a high relief during sedimentation of the Campanian–Maastrichtian part of the Ropianka Fm. to a mature passive margin with a low relief during sedimentation of the Menilite Fm.
EN
The study focused on the chemistry of detrital garnet and tourmaline from sediments of the Boryslav and Kliva Sandstone types in the Oligocene part of the Menilite Formation of the Skole Nappe (Western Outer Carpathians, Poland), with regard to provenance. Almandine and almandine-pyrope compositional varieties are the most common garnets, with minor almandine-pyrope-grossular garnet. Scarce garnet grains, with grossular and spessartine as the dominant end-members, are also present. The tourmaline belongs to the alkali tourmaline principal group and represents the schörl-dravite series. The detrital garnet and tourmaline display strong, compositional similarities to minerals, occurring in igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Bohemian Massif, as well as to detrital grains, deposited within the internal basins of the massif. This suggests that the primary rocks for the garnet and tourmaline may be crystalline complexes of the Bohemian Massif. However, other uplifted areas, similar to the complexes of the Bohemian Massif, cannot be ruled out. Such hypothetical areas could be located in the northern foreland of the Carpathian basins. Euhedral tourmaline and other minerals, occurring in the heavy- mineral assemblages studied, most probably were derived from eroded and presently not exposed, crystalline complexes, originally situated in the Skole Basin foreland or within the basin.
EN
Garnet in heavy-mineral assemblages, occurring in sandstones of the Campanian–Maastrichtian part of the Ropianka (Late Cretaceous–Palaeocene) and Menilite (Oligocene) formations of the Skole Nappe, is present as first-cycle and poly-cycle grains, derived from a proximal source, remote areas and/or from sedimentary rocks of the Skole Basin foreland. The garnets in the formations are compositionally similar, suggesting an origin from the same source rocks. Relatively large amounts of garnet, represented by euhedral or slightly rounded, weakly etched or unetched almandine and spessartine-almandine garnet, and minor pyrope-enriched almandine, were derived directly from a source close to the Skole Basin. These garnets are from sediments, metamorphosed at low- to medium-grade conditions (such as mica-schists, gneisses) and perhaps also granitic bodies. Rounded and variously etched garnets, especially high pyrope-almandine and pyrope-almandine-grossular varieties, but also partly almandine-dominated varieties, are suggested to have been derived from distant sources, such as sedimentary rocks of the Upper Silesian and Małopolska blocks. Rocks, forming uplifted parts of the crystalline basement of Brunovistulicum and/or crystalline domains of the Bohemian Massif, could have been protoliths for part of the almandine-dominated garnet population, whereas pyrope-grossular-almandine garnets may originate from the granulitic, eclogitic or metabasic rocks of the Bohemian Massif. The study shows that analyses of garnet composition, combined with observations on grain textural features and data on the lithology of clasts and pebbles, can permit the determination of sources for different garnet varieties in mixed-provenance populations.
EN
Well-preserved foraminiferids have been found in the Chmielnik-Grabówka section (Skole Nappe, Polish Carpathians). The Abathomphalus mayaroensis (late Maastrichtian) and Racemiguembelina fructicosa (earlylate Maastrichtian) standard planktonic foraminiferal biozones have been recognized, based on the occurrence of their respective index species. Sediments of the R. fructicosa Zone contain diatoms, which are a rare component of Cretaceous flysch microfossil assemblages in the Carpathians. The diatom frustules and some foraminiferid tests are pyritized, probably after burial in the sediment, below the redox boundary or in the oxygen-deficient microenvironment inside the frustules or tests of microfossils; the presence of trace fossils and bioturbational structures in the same bed indicate an oxygenated sea floor.
EN
Heavy minerals from sandstones belonging mostly to the Boryslav Sandstone and Kliva Sandstone members of the lower part of the Menilite Formation (Oligocene) in the northern part of the Skole Nappe, Polish Carpathians are characterized. In the study area, the sediments were deposited in the Rzeszów and Łańcut channel zones running from the northern margin of the basin. The most frequent heavy minerals in the sandstones examined include zircon, tourmaline, rutile, staurolite, kyanite and garnet. Single grains of andalusite, sillimanite, apatite, epidote, brookite and chrome spinel occur in some samples. The very small content of apatite is related to long, continental weathering in the source area, which is referred to the Paleozoic sedimentary cover of the Małopolska Block and the easternmost part of the Upper Silesian Block. Different preservation states, morphology, degree of roundness and colour varieties suggest that the heavy minerals studied derive from various petrographic types including metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary rocks. However, the Carboniferous and Permian conglomerates and sandstones seem to be the most probable source rocks.
PL
Przedmiotem pracy są Karpaty zewnętrzne pomiędzy Bielskiem-Białą a Nowym Targiem. Zbudowane są one z silnie, płaszczowinowo sfałdowanych osadów fliszowych wieku jury górnej - neogenu. Wśród płaszczowin Karpat zewnętrznych wyróżnia się (idąc od południa): jednostkę (płaszczowinę) magurską, grupę płaszczowin przedmagurskich, płaszczowiny śląską, podśląską i skolską (grupa średnia). Jednostka magurska od południa, wzdłuż linii Stare Bystre - Szaflary, graniczy z pienińskim pasem skałkowym. Jest nasunięta na jednostki grupy średniej - wielkość nasunięcia wynosi co najmniej 20 km. Strefa przedmagurska ciągnie się wąskim pasem z rejonu Milówki w kierunku na południowe zbocze Beskidu Małego, gdzie zanika. Płaszczowina śląska podzielona jest wzdłuż uskoku Skawy na dwa odcinki. Zachodni charakteryzuje się potężnym rozwojem kredowych piaskowców godulskich, we wschodnim odsłaniają się na znaczniejszym obszarze warstwy krośnieńskie. Płaszczowina podśląska występuje w postaci porozrywanych strzępów i płatów pojawiających się u brzegu płaszczowiny śląskiej, jak również w oknach tektonicznych w obrębie jednostki śląskiej. Jednostka skolska występuje na północ od Wadowic i Andrychowa, gdzie tworzy element łuskowo nasunięty na miocen zapadliska przedkarpackiego.
EN
The Polish Outer Carpathians between Bielsko-Biała and Nowy Targ are built up from the thrust, imbricated Upper Jurassic - Neogene flysch deposits. The following Outer Carpathian nappes have been distinguished: Magura Nappe, Fore-Magura group of nappes, Silesian, Subsilesian and Skole Nappes. The Magura Nappe borders along Stare Bystre-Szaflary line with the Pieniny Klippen Belt. It is thrust over the Fore-Magura and Silesian nappes at least 20 km. The Skawa line system of faults displaces the Magura Nappe margin 2 km northward. The Fore-Magura narrow zone runs from Milówka to the southern slope of Beskid Mały, where disappears from the surface. The Silesian Nappe is devided into two segments along the Skawa fault. The western one is characterized by the development of Cretaceous Godula Sandstones, eastern by the occurrence of Krosno Beds. The Sub-Silesian Nappe occurs as broken pieces along the northern margin of the Silesian Nappe, as well as in the tectonic windows within the Silesian Nappe. The Skole Unit is thrust over the Miocene deposits of Carpathian Foredeep in the area north of Wadowice and Andrychów.
EN
The Holovnia Siliceous Marls represent carbonate turbidites interbedded with non-calcareous pelagic/hemipelagic shales. This study reports on bioturbation pattern, trace fossil assemblage and distribution of bioturbation structures, i.e. structures resulting from the life activity of organisms in general, in the succession exposed in the village of Rybotycze. 20 ichnospecies were identified, with one new ichnogenus (Squamichnus) and one new species (Squamichnus acinaceformis). The ichnofossils represent nearly exclusively fodinichnia produced close to the seafloor, below calcite compensation depth. Shallow location of anoxic pore waters is indicated to be responsible for relatively shallow bioturbation depth whereas variability in frequency of turbidite sedimentation and petrographic composition of turbidites is suggested as the chief control on the vertical distribution of the bioturbation structures in the succession.
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