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PL
Przemiany związane ze zmianami klimatycznymi wymagają nowego podejścia do zarządzania zielenią i lasami. To samo dotyczy sposobu prowadzenia dialogu społecznego oraz informowania o działaniach zarządców.
PL
Utrzymywanie zieleni wzdłuż pasów drogowych jest od kilku lat tematem niezwykle emocjonalnych dyskusji. Formalnie nie jest to zieleń dzika, ale urządzona, zaprojektowana wraz z funkcjami, które ma spełniać jako wyposażenie pasa drogowego, i regulowana aktami prawnymi.
EN
Purpose: Communication is a vital tool in the process of building and shaping social relations, which affects the image and reputation of companies, including chemical companies. Communication, carried out in various ways, is a complex and dynamic process. In the context of social relations, communication is the basic tool and way of transmitting and receiving information. The aim of the conducted research was to evaluate the existing communication system in selected social media channels implemented by a chemical company in the context of corporate social responsibility. The article presents the communication processes in Grupa Azoty as a case study in social media in correlation with social responsibility activities. Design/Methodology/Approach: The article applies a case study of Grupa Azoty ZAK S.A., along with the analysis of statistics collected from selected communication channels of Grupa Azoty ZAK S.A. In addition, direct interviews were conducted with employees of the organizational unit supervising communication processes to supplement the analysis. Findings: The interpretation of the indicators described for the purposes of this article proves, among other things, that there is a mutual dependence between CSR activities and communication in social media. The research showed that CSR posts are among the most popular publications, and the analysis of the characteristics of post themes shows the audience's interest in multimedia-based CSR-related posts. Furthermore, the research proves that CSR communication depends on the geopolitical situation, current topics arousing the greatest interest among the general public, and the world situation. Research Limitations/Implications: The analysis is based on a single case study. Practical Implications: Those responsible for communication in the organization should be aware of the needs and expectations of the local community, which affect the level of interest in the publication's topics, translating into a positive image of the company involved in activities that are very important from the point of view of the local community. Social Implications: Shaping social attitudes, building relationships that affect the image of a chemical company in social media is, therefore, an important and significant tool in broad and complex communication processes. Constant monitoring of statistical indicators of message recipients is a necessary activity to draw conclusions and recommendations for future actions. Companies can assess which communication channels to develop to adapt to global trends, how to attract new recipients, and how to build identity with the brand. Originality/Value: The presented research results concern the communication processes carried out in social media in the context of corporate social responsibility - a topic that is not widely studied.
EN
The maritime industry has begun to look into autonomous ships as an alternative to conventional ships due to growing pressure to reduce the environmental impact of maritime transportation, to increase safety, to mitigate the growing challenges in recruiting seafarers, and to increase profit margins. There is a lot of research on the challenges and feasibilities of an autonomous ship. However, there is less discussion on the transition from manned to unmanned ships and the tasks that are feasible to automate before the whole ship is unmanned. This paper investigates the technical and regulatory feasibility of automating different tasks for different operational phases for a large cargo ship. This study shows that a fully unmanned cargo ship is not feasible today, but that some tasks can be automated within the next five years.
5
Content available remote Review of nanoantennas application
EN
Currently, nanoantennas represent significant potential for the future, and the scientific community is putting a lot of effort into developing these devices. Many publications deal with different types such as plasmonic, dielectric, or hybrid, and structures of nanoantennas such as dipole, Yagi-Uda, and others; therefore, the idea arose to create an article summarizing the possibilities of using these devices in the last five years. The paper focuses on a brief description of currently investigated types of antennas, especially in the scientific field, and lists the most common applications of nanoantennas.
PL
Obecnie nanoanteny mają znaczny potencjał na przyszłość, a społeczność naukowa wkłada wiele wysiłku w rozwój tych urządzeń. Wiele publikacji dotyczy różnych typów, takich jak plazmoniczne, dielektryczne lub hybrydowe, oraz struktur nanoanten, takich jak dipol, Yagi-Uda i inne; zrodził się więc pomysł stworzenia artykułu podsumowującego możliwości wykorzystania tych urządzeń w ciągu ostatnich pięciu lat. W artykule skupiono się na zwięzłej charakterystyce obecnie badanych rodzajów anten, zwłaszcza w obszarze naukowym, oraz wymieniono najczęstsze zastosowania anten nanoanteny.
6
Content available Crisis Communication During the Covid-19 Pandemic
EN
Crisis communication is an important element in the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic. It allows for efficient exchange of information between the government and society. The crisis situation caused by Sars-CoV-2 has a negative impact on human life and health as well as on the information environment. Institutions and specially appointed teams responsible for providing information are obliged to provide reliable information based on expert knowledge. A dangerous phenomenon is disinformation, which, combined with the pandemic, may cause an increase in the crisis situation and the risks associated with it. Crisis communication based on principles and goals will lead to overcoming the effect of panic, fear and ignorance among the public. The aim of the article is to present the methods of crisis communication during the Covid-19 pandemic. In order to draw conclusions about the researched problem, the method of analysis of sources conducted with the technique of desk research secondary data analysis was used. Existing materials, including developed reports and summaries, were analysed.
EN
The article aims to identify and compare behaviour patterns of Polish social enterprises, especially those operating in the IT branch and using social media to communicate with their clients. The research consisted of a multidimensional qualitative and quantitative content analysis, including Cramér’s V correlation coefficient based on chi-squared statistic, also suitable for nominal data types. The article focused on client communication content created and placed on social media by Polish social enterprises from the IT and other branches. The research sample comprised 301 entities. According to the adopted assumption, the statistical research (correlation analysis) results showed certain behaviour patterns within the scope of the analysed area and revealed significant circumstances that affect communication. Due to the profile of professional competencies, the IT industry prefers communicating via social media, which aims to formulate a concise and precise message. Social enterprises in the group of the most economically effective entities have a unique way of using social media. They choose the most popular social media and, at the same time, to some extent, expand their communication to more specialised platforms. The applied approach is a new way to analyse social enterprise activities in social media. The analysis findings contribute to a greater understanding of connections between the discussed phenomena. The presented research procedure can be applied to determine the impact of other competencies of the analysed entities on sustainability communication in social media. According to research, IT entities enrich the current trends in social media use by social enterprises. The research results may be useful for banks, investors and public institutions forecasting the success of social enterprises and making support-related decisions. The scale and scope of the use of social media platforms for communication with the market may be a criterion in measuring the chances to commercialise goods and services offered by social enterprises.
EN
This study aims to assess the lecturers’ opinions about the use of e-learning tools to support distance and blended learning in higher education in Portugal, evidently reinforced by the COVID-19 pandemic. This research was based on a qualitative methodology, specifically, a focus group with professors from five higher education institutions from different geographical areas in Portugal. The obtained results were analysed along four main dimensions: (1) the level of knowledge of e-learning tools, (2) the reasons for using or (3) not using them, and, finally, (4) the opinion of lecturers on the student assessment process using these tools. The results showed that in addition to the concerns with smooth running classes and the appropriate delivery of the syllabus, the lecturers considered the transition to the e-learning context to have been easy. They noted a high level of literacy in the used tools, believed in the continued use of e-learning in the post-pandemic context, indicated several advantages for those involved in the e-learning context and a majority of limitations related to the time required for the adoption of more tools; and, finally, underlined the student assessment issue, which was pointed out as the most sensitive topic in the whole e-learning context. The study informed on the lecturers’ perspective on e-learning and the used tools and provided insight into their perceived usefulness and benefits for lecturers and students. An especially strong concern was verified on the part of lecturers to optimise e-learning tools to provide better knowledge delivery to students.
EN
Risk, as an effect of uncertainty, is associated with every human activity. Like any other industry, construction companies are eager to reduce the uncertainty of reluctant events. A well-planned risk communication system could contribute to the success of a construction project. A proper announcement protocol could be a mitigating lever for identified or unidentified risks during planning and monitoring processes. This research aims to present a risk communication management system (RCMS) for construction companies involved in large projects. The proposed model includes a step-by-step communication procedure considering the authority level within the organisational hierarchical structure. The model aims to remove the ambiguity of risk communications during the construction process under uncertain conditions. It leaves no or little room for the emergence of unplanned risks. The proposed communication structure has been implemented in GRC cladding construction projects, and the risk communication time and response have been significantly improved.
EN
Elektrometal S.A. celebrates its 75th anniversary. The article describes the key product groups introduced to the company's offer in the last 20 years. The company has supplied the mining market with: technological communication systems, helmet lamps, modular controllers (PLC) in intrinsically safe design, data transmission modules, distribution field. Besides the mining market the most important market for Elektrometal its area of interest is also the gas market, where it offers reducers, gas meters and gas cabinets. Recently, it has also been implementing comprehensive installations related to reduction and measurement points. The company provides industrial lighting, high-power chargers for the electromobility market and is interested in alternative energy sources, such as biogas plants.
PL
Artykuł opisuje kluczowe grupy produktowe wprowadzone do oferty firmy w okresie ostatnich 20 lat. Krótko charakteryzuje przyczyny ich powstania oraz cele związane z ich zastosowaniem na rynku górniczym. Rozwój wyrobów przedstawiony jest na tle rozwoju całej branży górniczej.
EN
This paper investigates the fact that construction projects, due to their specificity, are complex, temporary and dynamic. Over their course, participants change, successive construction works are done and new information becomes available. This carries over to difficulties in communication. In the literature, numerous studies note the fact that a network-based approach to the analysis and monitoring of communication as a part of complex construction projects is commendable. Relations between agents, knowledge and tasks in the context of communication within a construction project can be visualized in the form of a meta-network, and suitably developed structural measures can be used to analyze them. In this paper, the authors used meta-network theory to analyze relations between project participants, knowledge and tasks in the context of communication within a construction project, on the basis of the construction of a housing estate located in Katowice, Poland. Meta-network structural analysis allowed for a deeper understanding of these relations and the detection of essential information about the level of communication in the project under investigation, which was a basis for further discussion. The authors also stress the benefits from the approach presented and argue that it should be a starting point for effective management in the sphere of communication in construction companies.
PL
W artykule zwrócono uwagę na fakt, że przedsięwzięcie budowlane ze względu na swój charakter jest złożone, tymczasowe i dynamiczne. Rozwój przemysłu budowlanego sprawił, iż zwiększyła się świadomość potrzeby lepszego zarządzania przedsięwzięciami w przemyśle budowlanym. W licznych publikacjach wskazano na utrudnienia i wyzwania w zarządzaniu przedsięwzięciami budowlanymi. Zarządzanie przedsięwzięciami budowlanymi w tradycyjnym podejściu skupia się w pierwszej kolejności na planowaniu zadań wraz z przydziałem do nich zasobów odnawialnych (ludzie, sprzęt) i nieodnawialnych (materiały). W czasie trwania realizacji przedsięwzięcia uwaga skoncentrowana jest na organizowaniu i przydziale zasobów do zadań i monitorowaniu ich realizacji wraz z kontrolą ich odchyleń od planu i budżetu a także ewentualnymi działaniami korygującymi. Stosowane przy tym różne techniki zarządzania nie uwzględniają w analizie relacji między uczestnikami przedsięwzięcia budowlanego, a realizowanymi przez nich zadaniami i posiadaną wiedzą. Zauważyć należy, iż takie interakcje między ludźmi, organizacjami, zadaniami są podstawą złożonego systemu komunikacji w przedsięwzięciach budowlanych. Przekłada się to jednocześnie na utrudnioną komunikacje. W literaturze zwraca się uwagę na fakt, że podejście sieciowe do analizy i monitorowania komunikacji w ramach złożonych przedsięwzięć budowlanych jest odpowiednie.
EN
The article describes the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic and quarantine on the personality of contemporary adolescents. Due to the relevance of the topic around the world, the work focuses on adolescence, which is the most vulnerable to the changes caused by the pandemic. The features of adolescents, their new psycho-social formations and the specifics of the crises of this period are described. The emphasis has been placed on the significance of the role of communication in adolescence, where the leading tendency is peer communication. The research process was somewhat complicated due to the introduction of such quarantine regulations as distance learning, ban on mass gatherings, and so on. The article presents the results of an empirical study of the impact of quarantine on the personality of adolescents, namely the assessment of state (reactive) anxiety and identifying and assessing communication and organisational aptitudes of an individual (a communication study). Restrictions on social interactions in adolescence, physical activity, and inability to learn offline during quarantine lead to changes in the psycho-emotional state of adolescents, that is increased anxiety, depression, fear, aggression, etc. However, the article reveals both the negative and positive aspects of the impact of quarantine on an individual. In conditions of social isolation, uncertainty of the situation, and the influence of emotional tension, certain interpersonal and intrapersonal conflicts can occur leading to changes in the psychological state of an adolescent. Therefore, the implementation of quarantine regulations should entail awareness raising work among the population in order to reduce the impact of managing risk factors. The article describes the features of psychologists’ psycho-correctional work with adolescents, educational and awareness raising work with parents and teachers to help adolescents adapt to the new living conditions in quarantine and distance learning.
PL
Artykuł opisuje wpływ pandemii i kwarantanny Covid-19 na osobowość współczesnego nastolatka. Ze względu na aktualność tematu na całym świecie, publikacja skupia się na okresie dojrzewania, który jest najbardziej narażony na zmiany wywołane pandemią. Opisano cechy nastoletniego dziecka oraz specyfikę kryzysu tego okresu. Nacisk kładzie się na znaczenie komunikacji w okresie dojrzewania, gdy wiodącym trendem jest komunikacja z rówieśnikami. Proces badawczy nieco skomplikowała sytuacja z wprowadzeniem wymogów kwarantanny: nauczanie na odległość, zakaz masowych zgromadzeń i tak dalej. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badania empirycznego wpływu kwarantanny na osobowość nastolatka, a więc ocenę poziomu niepokoju sytuacyjnego (reaktywnego), oraz rozpoznanie i ocenę tendencji komunikacyjnych i organizacyjnych jednostki (badanie sfery komunikacyjnej). Ograniczenia interakcji społecznych w okresie dojrzewania, aktywność fizyczna, niemożność uczenia się offline podczas kwarantanny, prowadzą do zmian stanu psychoemocjonalnego dorastającego (wzrost niepokóju, depresji, strachu, agresji itp.). Artykuł ujawnia jednak zarówno negatywne, jak i pozytywne aspekty wpływu kwarantanny na jednostkę. W warunkach izolacji społecznej, niestabilności sytuacji, pod wpływem napięcia emocjonalnego mogą wystąpić konflikty interpersonalne i intrapersonalne, które prowadzą do zmian stanu psychicznego adolescenta. Dlatego wdrożenie środków kwarantanny wymaga pracy edukacyjnej ze społeczeństwem, w celu zmniejszenia wpływu zarządzanych czynników ryzyka. W artykule opisano cechy pracy psychokorekcyjnej psychologów z młodzieżą, pracy wychowawczej z rodzicami i nauczycielami, mającej na celu przystosowanie młodzieży do nowych warunków życia w kwarantannie i kształceniu na odległość.
PL
Przedmiotem numeru tematycznego „Zeszytów Naukowych Politechniki Poznańskiej - Architektura i Urbanistyka, Architektura Wnętrz” jest problem wpływu transportu samochodowego na miasta zabytkowe. Interesuje nas szczególnie kwestia planowania tras komunikacyjnych na terenach historycznych układów przestrzennych. We wprowadzeniu syntetycznie omówiono zasadnicze cele i kierunki analiz tego zagadnienia z perspektywy historii urbanistyki i interdyscyplinarnych studiów nad miastami. Artykuł ma charakter wprowadzający, oprócz tytułowego zagadnienia (w tym otwartego kwestionariusza pytań badawczych) przedstawia także pokrótce opublikowane w numerze artykuły, wskazując znaczenie problemu trasowania miast zabytkowych dawniej i współcześnie w aspektach kulturowych i rewitalizacyjnych.
EN
The aim of the thematic issue of „Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Poznańskiej - Architektura i Urbanistyka, Architektura Wnętrz” is to offer a variety of contributions, covering problems of automobile transportation on historic urban structures. Of special interest are throughfares within historic towns and their impact on urban heritage protection. In this editorial I discuss main directions and research problems of such studies as part of urban history and town planning history, especially in their interdisciplinarity. In this introduction readers will find not only a brief overview of the main research field - relationships between urban automobile mobility and heritage protection - but also short resumes of all contributions, grouped in three thematic sections of this issue. The aim of this collection of essays is to bring new attention to traffic, automobile culture and heritage protection in urban networks, renewing historiography of this problem in studies conducted in Poland. Henceforth, various case studies from Poland were presented in this collection.
PL
Obraz, jako jedna z form komunikacji, służy przekazywaniu odbiorcy emocji, wartości oraz idei i stanowi zbiór odczytywanych w trakcie procesu poznawczego danych na temat form przestrzennych. Może to wpływać na optymalizację procesów projektowych, przekładając się na charakter projektowanych przestrzeni architektonicznych oraz urbanistycznych, poddawanych autorskiej interpretacji i analizie. Ocena ich jakości i komfortu odnosi się do formy, funkcji, struktury oraz kontekstu, a rejestrowana jest z udziałem intuicyjnie działającego zmysłu rozpoznania bezpieczeństwa i wygody. Świadome poszerzenie pola odbioru oraz interpretacji przestrzeni o sfery sensualnej percepcji, otwiera nowe możliwości interpretacji oraz zacieśnia odległe obszary badań, dając nowy wymiar artefaktom (dziełom sztuki), traktowanym, jako czynnik opiniotwórczy, także w środowiskach bezpośrednio niezwiązanych z procesem projektowym oraz wykonawczym. Metody badawcze opierają się na analizie modelowej architektury, w procesie pogłębionej percepcji oraz interpretacyjnego zapisu.
EN
The image, as one of the forms of communication, serves to convey emotions and values, ideas, it is a set of contents read in the cognitive process, a set of data about architectural forms, which, when subjected to original interpretation and analysis, may influence the optimization of design processes, translating into the quality of the designed architectural forms. The assessment of the quality and comfort of a space concerns form, function, structure, and context and is recorded with the participation of an intuitive sense of security and appreciation of comfort. Consciously expanding the field of interpretation and reception of architectural space with the sphere of sensory perception, opens up new possibilities of interpretation and tightens distant areas of research, giving a new dimension to works of art, treated as an opinion-forming factor, also in environments not directly related to the design and implementation process. Research methods are based on the selection, analysis of the selected architecture, in the process of in-depth recording of perceptions and interpretations.
PL
Przebudowa i modernizacja wielu zespołów śródmiejskich w miastach polskich - rozpoczęta na progu lat 60. XX w. - opierała się w znacznym stopniu na doświadczeniach i wzorcach zachodnich, a także doktrynie zakładającej intensywny rozwój i uprzemysłowienie. Przemieszczanie się i transport były jednymi z głównych założeń Karty Ateńskiej, dokumentu kształtującego myślenie pokoleń urbanistów i architektów. Fascynacja jej twórców motoryzacją i zaletami indywidualnego transportu doprowadziły w efekcie do stworzenia modelu miasta dla samochodów. Przyjęcie tych założeń stało się punktem wyjścia do akceptacji szeregu komunikacyjnych ingerencji w zabytkowe struktury miast. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest określenie doktrynalnych przesłanek oraz analiza zjawisk w odbudowywanych miastach historycznych z punktu widzenia rozwiązań komunikacyjnych. W artykule omówiono założenia doktrynalne, ewolucję transportu i motoryzacji. Opisano także rozwój komunikacji w polskich miastach oraz ich wpływ na przekształcenia historycznie ukształtowanych obszarów śródmiejskich.
EN
The reconstruction and modernization of many inner-city complexes in Polish cities - started at the beginning of the 1960s - was largely based on Western models and experiences, as well as the doctrine of intensive development and industrialization. Movement and transport were one of the main assumptions of the Athens Charter, a document shaping the thinking of generations of urban planners and architects. Its creators, fascinated with motorization and the advantages of individual transport, designed a model of a city for cars. The adoption of these assumptions became the starting point for the acceptance of a number of transport interventions in the historic structures of cities. The aim of this article is to define the doctrinal premises and to analyze the phenomena in the reconstructed historical cities in terms of communication solutions. The article discusses the doctrinal assumptions, the evolution of transport and motorization, and describes the development of urban transport in Polish cities, as well as their impact on the transformation of historically shaped downtown areas.
EN
Purpose: The communication between a patient and the staff of a clinic's reception desk forms the patient's ideas and opinions about the entire health care facility. The purpose of this article was to analyze the assessment of the level of service provided by selected private health care facilities, on the example of handling the patient at the reception desk. Design/methodology/approach: The SERVQUAL service quality assessment method has been used in the research. The research was carried out in seven private health care facilities located in the Silesian Voivodship, in the cities with a population of between 100,000 and 250,000. 220 patients have been surveyed. The survey consisted of two questionnaires, a section concerning the determination of the weights of specific criteria and the section with demographic questions. Both surveys included 22 statements each, and there were also 4 demographic questions included. The assessments were made by giving points on the Likert scale of 1-7. The study was carried out from January to March 2022. Findings: The conducted analysis of the level of the studied service allowed for identifying key areas that require corrective actions. The biggest gaps between patient assessments and expectations concern such aspects as: response time, reliability, and empathy. Research limitations/implications: Due to the fact that the worst-rated areas are closely related to communication, it is advisable to take corrective actions on the part of management as soon as possible. It is also advisable to conduct a study on the diagnosis of errors made in patient’s service during registration on the example of other health care entities. Practical implications: The application of the SERVQUAL method enabled to diagnose the expected and obtained quality level of the tested service in the opinion of patients of selected NZOZs. Social implications: The results of the conducted research confirm that effective and efficient use of communication in the process of providing health care services influences the maximization of patients’ satisfaction and, as a result, it requires systematic investments in the development of human potential. Originality/value: In the conducted study, a model of the quality of patients service in reception desk in non-public health care units was proposed. The evaluation criteria were presented in the model in order to diagnose dimensions that are perceived well by the patients and those that, in their opinion, require improvement.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the study was to understand the role of communication and building positive relations in the NGO project team and to answer the following questions: (1) what factors and behaviors influence positive relations in the NGO project team? and (2) to what extent direct and indirect communication affect the efficiency of information flow? Design/methodology/approach: The authors conducted a case study in a selected project team operating in a non-governmental organization in Poland. Findings: The results of the study allow one to better understand the specific challenges the selected NGO project team was facing. Thus, they add new knowledge to the issues on effective communication and building positive relationships in NGO project teams. Moreover, the case study outcomes set the guidelines for further in-depth studies of a quantitative nature. Research limitations/implications: Being aware of the limitations resulting from the deliberate selection of the project team for the study, an analysis of the answers obtained was undertaken, the results of which allow one to present the issues of communication and building positive relationships within project teams in non-governmental organizations. In order to make generalizations, further in-depth research in this area should be carried out. Practical implications: In non-governmental organizations, authorities and project managers should increase their competences in the field of effective communication and building positive relationships in project teams in order to successfully implement projects. Social implications: Knowledge of the methods of effective communication and building positive relationships in project teams allows to increase awareness among members of non-governmental organizations of how the ways of working and team involvement affect the success of projects. Originality/value: A case study was conducted in a selected project team operating in an NGO on the importance of communication and building positive relationships. The article is addressed to people involved in NGO project management research and to third-sector entities.
EN
This article analyzes the expectations of the management board and managerial staff as opposed to the expectations and concerns of regular employees of the company. Communication between the decision-making and executive groups is presented as one of the key elements determining the proper operation of the quality management system in the enterprise. In the practical part, the results of the research covering the management and regular employees were presented and compared. The research is aimed at diagnosing the quality of information flow in the enterprise based on the quality management system in the assessment of both surveyed groups, determining the perception of the importance and scale of participation in the proposed corrective actions among the surveyed groups of respondents, and diagnosing the level of informing rank-and-file employees about the goals and importance of conducting internal and external audits. The research also covered the role of lower-level employees in the effective functioning of the company’s quality management system. An attempt was made to analyze the degree of participation of regular employees in the functioning of the quality management system in the enterprise. The article ends with the conclusions and proposals for future research.
19
Content available Software solutions for GMDSS network and equipment
EN
This paper introduces software solutions for communication, equipment control, and management of oceangoing ships for enhanced Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) network and equipment. This software controls all maritime transmission systems and integrates communications software at level of server and workstations. Equipment control software is used to control and maintained locally or remotely transceivers, transmitters, receivers and other hardware. Special management software is included to process, analyze and exploit the various types of information generated by GMDSS networks and equipment. This papers are also includes the concept of software solutions on radio and satellite GMDSS ship terminals, on radio and satellite GMDSS coast terminals, and as well as in GMDSS Cospas-Sarsat ground terminals. In addition, the cybersecurity system in GMDSS security management is also described in this paper.
EN
The objective of this paper is to show from another perspective that the definition of the spectrum of a sampled signal, which is used at present by researchers and engineers, is nothing else than an arbitrary choice for what is possibly not uniquely definable. To this end and for illustration, the Shannon’s proof of reconstruction formula is used. As we know, an auxiliary mathematical entity is constructed in this proof by performing periodization of the spectrum of an analog, bandlimited, energy signal. Admittedly, this entity is not called there a spectrum of the sampled signal - there is simply no need for this in the proof – but as such it is used in signal processing. And, it is not clear why just this auxiliary mathematical object has been chosen in signal processing to play a role of a definition of the spectrum of a sampled signal. We show here what are the interpretation inconsistences associated with the above choice. Finally, we propose another, simpler and more useful definition of the spectrum of a sampled signal, for the cases where it can be needed.
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