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EN
In recent years, environmental aspects of transport have been at the center of attention for research concerning sustainable development. The most discussed topics comprise vehicle emission production and fuel consumption. These are influenced by many variables and factors. In addition to individual vehicle characteristics and attributes, engine performances, exhaust systems, and their overall construction designs, the terrain and road profile itself have a non-negligible effect on emission production. Road profile parameters can increase or decrease the total vehicle consumption if its potential is utilized correctly. This manuscript discusses the options to reduce road vehicle consumption while accelerating where its velocity is decreased and yet again increased when using the longitudinal terrain profile principle. The physical relations for this subject are presented in the manuscript as well. Based on the data and knowledge achieved, the manuscript then addresses several scenarios in which the fuel consumption of the examined vehicle and an occurrence of certain emission types are examined. Lastly, multiple development trends that can positively affect the specified road vehicle’s negative effects on the environment are described. The novel approach of the conducted research consists primarily of the interdisciplinary connection between road transport planning and vehicle traffic study (i.e., negative environmental aspects resulting from road transport can be mitigated not only by assistant devices installed in vehicles, such as catalytic converters, solid particle filters but also by constructing judiciously designed roads).
EN
We present a novel study concerning the attitudes of road transport enterprises towards a broad application of telematics in operational management in road transportation. The study aims to assess telematics application in road transport and its changes over time while showing the factors most likely to determine the systems’ use. Unobserved categories defined in the technology acceptance model (TAM) are adjusted to measure perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitudes toward using telematics systems by road transport managers. The study is based on 323 transport enterprises analyzed in two waves in 2020 and 2021. The use of two different time points is motivated by an observed increase in the digitalization of transport documents caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The empirical findings support the TAM’s usefulness in evaluating IT in transport business management. The findings also reveal that the significantly increased telematics use in 2020 was observed while it was endured. The results are checked for robustness and used for simulations. The study compares managers’ behaviors over time and simulates the effect of individual (observed) variables on unobserved TAM categories.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono aspekty mostowe, których rozwiązanie było kluczowe przy planowaniu logistyki transportu samochodowego tarczy TBM przez Polskę.
EN
The article presents bridge aspects, the solution of which was crucial when planning the logistics of road transport of the TBM shield through Poland.
EN
In the realities of modern battlefield, training of soldiers is crucial, therefore it is so important to develop an optimal concept of moving troops by rail transport, for exercises and training in peacetime. Using the simulation of the implementation of rail and road transport, it is possible to analyse and meet the needs of the selected relationship of individual stages of the process studied. Simulation model allows to state that it serves as an illustrative, training element and an element showing some results with changeable situations, therefore it can be a solution for training and making critical decisions for competent commanders.
EN
In this paper a programmable steering machine (PSM) and the lightweight electric powered vehicle, designed and made at the Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom (UTH Radom) have been presented. Both these technical objects are the result of the project carried out by the Student Research Group “Turbodoładowani”. The steering machine has been developed with the programmable algorithms allowing to execute a controllable movement of the vehicle steering wheel. After execution, the system does not need an interaction with the driver. For this reason, a higher repetition of the vehicle traction measurements can be achieved. Such confirmation obtained in tests within which the time waveforms of rotation angle of the steering wheel by a set value of 45, 90, 180 and 360 degrees was recorded. In particular, the accuracy index for mentioned test conditions was calculated. Obtained results, expressed by the average value of the sensitivity index were lower than 2% within the tests carried out for ±45 degree maneuvers. In case of other tests i.e., for ±90, ±180 and ±360 degree maneuvers the accuracy index value was lower than 0.3%. In this way, it was confirmed that the tested PSM reached the appropriate operating parameters necessary for vehicle traction tests.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono programowalną maszynę sterującą (PMS) oraz lekki pojazd o napędzie elektrycznym, zaprojektowane i wykonane na Uniwersytecie Technologiczno-Humanistycznym w Radomiu (UTH Radom). Oba te obiekty techniczne są efektem projektu realizowanego przez Studenckie Koło Naukowe „Turbodoładowani”. Maszynę sterującą opracowano z programowalnymi algorytmami pozwalającymi na wykonanie sterowanego ruchu kierownicą pojazdu. Po wykonaniu system nie wymaga interakcji z kierowcą. Z tego powodu można uzyskać większą powtarzalność pomiarów trakcji pojazdu. Potwierdzenie takie uzyskano w badaniach, w których rejestrowano przebiegi czasowe kąta obrotu kierownicy o zadaną wartość 45,90, 180 i 360 stopni. W szczególności obliczono wskaźnik dokładności dla wspomnianych warunków testowych. Uzyskane wyniki wyrażone średnią wartością wskaźnika czułości były niższe niż 2% w badaniach przeprowadzonych dla manewrów ±45 stopni. W przypadku pozostałych badań tj. dla manewrów ±90, ±180 i±360 stopni wartość wskaźnika celności była mniejsza niż 0,3%. Potwierdzono w ten sposób, że badany PSM osiągnął odpowiednie parametry eksploatacyjne niezbędne do badań trakcji pojazdu.
EN
Involvement in corporate social responsibility (CSR) is of increasing importance across different economic sectors, including transport industry. This study examines the relationship between CSR and efficiency of companies in the transport industry. It belongs to the type of quantitative research and extends the scope of research related to the subject of CSR and efficiency of companies in the transport industry. Whereas previous literature lacks empirical research analyzing the relation between CSR and efficiency in the transport industry, the present study aims to fill in this research gap. The study focuses on data for 2013–2015 period and on major transport companies in the USA, in particular those representing the air and road transport sectors. The paper is based on Data Envelopment Analysis method which is used to measure efficiency, while the Pearson correlation coefficient is used to detect the relationship between CSR and efficiency. The results confirm positive relationship between CSR and efficiency of transport companies. The paper contains further evidence on the relationship between individual CSR areas (social, environmental and governance CSR) and efficiency. This study can contribute not only as a recommendation for transport companies, but also as an introduction to further and more detailed research of the relation between CSR and efficiency.
PL
Zaangażowanie w społeczną odpowiedzialność biznesu (CSR) nabiera coraz większego znaczenia w różnych sektorach gospodarki, w tym w branży transportowej. W niniejszym artykule zbadano związek pomiędzy CSR a efektywnością przedsiębiorstw branży transportowej. Opracowanie należy do typu badań ilościowych i poszerza zakres badań związanych z tematyką CSR i efektywnością przedsiębiorstw branży transportowej. W dotychczasowej literaturze brakowało badań empirycznych analizujących związek między CSR i efektywnością branży transportowej i właśnie niniejszy artykuł ma na celu wypełnienie tej luki badawczej. Badanie opiera się na danych z lat 2013–2015 i dotyczy czołowych firm transportowych w Stanach Zjednoczonych, reprezentujących sektor transportu lotniczego i drogowego. W artykule wykorzystano metodę Data Envelopment Analysis, która służy do pomiaru efektywności, natomiast współczynnik korelacji Pearsona został wykorzystany do analizy związku pomiędzy CSR a efektywnością. Wyniki badań potwierdzają pozytywny związek pomiędzy CSR a efektywnością firm transportowych. Artykuł zawiera również analizy dotyczące związku pomiędzy poszczególnymi obszarami CSR (społecznym, środowiskowym i ładem korporacyjnym) i efektywnością. Niniejsze opracowanie może stanowić nie tylko rekomendację dla firm transportowych, ale także wstęp do dalszych i bardziej szczegółowych badań nad związkiem między CSR i efektywnością.
EN
Emissions from transport account for 20-25% of anthropogenic global carbon dioxide emissions [17, 37], with more than 70% coming from road transport, making it an extremely important topic in the context of decarbonization. The aim of the article is to analyze the trend of CO2 generated from road transport, taking into account various sources, and also to examine how reduced mobility during the pandemic affected the emissions at the time. For this purpose, a time series containing observations up to the pandemic outbreak and a time series containing additional observations from the pandemic period were analyzed. For each time series, a trend was determined and described by a polynomial and then verified to see if the pandemic phenomenon significantly affects a parameter of the proposed model, using appropriate statistical tests.
EN
Road freight transport is one of the main modes of transporting goods in the European Union. This reality puts pressure on carriers to make every transport of goods fast, safe, cheap, and efficient. Based on these requirements, lorry drivers are often forced by their employers to break the current social legislation in the European Union and the rules of the road. Compared to the current social legislation in force in different parts of the world, the European Union rules on driving times, breaks and rest periods for drivers engaged in road haulage and passenger transport are the strictest. An important factor and reason of serious and fatal traffic accidents, extensive damage to goods or property in road freight transport is a driver. This article presents three different types of experiments that were carried out, and the results may help to improve the current situation. The main aim of this study was to verify whether the actual regulations are safe and suitable and compare the results of daily work of professional drivers in two different measurements. Last measurement was conducted with using Eye-tacking technology, which aimed to verify impact of experiences on the reaction times of drivers. The authors believe that the results of individual measurements can contribute to increasing safety in road freight transport with preparing future extended studies and proposing the possible changes of current regulation.
9
EN
The last few decades have been characterised by the rapid development of technology and various industries around the world, as well as increasing levels of urbanisation. The development of technology has resulted in the emergence of many inventions, vehicles and equipment. This has resulted in many unforeseen consequences generating threats to the environment in which humans’ function. One of these hazards is the noise emitted by vehicles. For this reason, environmental protection was created in response to threats to human existence (this work is to determine the level of noise resulting from traffic transportation in the city of Pila. In order to achieve the given objective in the city, sound values will be adopted and an acoustic map will be developed on their basis. A large amount of noise in the city of Pila is caused by road transportation, but from the results of the study it can be said that it is minimally exceeded only on two streets by less than five decibels and on three other streets where it is equal to the permissible noise value. The main places where the most noise is generated are two-lane roads and traffic lights and roundabouts. A lot of noise is generated when there are a large number of vehicles slowing down and starting in these places. A very big plus in the fight against noise in Pila is public transportation.
EN
Every year too many people lose their lives and health on Polish roads. At best, it only ends with damage to their cars. The number of accidents is very high. Despite the construction of new, safer roads, the number of collisions continues to rise, and death, every year, is suffered by about three thousand accident participants. On average, forty-one thousand people are injured annually. The main causes of accidents are failure to adjust speed to prevailing conditions or traffic regulations, driving under the influence of alcohol and random events, as well as the technical condition of the vehicles. The purpose of the article is to answer the question of how the technical condition of the vehicles affects traffic safety. For this reason, an assessment of the technical condition of vehicles during a periodic examination at a vehicle inspection station was made. Based on the study, it can be concluded that the largest percentage of defects detected during the examination is in the tire 40% and steering 40%, defects that are particularly important from the point of view of traffic safety, which were demonstrated during the examination.
EN
Walking is a basic form of activity for every human being and has many advantages, including health, economic and environmental benefits. Every journey made using various means of transport begins and ends on foot. As is well known, the group of road users particularly exposed to the risk of serious injury in road accidents, apart from cyclists, also includes pedestrians. These are the so-called vulnerable road users. Pedestrians are a group of road users that is often deprecated by many drivers of motor vehicles, but very important in road traffic. Pedestrian injuries and pedestrian fatalities have enormous social and economic consequences. The problem of high pedestrian risk on Polish roads is well known and has been widely described in the scientific literature last few years. However, the reasons for this state of affairs have not been fully explained, as evidenced by the statistics of road traffic incidents. Despite many studies in this area, the causes indicated in the research often differ depending on the area of analysis, the environment in which the incident took place, location, participants of the incident, environmental conditions, behaviorism and many other features. Therefore, the main goal of the article was to determine the factors influencing the formation of fatalities in road traffic accidents among pedestrians in accidents involving pedestrians and motor vehicles in the Silesian Voivodeship (Poland) in 2016-2021. The logit model presented in the article allowed for the conclusion that the main attributes influencing the increasing the risk of pedestrian death in road accidents involving a pedestrian with a motor vehicle include such features as driving under the influence of alcohol by the driver, exceeding the speed limit by the vehicle driver, when the road incident involves a heavy vehicle (truck, bus), a pedestrian is a male, pedestrian is over 60 years old, is under the influence of alcohol, the incident took place outside built-up area, at night, i.e. from 10:00 p.m. up to 6:00 a.m, in other than good weather conditions. The obtained results can be used in various activities, campaigns aimed at improving the safety of pedestrian traffic in the area of the analysis.
12
Content available Branża TSL w obliczu pandemii Covid-19
PL
Od 2020 roku sytuacja społeczno-gospodarcza na świecie była kształtowana przez wydarzenia związane z rozprzestrzenianiem się wirusa COVID-19. Jedną z wielu branż, która została zaskoczona przez COVID-19 jest branża TSL. By lepiej zrozumieć oma wiany temat, na wstępie zwrócono uwagę na różnice definicyjne: transpor– spedycja – lo gistyka. W artykule przedstawiono wybrane problemy, z którymi zetknęła się branża TSL w początkowej fazie pandemii oraz omówiono wybrane rozwiązania cyfrowe, do upowszechnienia których przyczyniła się pandemia.
EN
Since 2020, the socio-economic situation in the world has been shaped by events related to the spread of the COVID-19 virus. One of the many industries that has been taken by surprise by COVID-19 is the TSL industry. To better understand the discussed topic, at first, attention was paid to the differences in definitions: transport – shipping – logistics. The article presents selected problems faced by the TFL industry in the initial phase of pandemic and discusses selected digital solutions, the dissemina tion of which contributed to the pandemic.
13
Content available Bicycle traffic in the cities
EN
For many years in many Western Europe countries, cycling has been associated with not only recreation and tourism but has equally gained an important function as a means of transport used in everyday commuting to work, study and entertainment. The bicycle appears to be a very good alternative to motor vehicles that produce exhaust fumes and create congestion on road transport networks. Not only is the bicycle environmentally friendly and takes up little space in road transport networks, but also, the time of bicycle travel is often competitive in relation to travel made by private car or public transport. This article presents the characteristics of the bicycle infrastructure and services offered in selected cities in the world and Poland, as well as the issues of bicycle counters as sources of data on bicycle traffic volume, along with an exemplary analysis of this type of data.
14
Content available Initial assessment of the quality of road surfaces
EN
Purpose: The aim of the article is to check the quality of the road and classify the selected road on a four-level scale. Design/methodology/approach: The paper outlines the impact of comprehensive road surface quality management on the safety of vehicles and road users. The basic types of road damage were presented, as well as preliminary diagnostics of a randomly selected national road was carried out. Visual tests were carried out to determine: the type and geometry of the pavement damage, the number of damage, the area covered by the damage. In the article the damage indicators were calculated. The results allowed for the assessment of the quality of the tested pavement and its classification on a four-point scale. Findings: The quality of the road surface was assessed and classified as level C. Research limitations/implications: In the future, it can be suggested to change the methodology of investigate the road. It is proposal to using drone with the application. Practical implications: The research indicates the need to plan the renovation of the road surface and suggests changing the surface material from construction asphalt to the new modified asphalt. Originality/value: The article indicates the need to amend the documents and the current methodology of the procedure.
EN
This study characterizes the distribution chain of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in Poland, using the terminal in Świnoujście as the “source of LNG”. The focus is primarily on the possibility of LNG distribution for road transport, taking into account the effective use of its energy potential. During the transport and storage of LNG it was found that the evaporation of LNG, the so-called boil-off gas (BOG), is a significant problem that leads to an increased pressure in the tank. Therefore, the possibility of using BOG in individual links of the LNG supply chain is indicated. One prospect is its compression to high pressure, which produces compressed natural gas (CNG) fuels. Thus, this paper specifies the influence of the initial BOG gas pressure on the unit compression work and analyses the change in the compression unit work, which depends on the final CNG fuel pressure, with a specific assumption for the BOG pressure.
EN
The article synthetically characterizes the Polish freight transport sector compared to its counterpart in the European Union. The article presents the changes during the years 1990-2019 taking place in the number of various types of transport means used, belonging to Poland and 27 European Union countries. The volume and structure of the freight transport performance of Poland and the European Union as well as the changes taking place in them over the last 30 years were also characterised. The reasons for changes in the structure of freight transport performance in Poland were analysed. Various types of transport infrastructure in Poland were described and analysed, and the changes taking place in it were presented. The impact of EU funds on changes in the transport infrastructure of Poland was also described.
PL
Artykuł syntetycznie charakteryzuje sektor polskiego transportu towarowego na tle jego odpowiednika w Unii Europejskiej. Artykuł przedstawia zmiany w latach 1990-2019 zachodzące w ilości eksploatowanych różnego rodzaju środków transportu należących do Polski oraz 27 krajów Unii Europejskiej. Scharakteryzowano również wielkość i strukturę pracy przewozowej transportu towarowego Polski i Unii Europejskiej oraz zachodzące w nich na przestrzeni ostatnich 30 lat zmiany. Przeanalizowano powody zmian w strukturze pracy przewozowej transportu towarowego w Polsce. Opisano i poddano analizie różnego typu infrastrukturę transportową Polski oraz przedstawiono zachodzące w niej na przestrzeni 30 lat zmiany. Opisano również wpływ unijnych środków na zmiany zachodzące w infrastrukturze transportowej na terenie Polski.
EN
Road transport safety, apart from environmental protection, is one of the most important tasks for the contemporary world. Annually, about 50 million people are injured in road accidents around the world, of which nearly 1.5 million die as a result. Transport safety consists of many activities and includes various initiatives, including legal changes, training, preventive actions, building safe road infrastructure, and the production of safe vehicles and control systems. This article deals with the issue of performing roadside technical inspections in the Slovak Republic. Specifically, it analyses the results of these oadside technical inspections in individual counties of the Slovak Republic and examines their possible impact on transport and logistics systems in these counties. The correlation analysis showed that the number of checks under the technical roadside inspections is weakly related to the number of logistics centres, but the number of such inspections is moderate in relation to the number of failed vehicles (correlation coefficient = 0.44079). In addition, due to the age of the vehicles, the number of serious and dangerous faults found on them during maintenance inspection increases.
PL
Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie przykładowych możliwych źródeł danych o wielkim wolumenie (Big Data) ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem metody pozyskania danych z telefonii komórkowej – kart SIM oraz potencjału ich wykorzystania w modelowaniu podróży na poziomie makroskopowym. Na podstawie doświadczeń zdobytych podczas zakupu danych typu big data od kilku dostawców dla jednostek samorządowych w województwie pomorskim opisano najważniejsze zagadnienia metodyczne związane problematyką pozyskania i weryfikacji danych Big Data o rozmieszczeniu i przemieszczeniach ludności.
EN
The objective of this article is to present examples of possible data sources of great volume (Big Data) with particular emphasis on methods of obtaining data from mobile networks (SIM cards) and potential for its application in travel modelling on a macroscopic level. Based on experience gained during purchasing Big Data from several providers for regional government units in the Pomeranian voivodeship, the most essential methodical issues of data collecting and verification about population location and trips were described.
EN
Poland's location in the central part of Europe means international communications routes connecting north and south of the continent and east and west. Many Polish roads are transit routes that pass through environmentally valuable areas, run through forests and swamps, and cross migration routes of animals. A physical impact of transport on the environment is multipronged; it concerns, in particular, the quality of air, water, and soil, as well as disturbance of biodiversity, landscape planning, acoustic climate, the danger of vibrations and road security. Moreover, environmental resources are necessary for the efficient functioning of the transport system to generate energy, but on the other hand, to build infrastructure facilities. Apart from sustainable development, ecological security is one of the approaches to understand and solve environmental problems. Simultaneously, compared to issues connected with economics, politics, social and military problems, attempts to securitize ecology and the environment have a relatively short story. The article aims to identify threats for ecological security and solutions connected with road transport functioning in Poland.
PL
Położenie Polski w centralnej części Europy sprawia, że przez jej terytorium prowadzą międzynarodowe szlaki komunikacyjne łączące północ z południem i wschód z zachodem kontynentu. Wiele dróg w Polsce, będących między innymi szlakami tranzytowymi, przechodzi przez tereny cenne przyrodniczo, biegnie przez lasy, mokradła, przecina szlaki migracji zwierząt. Fizyczny wpływ transportu na środowisko jest wieloaspektowy, dotyczy on przede wszystkim: stanu powietrza, stanu wód i gleb, zakłóceń bioróżnorodności, zagospodarowania przestrzennego, klimatu akustycznego, zagrożeń wibracjami i bezpieczeństwa w ruchu drogowym. Co więcej, do efektywnego funkcjonowania systemu transportowego niezbędne są zasoby środowiska potrzebne z jednej strony do pozyskiwania energii, z drugiej zaś do budowy obiektów infrastrukturalnych. Obecnie, obok koncepcji zrównoważonego rozwoju, bezpieczeństwo ekologiczne stanowi jedno z podejść do zrozumienia i rozwiązania problemów środowiskowych. Jednocześnie, w porównaniu z zagadnieniami związanymi z ekonomią, polityką, problemami społecznymi czy militarnymi, próby sekurytyzacji ekologii i środowiska naturalnego mają relatywnie krótką historię. Celem artykułu jest identyfikacja zagrożeń i dla bezpieczeństwa ekologicznego oraz możliwych rozwiązań związanych z funkcjonowaniem transportu samochodowego w Polsce.
EN
The article refers to the challenges aimed at identifying decisions that translate into optimization in the TFL industry, on the example of selected activities of transport companies. Awareness of high competitiveness should influence the well-thought-out directions of development of business owners and managerial staff in the context of creating the company’s distinguishing features. They should be viewed on a global scale in order to increase profit and optimize costs. The article shows a direct connection between optimal patterns of action and the undertaken non-intuitive and innovative activities with the possible development of market niches. The publication draws attention to the multi-threaded and above-standard strategies chosen by selected road transport employers.
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