The effects of four different kinds of nanoparticles (NPs), namely, CuO, ZnO, TiO2, and Au, of the sizes ranging from <20 nm to 50 nm on Daphnia magna, early life stage of zebrafish, and various enzymes have been investigated. The experimental results showed that the NPs inhibited both the body length and hatching rate of zebrafish larvae; the small nanoparticles exhibited more toxicity. In a 21 day chronic toxicity test, metal ions of higher concentrations significantly reduced the number of Daphnia magna offspring. Studies on enzyme activity showed that the NPs reduced the glutathione content and inhibited catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, resulting in shorter body length, lower hatching success, and lower reproduction of zebrafish larvae. Therefore, studies should focus more on the potential toxicity of smaller NPs.