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EN
Monthly variations of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and phycocyanin were studied in Lake Pamvotis between August 2016 and January 2017. Sampling was conducted at two sampling sites: in the main lake (Site 1: Lake) and in an adjacent man-made water ski lake with karstic springs (Site 2: Springs). Samples were fractionated into three size classes: 0.2–2 μm (pico), 2–20 μm (nano) and 20–180 μm (micro). According to chlorophyll a values, eutrophic to hypereutrophic conditions prevail at Site 1 and oligotrophic to mesotrophic conditions – at Site 2. Similarly, Site 1 was distinguished by higher concentration of phycocyanin compared to Site 2. Fractionated chlorophyll a showed monthly variations at Site 1 with alternations in the dominance between the two larger fractions. The maximum of the 0.2–2 μm fraction was observed in October but it contributed less to the total chlorophyll a content than nano- or microphytoplankton. Its contribution was higher at Site 2, reaching occasionally ~ 40% of the bulk chlorophyll a. However, nanophytoplankton was the fraction found to respond faster when disturbances occurred. At Site 1, phycocyanin correlated well with total chlorophyll a as well as with the micro- and nanophytoplankton fractions, indicating that cyanobacteria represent an important component of the large-sized phytoplankton in Lake Pamvotis.
EN
The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of heavy metals on the photosynthetic pigments of chlorophyll a, b and the carotenoids found in the cells of algae Chlorella vulgaris. In order to analyze the influence of heavy metals on Chlorella vulgaris algae, two heavy metals were chosen, i.e. copper and zinc. The samples for analysis were collected daily for 7 days. Copper(II) sulphate, which is widely regarded as an algicide, was used in the study. Chlorella vulgaris grows at the highest concentration tested, amounting to 0.15 mg CuSO4/dm3. In the trial with a concentration of 0.15 mg CuSO4/dm3, a decrease in the content of chlorophyll was observed, which was lower by 63% in comparison to the control sample, 7 days after incubation was observed. In the second study using zinc(II) sulphate at a concentration of 100 mg ZnSO4/dm3, the death of Chlorella vulgaris was observed after 5 days of incubation. In subsequent tests with lower concentrations of zinc(II) sulphate, Chlorella vulgaris is growing, but with lesser dynamics than in the case of the control sample. The increase in the content of photosynthetic pigments, along with the incubation time, indicates the development of algae breeding. The conducted research shows that the Chlorella vulgaris algae has a specific resistance to the presence of the elevated content of tested heavy metals in the breeding medium.
PL
Wykorzystanie biotestów w ocenie toksyczności środowiska wodnego jest cennym uzupełnieniem badań fizykochemicznych zapewniających bezpieczeństwo systemów zaopatrzenia ludności w wodę i logistyki jej zapasów. Obecnie wykorzystuje się ponad sto krótkoterminowych biotestów, w literaturze światowej zwanych short-term bioassays. Jednym z nich jest synchroniczna hodowla glonów Chlorella vulgaris. Celem artykułu jest przegląd zastosowań tego biotestu jako taniej i szybkiej metody kontroli jakości wód oraz wskazanie kryteriów, jakie mogą być w tym celu przydatne. Jednym z nich mogą być zmiany absorbancji komórek (680 nm), odzwierciedlające ich aktywność biologiczną (pomiary spektrofotometryczne prowadzone co godzinę w pierwszych 10 godzinach cyklu życiowego komórek - faza jasna). W ocenie toksyczności środowiska wodnego mogą być również wykorzystane zmiany profilu barwników fotosyntetycznych wyizolowanych z komórek potomnych Chlorella (24 godz.) oraz współczynnik podziału komórek (obliczony na podstawie ich liczebności na początku i końcu cyklu hodowlanego - 0 godz. i 24 godz.). Synchroniczna hodowla glonów Chlorella vulgaris może znaleźć zastosowanie w ocenie nie tylko czystości wód zbiorników wody pitnej (zbiornik Goczałkowice) lub rzek (Odra), lecz również toksyczności ścieków pochodzących z zakładów przemysłowych, np. garbarni.
EN
Bioassays evaluating the toxicity of the aquatic environment are a valuable addition to tests that ensure the safety of water supply systems and logistics of water stocks. Currently more than one hundred short-term bioassays are used in the world. One of them is synchronous culture of Chlorella vulgaris algae. The aim of this study is to review applications of this bioassay as a cheap and fast method of water quality control and to show the criteria useful during the test. One of these criteria is the change of culture absorbance (680 nm), reflecting the biological activity of algae cells (spectrophotometric measurements are carried out every hour of the first 10 hours of the life cycle of cells - the light phase). The profile of changes of photosynthetic pigments, isolated from Chlorella cells (24 h), and the ratio of cell division (calculated on the basis of their number at the beginning and end of the culture cycle - 0 h and 24 h) may also be used to evaluate the toxicity of the aquatic environment. The synchronous culture of Chlorella vulgaris can be used to evaluate not only the water quality of potable water reservoirs (Goczałkowice) or of rivers (Oder), but also the toxicity of waste water from industrial plants, for example tanneries.
PL
Jednymi z najbardziej rozpowszechnionych i najczęściej badanych cieczy jonowych są imidazoliowe ciecze jonowe. Część z tych związków, tj. heksafluorofosforany czy tetrafluoroborany, zawiera w swej budowie fluor, który może wykazywać bardzo niekorzystny wpływ na środowisko. Ze względu na duże zainteresowanie tymi związkami niezbędne jest określenie ich wpływu na środowisko, w tym na różne gatunki roślin wyższych. Roślinami szeroko rozpowszechnionymi na całym świecie są chwasty. W niniejszej pracy dokonano oceny wpływu tetrafluoroboranu 1-butylo-2,3-dimetyloimidazoliowego [BMMIM][BF4] i heksafluorofosforanu 1-butylo-2,3-dimetyloimidazoliowego [BMMIM][PF6], zastosowanych w formie oprysku, na trzy popularne gatunki chwastów: żółtlicę drobnokwiatową (Galinsoga parviflora Cav.), szczaw zwyczajny (Rumex acetosa L.) oraz komosę białą (Chenopodium album L.). W wyniku przeprowadzonych badań okazało się, że [BMMIM][PF6] najsilniejsze działanie wykazywał w stosunku do roślin komosy białej, natomiast rośliną najbardziej wrażliwą na działanie [BMMIM][BF4] okazał się szczaw zwyczajny. Żółtlica drobnokwiatowa była rośliną o największej tolerancji na badane ciecze jonowe. ILs powodowały inhibicję wzrostu roślin i ich korzeni, wzrost zawartości suchej masy oraz spadek zawartości barwników asymilacyjnych w liściach badanych chwastów. Wszystkie zaobserwowane zmiany w dużym stopniu były uzależnione od zastosowanego stężenia cieczy jonowych.
EN
One of the most common and most studied of ionic liquids are imidazolium ionic liquids. Some of these compounds, i.e. hexafluorophosphates or tetrafluoroborates contains fluorine in their structure which may have a negative impact on the environment. Because of so much interest in these compounds it is necessary to determine their impact on the environment including various species of higher plants. Plants widely distributed around the world are weeds. In this paper we attempt to assess the impact of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMMIM][BF4], and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMMIM][PF6] applied as sprays on three popular weed species: gallant soldier (Galinsoga parviflora Cav.), common sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) and white goosefoot (Chenopodium album L.). The studies found that [BMMIM][PF6] showed the strongest activity in relation to plant white goosefoot, while the plant most susceptible to the [BMMIM][BF4] proved to be a common sorrel. Plant the most resistant to the tested compounds was galant soldier. Investigated ILs resulted in inhibition of plant growth and root growth of the dry weight content and a decrease in the assimilation pigments in the leaves studied weeds. All observed changes were largely dependent on the concentration of the compound.
5
Content available Reakcja selera naciowego na 1,10-fenantrolinę
PL
Dla zwiększania efektywności i jakości produkcji rolnej nadal olbrzymie znaczenie mają pestycydy, w tym herbicydy. Herbicydy stosowane w rolnictwie do ochrony roślin mogą mieć jednocześnie negatywny wpływ na rośliny inne niż docelowe, np. rośliny uprawne. Przeprowadzone badania miały na celu określenie wpływu herbicydu fotodynamicznego 1,10-fenantroliny (1,10-Phe), o stężeniach 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 i 10.0 mM na aktywność katalazy (EC 1.11.1.6) i peroksydazy (EC 1.11.1.7) oraz zawartość chlorofilu i karotenoidów w liściach selera naciowego (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce (Mill.) Pers.). Rośliny traktowane 1,10-Phe charakteryzowały się wyższą aktywnością peroksydazy i niższą aktywnością katalazy niż rośliny nietraktowane tym związkiem. Poziom chlorofilu całkowitego i karotenoidów w liściach selera naciowego uzależniony był także od zastosowanych stężeń 1,10-Phe. Rośliny opryskane 1,10-Phe o mniejszych stężeniach cechowały się podwyższonym poziomem chlorofilu całkowitego, podczas gdy wyższe stężenia 1,10-Phe wywołały spadek zawartości tego barwnika w odniesieniu do roślin kontrolnych. Przy wyższych stężeniach tego herbicydu wystąpił ponadto wzrost zawartości karotenoidów w liściach roślin.
EN
Pesticides, in that herbicides still play an important role in enhancing the efficiency and quality of agricultural production. Herbicides used in agriculture for plant protection can have a negative effect on nontarget plants as well, for example cultivated plants. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of photodynamic herbicide 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10- Phe), in the concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mM, on catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) activity and total chlorophyll and carotenoides contents in the leaf celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce (Mill.) Pers.) leaves. Plants treated with 1,10-Phe were characterized by higher activity of peroxidase and lower activity of catalase as compared with nontreated plants. The total chlorophyll level and carotenoids level in celery leaves depended on the concentration of 1,10-Phe. The plants sprayed with 1,10-Phe at lower concentrations were characterized by a higher total chlorophyll level, whilst the higher 1,10-Phe concentrations caused the chlorophyll level decrease as compared with the control plants. Higher concentration of this herbicide resulted in an increase in the content of carotenoids in plants leaves.
PL
Ciecze jonowe to związki chemiczne, które dzięki swoim pożądanym właściwościom budzą duże zainteresowanie wśród naukowców i przedstawicieli przemysłu. Skutkuje to komercyjnym stosowaniem tych związków, co z kolei na pewno doprowadzi do skażenia nimi gleb stanowiących podstawę wegetacji roślin. W niniejszej pracy określono oddziaływanie chiralnej imidazoliowej cieczy jonowej (CIL), zawierającej naturalny komponent terpenowy ‒ mentol ‒ mianowicie: tetrafluoroboranu 3-[1R,2S,5R-(‒)-mentoksymetylo]-1-metyloimidazoliowego [Im-Men][BF4] na wzrost oraz rozwój siewek jęczmienia jarego i rzodkiewki zwyczajnej. Zastosowana CIL charakteryzowała się toksycznością dla obu roślin, co przejawiało się skracaniem długości części nadziemnych roślin, ich korzeni oraz spadkiem plonu świeżej masy. Użyty w eksperymencie wazonowym [Im-Men][BF4] prowadził ponadto do spadku zawartości wszystkich barwników asymilacyjnych w siewkach jęczmienia jarego i liściach rzodkiewki zwyczajnej, co znalazło odzwierciedlenie we wspomnianym już spadku plonu. Ponadto, zmiany zawartości dialdehydu malonowego (MDA) i nadtlenku wodoru (H2O2) oraz aktywności enzymów antyoksydacyjnych takich, jak: dysmutaza ponadtlenkowa (SOD), katalaza (CAT) i peroksydaza (POD) świadczyć mogą o występowaniu stresu oksydacyjnego w obu roślinach.
EN
Ionic liquids (ILs) constitute a large group of chemical substances, which, thanks to their desirable properties, still attract attention of scientists and representatives of industry. This results in commercial use of these compounds, what will doubtlessly lead to soil contamination with these substances and formation of soil ‒ the basis of plant vegetation. The present paper researches the influence of chiral imidazolium ionic liquid (CIL), containing a natural component of the terpene ‒ menthol: 3-[1R,2S,5R-(‒)-menthoxymethyl]-1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [Im-Men][BF4] on the growth and the development of spring barley and common radish. The used CIL was toxic for both plants, what resulted in shortening of the plant stem and root length and decrease in fresh weight yield. [Im-Men][BF4] used in the pot experiment led to a decrease of all photosynthetic pigments content in spring barley seedlings and common radish leaves, what reflected on the mentioned yield level. Furthermore, changes in contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) may indicate the occurrence of oxidative stress in both plants.
EN
The effect of lead ions of the concentrations within the range of 15–1000 m dm-3 on the physiological reaction of common osier var. Jorr was examined. The content of assimilation pigments, the rate the CO2Water assimilation, transpiration, the indices of relative water content and the deficit of water saturation and the content of lead in the nutrient solution. The studied physiological parameters in common osier var. Jorr were differentiated by the rate of lead ions in the nutrient solution. The Jorr variety of common osier was characterised by good values of the determined physiological parameters under stressful conditions at a large accumulation of lead. This suggests that it shows quite a high tolerance to the stress caused by contamination of the subsoil with lead.
EN
An excessive amount of heavy metals negatively affects the environment, causing degradation of large areas throughout the world. Therefore, the effective and inexpensive techniques focused on either removal of those substances or their long-term stabilization in situ need to be improved. We currently propose to use a calamine ecotype of Gypsophila fastigiata (Caryophyllaceae) for biological reclamation of wastes accumulated after Zn-Pb ores enrichment. Plants were cultivated in (1) untreated waste material (control), (2) wastes enriched with mineral fertilizers, and (3) wastes enriched with sewage sludge. Photosynthetic pigments content and electrolyte leakage outside plasma membrane were tested periodically in representative samples. In untreated waste material growth gradually deteriorated during the season. The content of chlorophyll a in leaves taken from control plants decreased more than threefold from 0.51 mg/g f.m. at the beginning to 0.14 mg/g f.m. at the end of the growing season, whereas in treatment with sewage sludge the reduced seasonal variations in photosynthetic pigments content was ascertained (0.78 mg/g f.m. for chl a and 0.20 mg/g f.m. for chl b , both in the spring and autumn) what positively influenced the plant growth. The results indicate that tested G. fastigiata genotype might be used in an assisted revegetation project.
EN
In different urban areas, plants are exposed to direct influence of various stress factors that frequently lead to numerous metabolic dysfunctions. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological conditions of Hippophaërhamnoidesspecimens growing in: (1) main Cracow road (CR), (2) waste heap formed after zinc and lead ore flotation (WH), (3) waste heap formed after mining operation (MH). Efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus and the DPPH free radical scavenging activity were deter-mined in the spring and autumn. Obtained results demonstrate a good adaptation of sea buckthorn for growth and development in degraded urban areas.
PL
W miejscach silnie zmienionych przez człowieka, rośliny niejednokrotnie narażone są na działanie róż-nych stresorów, wpływających negatywnie na przebieg procesów metabolicznych. Z tego powodu, celem pracy była ocena kondycji osobników Hippophaërhamnoides rosnących (1) wzdłuż ruchliwej szosy w Krakowie(CR), (2) na składowisku odpadów po procesie flotacji rud Zn i Pb (WH) oraz (3) na hałdzie po eksploatacji węgla kamiennego (MH). Analizowano wydajność aparatu fotosyntetycznego oraz aktywność antyoksydacyjną liści na wiosnę i jesienią. Uzyskane wyniki świadczą o dobrym przystosowaniu rokitnika do wzrostu i rozwoju w zdegradowanych obszarach miejskich.
EN
The research presented here was conducted in order to determine the influence of exogenous traumatic acid (TA) on the growth, metabolism, and antioxidative activity of vascular water plant, Wolffia arrhiza Wimm. The research was concerned with TA influences, in concentrations of 10^-8 M – 10^-4 M, on fresh W. arrhiza, and on primary metabolites, such as monosaccharides, proteins, chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoids. It was determined that TA causes a substantial increase in these metabolites compared to the control, especially at concentrations of 10^-7 – 10^-6 M. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins (SDS-PAGE) was conducted in order to specify in more detail the qualitative changes in proteins, whose synthesis is stimulated by TA. Under the influence of TA W. arrhiza cells saw an induction of de novo synthesis of 3 proteins with molecular weights of 10, 58, and 90 kDa. It was proven that 10^-7 – 10^-6 M concentrations of TA also increase photosynthesis intensity and the activity of antioxidative enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase). In cells treated with exogenous TA, lipids' peroxidation decreases (expressed as a drop in malonyl dialdehyde) and sulfhydryl (SH) groups in proteins increase. Based on our research, TA plays an important role in the regulation of growth and metabolism in W. arrhiza. Our results also show that TA possibly participates in the activation of antioxidant enzymes and its probable participation in the metabolic responses of lower water plants to oxidative stresses.
EN
The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of use of synchronous culture of Chlorella vulgaris algae as a biotest in water quality control. In the experiment the samples of water collected from seven sampling points in Goczałkowice Reservoir were used. The criterion of changes was the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, from 24"" hour of the cell life cycle, separated by HPLC technique. On the basis of changes taking place in the cells of the algae cultures it was possible to establish the timing of the flood period and autumnal changes in a water quality. It was also proved that the water quality in the main water current that fall into the western part of reservoir carried by the Wisla River after the flood period significantly differed from the water quality in the other parts of the reservoir, particularly in its eastern section.
PL
Celem niniejszej pracy było wykazanie możliwości wykorzystania synchronicznej hodowli Chlorella vulgaris jako biotestu w kontroli jakości wód. Próbki wody wykorzystane w eksperymencie pochodziły z siedmiu punktów pomiarowych zlokalizowanych w obrębie zbiornika Goczałkowice. Kryterium zmian była koncentracja barwników fotosyntetycznych pochodzących z dwudziestoczterogodzinnego cyklu życiowego komórek analizowanych techniką HPLC. Interpretując zmiany zachodzące w komórkach glonów hodowanych w wodach ze zbiornika Goczałkowice wyodrębniono okres lipcowej powodzi oraz jesiennych zmian jakości wód związanych z naturalnymi przemianami zachodzącymi w jeziorach. Wykazano również, że jakość wody w głównym nurcie strumienia wód wnoszonych do zbiornika przez. Wisłę po okresie powodzi różniła się istotnie od jakości wód w innych miejscach zbiornika, zwłaszcza w jego wschodniej części.
EN
Using laboratory cultures of algae and natural phytoplankton populations from Nhatrang Bay (South China Sea), the relationship between the chlorophyll fluorescence F0, the chlorophyll a concentration Ca and light absorption capacities of algae cells was studied. It is shown that the ratio F0/Ca depends mainly on the species composition of the algae population; hence, the concentration Ca can be measured with the fluorescence method with acceptable accuracy only when the species composition of algae populations varies over a rather narrow range. The fluorescence F0 can, however, be a good index of the total absorption capacities of different phytoplankton species, because the intensity of F0 depends on the sum total of light absorbed by all photosynthetic pigments in a plant cell. Thus, the fluorescence F0 measures not only the concentration of chlorophyll a, but that of all photosynthetic pigment concentrations.
EN
Existing statistical models of in vivo light absorption by phytoplankton (Wozniak & Ostrowska 1990, Bricaud et al. 1995, 1998) describe the dependence of the phytoplankton specific spectral absorption coefficient a*pl() on the chlorophyll a concentration Ca in seawater. However, the models do not take into account the variability in this relationship due to phytoplankton acclimation. The observed variability in the light absorption coefficient and its components due to various pigments with depth and geographical position at sea, requires further accurate modelling in order to improve satellite remote sensing algorithms and interpretation of ocean colour maps. The aim of this paper is to formulate an improved model of the phytoplankton spectral absorption capacity which takes account of the pigment composition and absorption changes resulting from photo- and chromatic acclimation processes, and the pigment package effect. It is a synthesis of earlier models and the following statistical generalisations: (1) statistical relationships between various pigment group concentrations and light field properties in the sea (described by Majchrowski & Ostrowska 2000, this volume); (2) a model of light absorption by phytoplankton capable of determining the mathematical relationships between the spectral absorption coefficients of the various photosynthetic and photoprotecting pigment groups, and their concentrations in seawater (Wozniak et al. 1999); (3) bio-optical models of light propagation in oceanic Case 1 Waters and Baltic Case 2 Waters (Wozniak et al. 1992a,b, 1995a,b). The generalised model described in this paper permits the total phytoplankton light absorption coefficient in vivo as well as its components related to the various photosynthetic and photoprotecting pigments to be determined using only the surface irradiance PAR(0+) surface chlorophyll concentration Ca(0) and depth z in the sea as input data.
14
Content available remote Influence of photo- and chromatic acclimation on pigment composition in the sea
EN
The aim of this work was to find statistical relationships between the concentrations of accessory pigments in natural populations of marine phytoplankton and the absolute levels and spectral distributions of underwater irradiance. To this end, empirical data sets from some 600 stations in different parts of the seas and oceans were analysed. These data were obtained from the authors' own research and from the Internet's bio-optical data base. They included the vertical distributions of the concentrations of various pigments (identified chromatographically) and the vertical and spectral distributions of the underwater irradiance measured in situ or determined indirectly from bio-optical models. The analysis covered a total of some 4000 points illustrating the dependence of pigment concentration on underwater irradiance characteristics, corresponding to different depths in the sea. The analysis showed that the factor governing the occurrence of photoprotecting carotenoids (PPC) is short-wave radiation λ< 480 nm. A mathematical relationship was established between the relative PPC concentration (relative with respect to the chlorophyll a concentration) and the magnitude of the absorbed radiative energy per unit mass of chlorophyll a from the spectral interval λ< 480 nm, averaged in the water layers c z = 60 m (or less near the surface) to account for vertical mixing. This absorbed short-wave radiation ( λ< 480 nm) was given the name of Potentially Destructive Radiation (PDR*(z)). Analysis of the relationships between the concentrations of particular photosynthetic pigments (PSP), i.e. chlorophyll b, chlorophyll c, photosynthetic carotenoids (PSC), and the underwater irradiance characteristics indicated that these concentrations were only slightly dependent on the absolute level of irradiance E0(λ), but that they depended strongly on the relative spectral distribution of this irradiance f(λ)= E0(λ)/PAR0. The relevant approximate statistical relationships between the relative concentrations of particular PSP and the function of spectral fitting Fj, averaged in the layer Δz, were derived. Certain statistical relationships between the pigment composition of the phytoplankton and the irradiance field characteristics are due to the photo- and chromatic acclimation of natural populations of marine phytoplankton. These relationships can be applied in models of the coefficients of light absorption by phytoplankton.
EN
An algorithm for calculating the marine phytoplankton total spectral absorption coefficient and its components for particular groups of photosynthetic and photoprotecting pigments has been developed. The input data for the calculations are the concentrations of these groups of pigments and depth in the sea. Over 1400 sets of simultaneously measured phytoplankton absorption properties and pigment contents at different depths in various water types were applied in the modelling. Photo- and chromatic acclimation as well as the package effect of pigments in cells and its variation in different waters have been considered. The vertical profiles of the product CI d are also described.
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