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1
Content available remote Pielęgnacja dachów zielonych
EN
Water quality is an environmental priority for irrigation in rainfed agriculture. Recently, water quality has been affected by the uncontrolled disposal of wastewater, the use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture and, most significantly, by the excessive exploitation of water resources during the low season. The basin of the Maffragh in the Algerian north-east real is fed by two main rivers: Wadi El Kebir East and Bounnamoussa. From its source, the stream is continually contaminated with domestic and agricultural discharges through the tributaries causing a significant deterioration in water quality. In order to know the current state of water quality in the Maffragh basin and to determine its suitability for irrigation without any prior treatment, research has been conducted in the two streams at representative sampling points in catchment areas used for irrigating crops. To assess the quality of water and detectable compounds monitoring, laboratory methods are used. The various volumetric and colorimetric assays were carried out according to Jean Rodier. Organic parameters such as nitrites, ammonium and phosphates, were measured using a UV/VIS 6705 JENWAY spectrophotometer, at wavelengths of 543 nm, 630 nm and 880 nm respectively for nitrites, ammonium and phosphates. The BOD5 and COD parameter was measured using a DIN EN 1899-1-H51 spectrophotometer and DIN ISO15705: 2002 spectrophotometer. The performed analyses on conductivity shows oscillating values ranging between 425 and 495 μS∙cm–1 for January 2018, while for the low water level of July 2018 the conductivity varies between 433 and 796 μS∙cm–1; this parameter is determinant for water quality assessment and its use for irrigation. Beside the conductivity test, the Riverside–Wilcox diagram was applied, to combine conductivity and sodium absorption rate (SAR). The obtained results of the two seasons show satisfactory results in the applicability of the water to irrigate in the basin.
EN
The article presents results of quality class determination and regulatory and monetary valuation of agricultural land in the steppe soils irrigation zone using the Karmanov’s methodology of soil and climatic quality class determination and author's methodology of ecological, agro-ameliorative and climatic soils quality class determination. Based on the results of spatial modeling, a series of maps was created and characteristics of ecological, agro-ameliorative and relief and climatic components of soils quality class were presented based on the example of the Kherson Region, Ukraine. According to the results soil and climatic quality class determination, it is established that the value of the class varies from 25 to 46 points; the regulatory and monetary value of agricultural land varies from USD 490 per 1 ha for dark chestnut and chestnut alkaline soils up to USD1,360 per ha for ordinary chernozem. According to the results of ecological, agro-ameliorative and climatic soils quality class determination, it is established that the value of the class varies from 6 to 59 points; the regulatory and monetary value of agricultural land varies from USD145 per 1 ha for degraded and highly saline chestnut soils up to USD2,060 per ha for irrigated southern chernozem. The suggested methodology of soil quality class calculation can have multiple purposes. It is intended to be used for different physiographic conditions of land use to develop adaptive soils protection measures at different territorial levels of agricultural production management with the overall objective of ensuring sustainable land use.
EN
In many regions of the world, including Egypt, water shortages threaten food production. An irrigation deficient strategy in dry areas has been widely investigated as a valuable and sustainable approach to production. In this study, the dry matter and grain yield of wheat was decreased by reducing the amount of irrigation water as well as the volume of the root system. As a result of this, there was an increase the soil moisture stress. This negatively affected the absorption of water and nutrients in the root zone of wheat plants, which ultimately had an effect on the dry matter and grain yield of wheat. The values of dry matter and grain yield of wheat increased with the ʻSakha 94ʼ variety compared to the ʻSakha 93ʼ class. It is possible that this was due to the increase in the genetic characteristic of the root size with the ʻSakha 94ʼ variety compared to the ʻSakha 93ʼ class, as this increase led to the absorption of water and nutrients from a larger volume of root spread. Despite being able to increase the water productivity of wheat by decreasing the amount of added irrigation water, the two highest grain yield values were achieved when adding 100% and 80% of irrigation requirements (IR) needed to irrigate the wheat and no significant differences between the yield values at 100% and 80% of IR were found. Therefore, in accordance with this study, the recommended irrigation for wheat is at 80% IR which will provide 20% IR. When comparing the water productivity of two wheat varieties in study, it becomes clear that ʻSakha 94ʼ was superior to ʻSakha 93ʼ when adding the same amount of irrigation water, and this resulted in increased wheat productivity for ʻSakha 94ʼ. The SALTMED results confirmed good accuracy (R2: 0.92 to 0.98) in simulating soil moisture, roots volume, water application efficiency, dry matter, and grain yield for two varieties of wheat under deficit irrigation conditions. Whilst using sprinkler irrigation system under sandy soils in Egypt.
EN
The article presents the evaluation of the influence of the heavy metals content in the water from selected Strzelin Quarry Lakes located in Central Europe on the possibility to use the water for irrigation. The guidelines provided by FAO and in PN-84/C-04635 were the basis of the evaluation. The water pH ranged from 7.1–9.0, on average 7.8. The zinc content was in the range from 0.40–29.00 µg•dm-3, on the average 14.40 µg•dm-3, while the content of copper ranged from 0.00–50.10 µg•dm-3, on average 21.13 µg•dm-3. The cadmium content fell into the range from 0.00–5.50 µg•dm-3, on the average 0.83 µg•dm-3, and the lead content ranged from 0.00–18.10 µg•dm-3, on average 3.16 µg•dm-3. The chromium content ranged from 0.00–21.00 µg•dm-3, on average 4.26 µg•dm-3 and, finally, the content of nickel ranged from 0.00–39.80 µg•dm-3, on average 6.70 µg•dm-3. The values of the analysed heavy metals were similar to the concentrations noted in natural lakes and artificial water reservoirs. As far as the heavy metal content is concerned, the water from the selected Strzelin Quarry Lakes met the requirements that allow using it for the purposes of agricultural irrigation.
EN
The issues discussed in the paper concern the assessment of changes in quantitative and qualitative indicators of water resources in the climatic conditions of the southern part of Kazakhstan. For this purpose, many years of systematic field observations and other continuous data obtained from the functioning measurement and observation stations operating within the Aral-Syrdarya Basin Inspection were used. On the basis of the obtained data, indicators were determined that characterize the quantity and quality of water supplied to the soil in the irrigation process, as well as the quantity and quality of water flowing out of the drainage systems, together with an evaluation of the effectiveness of irrigation and drainage systems. Soil salinity was assessed in five irrigated massifs with a total area of 332.55 thous. ha. For the same irrigated massifs, the annual amounts of water taken for irrigation, the amount of outflowing water and the assessment of the mineralization level were determined. Based on the developed results of field observations characterizing the hydrological and environmental situation of the lower section of the Syr Darya River in 1960–2015, the negative reaction coefficients were calculated for the local population, soil and vegetation for five of the irrigated massifs of the Kyzylorda region. The ecological situation of the habitat of soil and plants in the lower reaches of the Syr Darya River in all irrigation areas deteriorates on a time scale, since as a result of the reclamation of agricultural lands, intensive secondary soil salinization occurs and the formation of infiltration runoff with high mineralization, contributing to the violation of the harmonization of the relationship between nature and man.
EN
In order to evaluate the water quality of the Hauterivian groundwater in the zinc deposit of Chaabet el Hamra, Southern Setif region, Algeria, eighteen physico-chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Cl−, SO42−, HCO3−, CO32−, NO3−, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+,, and heavy metals Zn, Pb, Fe, Cr, Cd, Mn were analyzed and collected from six different wells in April 2012. The studied groundwater is dominated by HCO3−, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Algerian standards, all groundwater samples are considered safe and fit for drinking as they fall within the permissible limits. In addition, the Schoeller diagram confirms the best quality water of the Hauterivian groundwater. Gibbs diagram show that the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction field, suggesting that water-rock interactions are the major mechanism controlling groundwater chemistry. Assessment of groundwater samples using various water quality indices such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard (MH) and Kelly ratio (KR) showed that the groundwater in the area has an excellent quality for irrigation purpose. According to Wilcox’s diagram, all groundwater samples fall in the C2S1 category, reflecting that they are suitable for irrigation.
EN
The experiment was established in the Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW) Experimental Field in Skierniewice in the spring of 2018 in three replications. It was conducted on strawberry plants of the cultivar ‘Marmolada’ growing in stoneware containers with a diameter of 0.40 m and a height of 1.20 m, containing about 120 litres of podzolic soil with a pH of 6.2 (in KCl). The experiment was conducted in two variants: at 100% hydration and 50% hydration (2x13 fertilizer combinations). The aim of the study was to assess the impact of beneficial microorganisms and innovative mineral fertilizers enriched with them on the fruiting intensity and fruit quality of two-year-old strawberry plants in container-based cultivation, optimally irrigated and subjected to stress of prolonged water deficiency. The method of fertilizing the strawberry plants did not significantly affect the number of inflorescences and flowers. However, the treatments significantly increased the chlorophyll content in the leaves of optimally irrigated plants, especially where they were fertilized with NPK fertilizers and Urea enriched with filamentous fungi, and also the fertilizers Polifoska 6 and Super Fos Dar 40 enriched with beneficial bacteria. With limited water availability, regardless of the type of mineral fertilizer, the microorganisms did not have a significant impact on the characteristics of the strawberry plants grown. Reducing the availability of water to plants by 50% caused a significant decrease in fruit yield and mean fruit weight. The microorganisms, especially the filamentous fungi, helped to limit the impact of water deficiency on the quantity and quality of the obtained fruit crop, especially when compared with the effect of full mineral fertilization. However, the strawberry fruit yield was lower than the yield of optimally irrigated plants by about 30%. Under optimal irrigation, the NPK fertilizer enriched with filamentous fungi significantly increased fruit yield. Similarly, an increase in yield occurred after the application of the fertilizers: Urea in the recommended dose (100%) with the addition of filamentous fungi, and Super Fos Dar 40 in the amount of 60% of the recommended dose enriched with beneficial bacteria. Additional fertilization with the microbiological preparations increased the strawberry fruit yield. Better effects were obtained on the containers with a lower level of irrigation than on those with optimal irrigation.
PL
Doświadczenie założono na polu doświadczalnym Szkoły Głównej Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego (SGGW) w Skierniewicach wiosną 2018 roku w trzech powtórzeniach. Doświadczenie przeprowadzono na sadzonkach roślin truskawki odmiany ‘Marmolada’ posadzonych w kamionkowych kontenerach o średnicy 0,40 m i wysokości 1,20 m, wypełnionych 120 litrami gleby bielicowej o pH of 6,2 (w KCl). Doświadczenie prowadzono w dwóch wariantach: 100% nawodnienie i 50% nawodnienia (2 x 13 kombinacji nawozowych). Celem pracy była ocena wpływu pożytecznych mikroorganizmów i innowacyjnych nawozów mineralnych wzbogaconych mikrobiologicznie na intensywność owocowania i jakości owoców dwuletnich roślin truskawki uprawianych w kontenerach, optymalnie nawadnianych i poddanych stresowi suszy. Sposób nawożenia roślin nie miał istotnego wpływu na liczbę kwiatostanów i kwiatów truskawki. Natomiast zabiegi te istotnie zwiększały zawartość chlorofilu w liściach roślin optymalnie nawadnianych, szczególnie tam, gdzie nawożono je nawozami NPK i mocznikiem wzbogaconymi grzybami strzępkowymi oraz nawozami Polifoska 6 i Super Fos Dar 40 wzbogaconymi pożytecznymi bakteriami. Mikroorganizmy przy ograniczonym dostępie wody, niezależnie od rodzaju nawozu mineralnego, nie miały istotnego wpływu na wielkość badanych cech roślin truskawki. Ograniczenie nawodnienia roślin o 50% spowodowało znaczny spadek plonu i masy jednego owocu. Mikroorganizmy, a szczególnie grzyby strzępkowe pozwoliły ograniczyć wpływ niedoboru wody na wielkość i jakość uzyskanego plonu, zwłaszcza w porównaniu do wpływu pełnego nawożenia mineralnego. Plon truskawki był niższy w porównaniu do plonu roślin optymalnie nawadnianych o około 30%. Nawóz NPK wzbogacony grzybami strzępkowymi w tych warunkach zwiększał istotnie jego wielkość. Podobnie po zastosowaniu nawozów: mocznika w zalecanej dawce (100%) z dodatkiem grzybów strzępkowych i nawozu Super Fos Dar 40 w ilości wynoszącej 60% dawki zalecanej, wzbogaconego pożytecznymi bakteriami. Nawożenie preparatami mikrobiologicznymi zwiększyło plon owoców truskawki. Lepszy efekt uzyskano w kontenerach o niższym poziomie nawadniania niż w kontenerach z nawodnieniem optymalnym.
EN
The aim of this study was an assessment of feasibility of conversion of sewage holding (SH) tanks to rainwater harvesting (RWH) tanks in Poland. Such a conversion may partly solve the problem of water scarcity for irrigation of plants in individual small gardens and reduce tap water consumption. Seven methods of RWH tanks sizing were applied to an example of a small harvesting system of the roof area equal to the garden irrigation area of 100 m2 for three different irrigation doses. A new criterion was introduced to optimize the tank capacity. Economic optimization was provided for new RWH tanks and for the tanks adapted from abandoned SH tanks. Results obtained for a system sited in west-central Poland in an average year have shown that design capacity of RWH tanks varied markedly between sizing methods. The conversion of SH tanks to RWH tanks is profitable, especially for irrigation due to scarcity of water in relatively dry west-central regions. Conversion of individual SH tanks in a good technical state to RWH tanks is relatively simple and cheap. The potential increase in storage volume due to the conversion of individual SH tanks to RWH tanks could reach all over Poland 215–350 dam3 per year, and individually can save up to 18–25% of total annual water use.
PL
Celem pracy była ocena możliwości przekształcenia zbiorników bezodpływowych do ścieków (ZB) w zbiorniki do gromadzenia wody deszczowej (WD) w Polsce. Taka konwersja może częściowo rozwiązać problem niedoboru wody do nawadniania roślin w małych ogrodach przydomowych i zmniejszyć zużycie wody wodociągowej. Zastosowano 7 metod określania wielkości zbiornika WD na przykładzie małego systemu zbierającego opady z dachu o powierzchni równej powierzchni nawadnianego ogrodu (100 m2) oraz do alimentacji domowej instalacji wodociągowej w ilości 140 dm3/d. Wprowadzono nowe kryterium optymalizacji pojemności zbiornika, bazujące na efektywności hydraulicznej. Optymalizację ekonomiczną wykonano dla nowych zbiorników WD oraz dla zaadaptowanych z wyłączonych z eksploatacji ZB. Wyniki uzyskane dla systemu zlokalizowanego w środkowozachodniej Polsce i symulacji wykazały, że pojemność projektowa zbiorników WD różniła się znacznie między metodami wymiarowania. Konwersja ZB na zbiorniki WD jest opłacalna, szczególnie w przypadku nawadniania roślin w okresach niedoboru wody, a konwersja do instalacji wspomagającej wodociąg sieciowy jest jeszcze bardziej opłacalna, gdyż okres jej zwrotu wynosi od 2 do 6 lat. Przekształcanie indywidualnych ZB w zbiorniki WD i POŚ jest stosunkowo proste i tanie. Potencjalny wzrost pojemności retencyjnej w wyniku konwersji indywidualnych ZB na zbiorniki WD może osiągnąć w całej Polsce 215–350 tys. m3 rocznie, a indywidualnie może zaoszczędzić do 40% całkowitego rocznego zużycia wody.
EN
Participatory monitoring allows communities to understand the use and management of local water resources and at the same time develop a sense of ownership of environmental information. The data generated through participatory monitoring of stream flow and rainfall generate evidences to corroborate local people’s experiences with changing water resources patterns. In this study we evaluate the potential of participatory monitoring of hydrological variables to improve scarce water supply utilization in agriculture. The case study site is the Mustang district in Nepal, which is located in the Upper Kaligandaki River Basin in the Himalayas with unique and complex geographical and climatic features. This region is characterized by a semi-arid climate with total annual precipitation of less than 300 mm. Water supply, agricultural land, and livestock grazing are the key ecosystem services that underpin livelihood security of the local population, particularly socio-economically vulnerable groups. An analysis of the measured stream flow data indicate that annual flow of water in the stream can meet the current crop irrigation water needs for the agricultural land of the research site. The data provide local farmers a new way of understanding local water needs. Participatory monitoring would contribute to an optimization of the use of ecosystem services to support economic development and livelihood improvement.
EN
To resist against a hostile environment, the oases of Saoura developed ingenious techniques of catchment and sharing of water to exploit the rare and precious waters of the groundwater. But the intervention of modern irrigation techniques has disrupted the entire oasis system inside the oasis such as the spring, the palm grove and the ksar. These techniques have overexploited the groundwater supplying the palm grove in terms of quantity and quality. For centuries, the oases of Mougheul used only the source (with a flow of 25 dm3∙s–1 in 2001) which is inside the oasis to irrigate the parcels and herds. After the year 2005, the state decided to supply the city of Bechar with drinking water through the catchment field of Mougheul through five modern boreholes, which had a profound impact on the oasis, its surroundings, and the whole artesian source. In this work, we study the impact of the use of modern catchment systems on the water source and the life of the Mougheul population. By interviewing farmers and landowners about the impact of groundwater scarcity on the oasis. This allowed knowing the current state of the oasis and the reasons for its deterioration.
PL
Aby przeżyć w nieprzyjaznym środowisku, w oazach Saoura rozwijano pomysłowe techniki gromadzenia i rozdziału wody celem eksploatacji ograniczonych i cennych zasobów wód gruntowych. Interwencja współczesnych technik nawadniania zniszczyła cały system oaz z ich źródłami, gajami palmowymi i osadami ludzkimi. Te techniki nadmiernie eksploatowały wody gruntowe zasilające gaje palmowe. Przez wieki oazy w Mougheul wykorzystywały jedynie źródło (o wydajności 25 dm3∙s–1 w 2001 r.) znajdujące się wewnątrz oazy. Po roku 2005 państwo podjęło decyzję o zaopatrywaniu miasta Bechar w wodę pitną z poziomu wodonośnego w Mougheul poprzez pięć współczesnych odwiertów, co miało ogromny wpływ na oazę, jej otoczenie i cały system studni artezyjskiej. W pracy przedstawiono wpływ wykorzystania współczesnych systemów pozyskiwania wody na źródło wody i życie ludności w Mougheul.
EN
The Henaya Irrigated Perimeter (HIP) is an agricultural area irrigated by treated wastewater (TWW) of Ain El Hout treatment plant. Various analyses have shown that i) this water has low concentration of heavy metals and toxic elements, ii) the average values of the physicochemical parameters for 136 samples are satisfactory (29.2 mg O2∙dm–3 for chemical oxygen demands – COD, 13.14 mg O2∙dm–3 for biological oxygen demands – BOD, 14.2 mg∙dm–3 of suspended matter – SM, 1.82 mg∙dm–3 of N-NO3, 7.7 for pH and 927.74 μS∙cm–1 for electric conductivity – EC). Thirdly, it contains a high number of bacteria and nematodes (7200 CFU∙(100 dm3)–1 for faecal coliforms and 30 eggs∙dm–3 for intestinal Nematodes) which makes it dangerous for groundwater contamination. The objective in this work is to characterize the TWW and evaluate the impact of it use for irrigation on the quality of Hennaya groundwater. Before this, one has to prove that there is an amount of TWW that feeds the water table to show that there is a risk of pollution. We then estimated the aquifer minimum recharge value by TWW using the Thormthwaite method. The estimation has given 92 mm which is an important quantity. The results of the groundwater microbiological analyses reveal no sign of contamination. The cause is the efficiency of the degradation of pollutants of the Vadose zone. The soil purifying power Md of the HIP was evaluated by the Rehse method and gave values ranging from 2.1 to 12.7 which indicated a complete purification.
PL
Obszar nawodnień Hennaya to grunty rolnicze nawadniane oczyszczonymi ściekami z oczyszczalni Ain El Hout. W wyniku analizy stwierdzono, że w oczyszczonych ściekach stężenia metali ciężkich i substancji toksycznych jest małe, a średnie wartości parametrów fizycznych i chemicznych mierzonych w 136 próbkach są zadowalające (ChZT – 29,2 mg O2∙dm–3, BZT – 13,14 mg O2∙dm–3, zawiesina – 14,2 mg∙dm–3, N-NO3 – 1,82 mg∙dm–3, pH – 7.7 i przewodnictwo – 927,74 μS∙cm–1). Ścieki zawierają dużą liczbę bakterii coli pochodzenia kałowego (7200 jtk∙(100 dm3)–1) i jaj nicieni przewodu pokarmowego (30 jaj∙dm–3), co stanowi zagrożenie dla jakości wód gruntowych. Celem badań była analiza oczyszczonych ścieków i ocena ich wpływu na wody gruntowe nawadnianych nimi obszarów. Wstępnie należało dowieść, że ścieki zasilają wody gruntowe i istnieje ryzyko zanieczyszczenia. Za pomocą metody Thormthwaite’a oszacowano minimalne zasilanie wód podziemnych – 92 mm, czyli jest to znacząca ilość ścieków. Nie stwierdzono mikrobiologicznych zanieczyszczeń wód gruntowych. Przyczyną tego jest zdolność strefy aeracji do redukcji zanieczyszczeń. Redukcję zanieczyszczeń przez gleby nawadnianej strefy oceniano metodą Rehse, a uzyskane wartości wynoszące od 2,1 do 12,7 wskazują na całkowite oczyszczenie.
EN
The ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo L.) has low habitat requirements, which is why this species is often used in the reclamation of industrial areas. The development of the reclamation plantings depends on the optimal water soil conditions that can be controlled by watering treatments. However, the use of irrigation requires determining the water needs of the cultivated species. The objective of the study was to evaluate the water needs of the ash-leaved maple in the reclamation plantings, in the period of over three years after planting. The water needs of the ash-leaved maple were determined using the crop coefficients method. Potential evapotranspiration was calculated using the Blaney-Criddle’s formula that was modified for the Polish conditions by Żakowicz. The water needs of the ash-leaved maple were assessed for five agro-climatic regions of Poland, in the years 1981-2010. The water needs of the ash-leaved maple in the growing period (April-October) were the highest in the C-E (638 mm) and C-N-W (637 mm) regions, and the lowest in the N-E (598 mm) and S-E (601 mm) regions. In July, the highest water needs were noted in the C-N-W region (149 mm) and the lowest in the S-W region (129 mm). In the studied thirty-years period, there was a significant upward trend in the water needs of the ash-leaved maple both during the growing season (except for the C-N-W region) and in July, in all the considered regions.
14
Content available Water Economy Balance of the Almaty City
EN
This article provides and analyses the detailed water balances of the Almaty city in regards to the water resources, the share of which for different water bodies is 50%, 75% or 95% at the present level of surface and groundwater use. We have quantitatively assessed such surface water resources for specific water bodies and for the whole city. We have analysed the field studies of channel water balances of small rivers conducted in 2006, 2007 and 2013 (Almaty city) to identify the areas of abstraction losses and groundwater outcrop in riverbeds. The water balance analysis shows that Almaty city suffers from significant deficits in water resources. On the basis of the population growth dynamics, we assume that it will only increase. We have clarified the methods for calculating hydrometeorological characteristics and gained the updated information about the stream flows in a number of control sections and the channel water balances of the Karasu.
EN
The aim of this study was to estimate the water needs of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in the different regions of Poland. The requirements of grapevines water, considered as the crop evapotranspiration, were determined using the plant coefficient method. The grapevine plants crop evapotranspiration was measured using the reference evapotranspiration and plant coefficients. The plant coefficients were adapted to the reference evapotranspiration that was calculated using the Blaney‑Criddle’s formula, modified for Polish conditions by Żakowicz. The water needs of grapevines were determined for five agro‑climatic regions of Poland with the representative meteorological stations. The calculations of grapevines water requirements were carried out for the thirty‑year period determined from 1981 to 2010. The study was based on the six‑month growing season established from May 1 to October 31. Four months, including May, June, July and August, were considered as the irrigation period. The highest grapevines water requirements (440 mm) during the growing season, were observed in the north‑west and central‑east region of Poland. In turn, the lowest water requirements were revealed in the south‑east (414 mm) and north‑east (415 mm) region of the country. During the irrigation period, the highest grapevines water needs occurred in the central‑north‑west (355 mm) and central‑east (353 mm) region of Poland, while the lowest (329 mm) – in the south‑east region of the country. The upward time trend of the grapevines water requirements was observed both in the growing season and in the irrigation period. With the exception of the central‑north‑west region, this time trend was significant throughout Poland. The highest increase in the water needs of grapevines during the growing season (by 6.9 mm in each subsequent ten‑year period) occurred in the central‑east and south‑east region of Poland. In the irrigation period, the highest rise of grapevines water requirements was noted in the south‑west (7.4 mm decade ‑1) and south‑east (7.6 mm decade ‑1) region of the country. The highest rainfall deficit was observed in the central‑north‑west region of Poland; 125 mm during the growing season, and 117 mm in the irrigation period.
EN
Water shortages occurring in the natural environment are the result of progressing climate changes, including the decreasing amount of atmospheric precipitation. In Poland, during the vegetation periods, droughts occur every 4-5 years, which causes losses in the field production and in forest communities. Reducing the negative effects of drought is possible by retention of water within a catchment. This method of improving the water balance has been included in the provisions of the Water Framework Directive and Water Law. On the meliorated valley objects, there are melioration devices that enable regulation of the moisture content, including irrigation during periods of drought. Drainage ditches can also retain water in the early spring periods with high flows in rivers. The studies carried out on the Lower Supraśl river site showed that about 40% of drainage devices used for water damming (dams and ramps), as well as for water distribution (feeders and detailed ditches) are not technically efficient and do not fulfil the function of moisture content regulation. Fibrous-muck soils occurring on this object, due to the lack of rainfall and irrigation, reduced the water retention capacity by approximately 30%. Modernization and reconstruction of drainage devices on valley objects will enable increasing the retention within individual catchments.
EN
The paper presents the evaluation of the possibility to use the water from five quarry lakes located in County Strzelin for the purposes of agricultural irrigation. The evaluation was based on the guidelines provided by FAO and in PN-84/C-04635. The average values of water quality indicators were as follows: electrical conductivity – 0.365 mS×cm-1; Sodium Adsorption Ratio – 0.75; Total Dissolved Solids – 233.9 mg×dm-3; water pH – 7.8; BOD5 – 1.6 mgO2×dm-3, while the average ion concentrations were: nitrates – 1.6 mgN-NO3×dm-3; sulphates – 188.5 mg SO4×dm-3; chlorides – 30.95 mg Cl×dm-3; sodium 22.6, mg Na×dm-3; manganese – 0.05 mg Mn×dm-3; and iron – 0.04 mg Fe×dm-3. The values of the analysed indicators were similar to the concentrations noted in natural lakes and unloaded water reservoirs. The water from the analysed quarry lakes met (with some minor limitations) the requirements that enable its use for agricultural irrigation, in particular sprinkler irrigation.
EN
Drought is generally associated with the persistence of low precipitation amount, decreased soil moisture and water availability relative to the normal levels in a designated area. The effects of drought, range from the morphological to molecular levels, and are evident at all phenological stages of the plant growth, at whatever stage the water deficit occurs. Determination of the surface water demands for irrigation purposes comes out from the assumption of hydrologic processes stationarity. This paper shows our research prerequisite that water stress participates in an important part on the volume changes of over ground parts, which is predictive for the irrigation demand. Malus domestica var. Yellow Transparent was chosen for the measurement of volume changes of the surface plant parts. Our measurements were realised by the Diameter dendrometer small (DD-S) from 24.08. to 13.09.2017. One tree was irrigated by the dose of 50 mm. We compared the dendrometric changes to soil moisture and rainfall on both irrigated and non-irrigated trees. The experiment showed the differences between the irrigated apple tree (the diameters of the branches fluctuated between 11.9 and 12.1 mm) and the non-irrigated apple tree (the diameter of the branches increased after three-day rain from 8.35 to 8.61 mm), in order to determine the water stress of plants based on dendrometric changes and optimize irrigation during the drought period.
EN
Greywater is an important water resource at the household level. The reuse of greywater is one of the most promising ways of conserving water because it has an important role in increasing plant productivity at the garden level. It is an important option to increase the efficiency of water use at the household level in rural Iraq. Through the implementation of a greywater treatment unit, this project sought to develop the treatment technology and encourage the local community in the target areas to reuse it. In this study, a greywater treatment unit that consists of a septic tank, up-flow anaerobic filter, and a storage tank is constructed on a specified area in the Khairi village in Al Diwaniyah province in Iraq. In order to ensure the quality of the treated greywater used in irrigation, an experimental verification and analysis of results were performed to demonstrate the improvement of physical, chemical and biological parameters. These parameters are COD, BOD, and TSS. According to the results of the study, the anaerobic filter (Subsurface Flow) was designed with one septic tank and three compartments. The total removal efficiency of COD, BOD, and TSS by greywater treatment unit was 92.27%, 96.9%, and 99.0%, respectively. The quality of the water produced by the greywater treatment unit was consistent with the FAO guidelines for reuse of treated water to irrigate domestic gardens.
EN
The deployment of appropriate technologies to enhance modern agricultural practices and improve crop yields is imperative for sustainability. This paper presents the development of a standalone automated irrigation system. The system design features good automation and control, which was achieved using an array of electronic timing system, soil feedback sensor and wireless communication system. Autonomous irrigation events are based on the states of the timing system, the soil feedback system and the wireless communication system. The control and automation of these systems was done using an AVR microcontroller, which was programmed to trigger intelligent and independent farm irrigation operation through a water pump attached to the system. The system also operates remotely via SMS command from mobile device and sends operational status feedback via SMS to preprogrammed mobile user(s). It also sends soil moisture condition to a remote user upon query. The system package was produced using additive manufacturing technique. The power supply system was implemented using solar power system in order to achieve a standalone, autonomous and reliable power supply necessary for an independent operation. The performance evaluation of the developed system show impressive response time, good reliability and excellent stability. Furthermore, the numerical experiment conducted using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) produced a mathematical model for the optimization of the irrigation process for optimum performance and cost effectiveness.
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