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EN
It is becoming increasingly important to monitor zoobenthic biodiversity in seas that are under industrial and anthropogenic pollution pressure, such as the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea. This study covers crustacean species in the Turkish waters of the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea, both of which are closed systems. Sampling was carried out in July–August 2019 and yielded 32 crustacean species from the Black Sea and 77 species from the Marmara Sea. In the Marmara Sea, two species [Kupellonura mediterranea and Leucon (Macrauloleucon) siphonatus] represent new records for the Turkish waters, and 12 species [Cirolana cranchii, Cumella (Cumella) pygmaea, Cyathura carinata, Cymodoce truncata, Eurydice pulchra, Gammaropsis sophiae, Harpinia truncata, Iphinoe serrata, Iphinoe trispinosa, Liocarcinus pusillus, Nebalia strausi and Synchelidium maculatum] are new to the Marmara Sea. The following species: Gammaropsis palmata, Pontocrates arenarius, and Synchelidium haplocheles are new records for the Black Sea. The order Amphipoda dominated in both seas in terms of the number of species and the number of individuals.
EN
Following previous geoelectrical researches initiated in 2009 for the delineation and characterization of seawater intrusion in a freshwater aquifer of Sarmatian (late Middle Miocene) age, a subsurface imaging survey via 2-D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was conducted in 2019 on the outskirts of Vama Veche resort—Romanian Black Sea southern coast. The survey was organized in the framework of a feld camp sponsored by the Foundation of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG)–Tulsa, OK, USA, with participation of teams from the University of Bucharest—Department of Geophysics and the Geological Institute of Romania. A number of eight ERT profles with N–S, W–E, NNE–SSW, and WNW–ESE orientation and 155–315 m length were imaged with a SuperSting R8/IP instrument (Advanced Geosciences Inc.), using deployments of 32–64 electrodes at 5 m spacing, in Wenner, Schlumberger, and dipole–dipole array confgurations. The processing and interpretation of high-resolution ERT data indicated that the seawater intrusion, evidenced as very low resistivity (5–10 Ω m) anomalous zones starting at approximately 45–49 m depth, has advanced at least 500 m inland. The survey results also allowed the identifcation of a system of fractures or faults with an approximate NW–SE/WNW–ESE and, possibly, N–S orientation, that might have provided potential pathways for saline water intrusion.
EN
The purpose of this work was to analyze the influence of climatic variability of wind waves and swell parameters in the coastal zone on the sediment transport and to assess the contribution of the swell to the formation of alongshore fluxes. The object of research is the Anapa bay-bar (the Black Sea). Mathematical modeling has shown that in the Anapa bay-bar area the average annual wind waves and swell powers have significant interannual variability. For the period from 1979 to 2017, in the southern part of the bay-bar, there was a statistically significant decrease in the share of swell in the alongshore transport, directed from NW to SE, in the central part – an increase in the contribution of swell to the total sediment flow from SE to NW, in the northern part – probable increase in flows to NW and decrease – to SE. Such a dynamic is consistent, in general, with experimental observations of the processes of erosion and accumulation of beach-forming material along the Anapa bay-bar coastline. A separate description of the bottom sediment fluxes under the influence of wind waves and swell made it possible to explain the fluctuations of the coastline over a climatic period.
EN
Data from MERIS onboard Envisat and MODIS onboard Terra and Aqua for 15-16 May 2010 were used to study powerful imprints of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) on the western part the Black Sea surface. Two cold fronts crossed the sea following the warm front and caused the AGWs which modulated the sea surface. Imprints of AGWs appeared as stripes of alternating brightness, they had crest length more than a hundred kilometers and wavelength of units of kilometers. Wave amplitude of AGWs imprints, evaluated by a 90%-depth of light penetration into the sea at 490 nm z90, the value inverse to the diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd_490, was units of decimeterxs. MODIS 250-m data of remote sensing reflectance, wind components and atmospheric pressure near the sea surface were obtained by processing the top of atmosphere data with the SeaDAS software package. Negative correlations of fluctuations of z90 with fluctuations of wind stress and atmospheric pressure were found on the transects of more than ten kilometers. The impact of wind stress on the origination of AGW imprints was found to be determinant, while the impact of atmospheric pressure was not more than units of percent.
5
Content available remote Extreme wind waves in the Black Sea
EN
Results of the analysis of a long-term data set, including fields of significant wave heights of the surface wave components, and mixed (total) wave field in the Black Sea are presented. The data set was collected on the basis of retrospective calculations using the MIKE 21 SW spectral wave model with the atmospheric forcing based on the ERA-Interim data in the period from 1979 to 2017. A criterion is used to isolate the swell waves from the initial wave data set that takes into account the wave age. We used the experimental data to develop a regression relationship showing that the maximum possible wave height can exceed the significant wave height approximately one and a half times. Analysis of the spatial distribution of wave heights in the Black Sea suggests that a possibility exists that significant wave height of storm waves can be as high as ∼12 m. This result indicates that the actual heights of maximum waves in the Black Sea can reach 18-19 m. Three regions are distinguished on the basis of the wave potential. The times of manifestation of extreme situations in these regions are different: in the southwestern part of the sea, extreme storm situations occur, as a rule, in December-January; in the region south of the Crimea Peninsula this happens in February; in the northeastern part of the sea they occur in November. It was also found that the south-southeastern and eastern parts of the sea are most affected by swell.
EN
Concentrations of a large set of major and trace elements, and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios were measured in Holocene sediments cored in the western deep Black Sea in order to unravel: (1) the controls of element enrichment, and (2) sources of the detrital component. The transition of the basin from oxic to euxinic resulted in enrichment or depletion in a number of elements in the deep-sea sediments. Authigenic Fe enrichment appears to depend on the amount of Fe mobilized from the sediment through the benthic redox shuttle mechanism and free H2S in the water column (degree of “euxinization”). Manganese enrichment is controlled by diagenetic reactions within the sediment: the dissolution of Mn minerals, Mn2+ diffusion upward and reprecipitation. Barium enrichment is also controlled by diagenetic reactions, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, that take place above and below the sulfate-methane transition, respectively. The major part of V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mo, Cd and Sb is inferred to have co-precipitated with Fe in the euxinic deep waters and to have been incorporated into authigenic Fe-sulfides. Basin reservoir effect additionally influences the Mo enrichment. The U enrichment is interpreted to have a different origin in the two organic-rich stratigraphic units (II and I). It is inferred to be: (i) at the expense of the U inventory of the deepwater pool and a result of inorganic reduction of U at euxinic conditions in the lower Unit II; and (ii) at the expense of the U inventory of the surface water pool and a result of biogenic uptake and transfer to the sediment by the plankton in the upper Unit I. The high field strength elements are closely linked to the detrital component and their depletion in the organic-rich sediments reflects a dilution of the detrital component by the biogenic one. The enrichments of REE, Sn and Th are likely controlled by adsorption on clay minerals. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of the alumino-silicate component of the studied sediments are relatively uniform. They are most likely controlled by riverine suspended matter supplied mainly in the NW Black Sea (Danube Delta) and transported southward by marine currents, and to a lesser degree by suspended matter from the small rivers draining SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey. Wind-blown dust from the Sahara Desert appears to have a minor contribution to the alumino-silicate component of the sediments. The slight shift in the Pb isotopes in Unit I upper layers is possibly caused by the addition of anthropogenic Pb.
EN
The seasonal dynamics of catalase activity of two related species of brown macroalgae, Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory (1832) and Fucus vesiculosus L. (1753) was studied. In general, catalase activity (CA) in C. crinita was several times higher than in F. vesiculosus. The maximum values of CA in C. crinita were observed in November and the minimum ones in September. For F. vesiculosus, the maximum CA was found in January and the minimum in April. Abrupt changes in water temperature significantly affected the catalase activity in C. crinita and F. vesiculosus. In both species of algae, a similar seasonal trend in the change of CA was noted: two periods of adaptation adjustment associated with sharp changes in the temperature regime (spring and autumn) were distinguished. In spring, with a rapid increase in the temperature of the water masses, catalase inactivation occurred, whereas during summer to winter transition, accompanied by a sharp water cooling, catalase activity increases. Stabilization of the CA values of the studied macroalgae in the absence of sharp temperature variability was observed. However, this period of "stationary state” varies in time: in Cystoseira crinita it lasts from May to August, and in Fucus vesiculosus it lasts from May to December.
EN
Using the field data collected in the Black Sea in September 2005–May 2013, the authors studied the spatial variability of the ratio of organic carbon to chlorophyll a (C:Chl a) in the sea surface layer (0–1 m). The C:Chl a ratio is an important parameter that reflects the phytoplankton adaptation to abiotic factors. Its maximum variations occurred in September–October 2005 and October 2010 when the highest spatial variability of average light intensity and nitrogen concentration was observed in the upper mixed layer. As a result, the maps of phytoplankton biomass differed from chlorophyll maps. In August 2011, no effect of light or nitrogen on the spatial variability of the C:Chl a ratio was found. Changes in the contribution of dinoflagellates to the total phytoplankton biomass affected the C:Chl a ratio variability, which was two times lower compared to September–October 2005 and October 2010. Also, the spatial distribution of phytoplankton biomass differed from the distribution of chlorophyll a concentration only in some areas of the sea. In May 2013, environmental factors slightly varied across the study area and the spatial variability of the C:Chl a ratio was insignificant. Therefore, the map of phytoplankton biomass indicated similarities with the chlorophyll map.
EN
The paper presents preliminary results of monitoring the population of the bivalve Chamelea gallina, which is the main source of biogenic carbonates for the Anapa bay bar beaches (the Black Sea). It is shown that by 2017, the biomass of the clams decreased more than twice compared to 2010, but began to increase in 2018. The average sizes of C. gallina are clearly divided in terms “year” - “section” - “age”. At the same time, interannual variations of the average size are very strong in all age groups. The average shell length of C. gallina significantly increased in 2018 compared to 2016, and especially - to 2017. This may be caused by the population decline of the predator Rapana venosa feeding on clams. Geographic differences in the shell length between sections are not directly related to the distribution of biogenic elements (nitrogen and phosphorus). The differences in longevity and shell size between C. gallina from the Anapa region and distant populations from the other parts of the distribution area are likely related to its significant negative correlation with the growth rate, which in turn negatively correlates with latitude.
EN
Ecological and hydrological problems of water reservoirs on rivers of the Black Sea coast in the context of the increasing air temperature and emissions of greenhouse gases, the melting of glaciers, and the occurrence of floods and forest fires have been analysed in the given article. The article presents the results of field and theoretical studies of sedimentation processes in the large water reservoirs of Georgia focusing on their morphometric conditions during the warming period.
EN
Seawater intrusions are a major environmental hazard for coastal freshwater aquifers. They are generated mainly by the uncontrolled exploitation of freshwater in pumping stations, if the aquifers are in hydraulic connection with the sea. In Romania, such marine intrusions have occurred in the southern part of Black Sea’s coastline, in Costinești and Vama Veche resorts, contaminating the main aquifers hosted in Sarmatian (late Middle Miocene) limestones, at distances ranging from hundreds of meters to over 2 km inland. For the study of these salinization phenomena, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys were performed in the affected areas. These surveys allowed the delineation and spatial–temporal monitoring of the intrusions and offered information related to faults that may have provided pathways for seawater migration toward the exploitation wells. The 1D interpretation of VES apparent resistivity data was performed via a set of novel software applications. The forward modeling component of the applications uses digital linear filtering and allows the simulation of theoretical VES responses for horizontally-layered geological media with virtually unlimited number of layers. The pseudo-inversion component of the applications is based on a random sampling of the parameters space of the geoelectrical models. The interpretation of VES surveys recorded in Vama Veche area by using the elaborated software indicates that the seawater intrusion occurs at more than 40 m depth. This agrees with a well flow test which produced saltwater at 40–60 m depth in that area.
EN
Parasitism of monkey goby, Neogobius fliviatilis, was assessed at three brackish water localities with different salinity levels (Gulf of Odessa, Khadzibey Estuary, Lake Kytay) and one freshwater site along the Lower Danube River (Vidin). A total of 25 parasite taxa were identified, with minimum parasite richness recorded in the Khadzhibey Estuary (three species) and the maximum along the Lower Danube (11 species). Parasite richness in the mesohaline Gulf of Odessa and oligohaline Lake Kytay was lower, but still relatively high compared to the Khadzibey Estuary. Our study indicates that freshwater populations of monkey goby host richer and more abundant parasite communities than those inhabiting brackish waters with (more or less) stable salinity. Unstable abiotic conditions that probably affected the parasite’s intermediate hosts contributed to the reduction in parasite species in the estuarine zone of the Danube.
13
Content available remote Parameters of wind seas and swell in the Black Sea based on numerical modeling
EN
The main objective of our work is to estimate the climatic peculiarities of the distribution of wind sea and swell in the Black Sea. The method of our research is numerical modeling. We tuned the spectral wave model DHI MIKE 21 SW for automatic separation of the components of surface waves. We estimated the peculiarities of the spatial distribution of the power of wind seas and swell in the basin of the Black Sea in the last 10 years (2007-2016). We determined the regions of domination of wind seas and swell in the field of mixed waves.
EN
We investigated biomass and composition of the pico-, nano- and microplankton communities in a coastal station of the southeastern Black Sea during 2011. We also examined trophic interactions within these communities from size-fractionated dilution experiments in February, June and December. Autotrophic and heterotrophic biomasses showed similar seasonal trends, with a peak in June, but heterotrophs dominated throughout the year. Autotrophic biomass was mainly comprised by nanoflagellates and diatoms in the first half of the year, and by dinoflagellates and Synechococcus spp. in the second half. Heterotrophic biomass was mostly dominated by heterotrophic bacteria, followed by nanoflagellates and microzooplankton. Dilution experiments suggest that nano- and microzooplankton were significant consumers of autotrophs and heterotrophic bacteria. More than 100% of bacterial production was consumed by grazers in all experiments, while 46%, 21% and 30% of daily primary production were consumed in February, June and December, respectively. In February, autotrophs were the main carbon source, but in December, it was heterotrophic bacteria. An intermediate situation was observed in June, with similar carbon flows from autotrophs and heterotrophic bacteria. Size-fraction dilution experiments suggested that heterotrophic nanoflagellates are an important link between the high heterotrophic bacterial biomass and microzooplankton. In summary, these results indicate that nano- and microzooplankton were responsible for comprising a significant fraction of total microbial plankton biomass, standing stocks, growth and grazing processes. This suggests that in 2011, the microbial food web was an important compartment of the planktonic food web in the coastal southeastern Black Sea.
EN
Bay of Samsun is one of the most important oil transport gateways in Black Sea. The region is surrounded with the coasts which have various levels of environmental sensitivity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the oil spill and predict the future accidents likely to be encountered around the Bay of Samsun. To be well informed about fate, this study makes the best possible use of two trajectory models. One of them, ADIOS (Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills), has been applied to natural degradation calculations, and the other one, OILMAP (oil spill model and response system), has been used for surface spread simulation. Hence in order to identify the risky areas three scenarios have been developed. Their results reveal that in case of oil spills, with average environmental conditions, there is a risk of contamination for the city of Samsun. Although the area under the risk is the same, contamination density is totally different depending upon the quantity and the type of spilt oil. The results gained through these efforts are hoped to be useful for many organizations dealing with oil spill response operations and contribute to an effective coordination among the relevant institutions.
EN
The present study deals with macrozoobenthic species on soft substrates in İğneada (Turkish coast of the Black Sea). Benthic samples were collected seasonally at three stations between 2012 and 2013. A total of 155 species belonging to seven taxa (Turbellaria, Nemertea, Nematoda, Oligochaeta, Polychaeta, Crustacea, Phoronida, Mollusca, Hemichordata) were identified. Of these, four species are new records for the Black Sea fauna, 15 species are new to the Turkish coast of the Black Sea; and two species are new to the Turkish Seas. Polychaeta was the most representative taxon in the study area – it was represented by 58 species (39% of the total number of species). In terms of the number of individuals, Mollusca were the dominant taxon in all seasons (82% of the total number of individuals). The most dominant species were Bittium reticulatum and Caecum trachea and the most frequent species were Micronephtys stammeri, B. reticulatum and Chamelea gallina.
EN
Phytoplankton community, diatom to dinoflagellate ratio and pigment composition in surface waters with nutrient data from April 2013 to March 2014 were monitored in the south-eastern (SE) Black Sea using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microscopic analyses. Microscopic examination revealed a total of 71 species that consist of dinoflagellate (58%), diatoms (25%) and other groups (17%). Microscopy and HPLC-based pigment analyses revealed almost similar results which suggest that the phytoplankton community is mainly composed of diatoms, dinoflagellates and coccolithophores. Fucoxanthin (mean 0.35 ± 019 μg L−1), peridinin (mean 0.18 ± 0.14 μg L−1) and 19-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin (mean 0.24 ± 0.15 μg L−1) are prominent pigments which showed significant correlation with Diatom-C (r2 = 0.63–0.71, p < 0.05), Dinoflagellate-C (r2 = 0.49–0.80, p < 0.05) and Coccolithophore-C (r2 = 0.72–0.82, p < 0.05), respectively. Mean carbon biomass of diatoms (36.50 ± 9.72 μg L−1) was higher than that of dinoflagellates (33.32 ± 9.05 μg L−1). Significant differences were also observed in nutrient ratio (N:P and Si:N) (One-way ANOVA, p < 0.05). Results illustrate that HPLC-based pigment approach can be used for taxonomic characterisation of phytoplankton groups in the SE Black Sea. Moreover, relatively high dinoflagellate species dominancy and significant correlations between Phyto-C and marker pigments indicate that phytoplankton community composition is shifting towards much smaller groups in SE coasts of the Black Sea.
EN
For many years there has been intensified human pressure in the region of Sevastopol, arising out of its strategic role as the main city in the region as well as a port where the Russian or Soviet Black Sea fleet was stationed. The industry in Sevastopol, municipal sewage as well as agriculture are important sources of pollutants that enter the Black Sea in the region of this city. In terms of shaping the environmental protection policy (not only in the research region but in the whole basin), it is important to conduct monitoring research connected with the pollution of the Black Sea in regions with different levels of human pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the content of zinc and lead in water and in algae from selected Black Sea bays near Sevastopol. The samples of water and algae were collected in August 2012 from eight bays of Sevastopol (Galubaja, Kozacha, Kamyshova, Kruhla, Striletska, Pishchana, Pivdenna and the Sevastopol Bays) as well as one sample from the open sea near Fiolent. Cystoseira barbata and Ulva rigida algae were taken from the same places. The collected water samples were conserved in situ and after being brought to the laboratory their zinc and lead contents were determined. The collected algae were rinsed in distilled water, dried, and then homogenized and mineralized. The lead content was determined in mineralisates by AAS method with electrothermal atomization, and the zinc content was determined using the ICP-OES method. The zinc content in water ranged from 36.43 to 233.3 µg Zn·dm–3, and the lead content was between 1.32 and 38.32 µg Pb·dm–3. Considerable differences in contents of the studied elements in water of individual bays were found. Variability of zinc and lead concentration in the studied water samples was 69 and 112%, respectively. The highest zinc contents were found in water from the Striletska, Kozacha, and Sevastopol Bays, and the highest lead contents from the Kozacha and Kruhla Bays. Their lowest concentration was found in the water collected in the open sea. Moreover, the lower zinc concentration was in water from Pivdenna and Pishchana Bays, and the lowest lead concentration was found in the Galubaja and Pishchana Bays. The zinc content in the algae ranged between 6.517 and 30.21 mg·kg–1. The Cystoseira barbata algae contained over twice more zinc than the Ulva rigida. The lead content in the algae ranged between 0.567 and 7.692 mg Pb·kg–1. Compared with the Ulva rigida, almost a half more lead was found in the Cystoseira barbata. No statistically significant correlation between the content of the studied elements in water and the algae biomass was observed. However, a significant positive correlation between the content of these metals in both species of algae was found. The values of the zinc bioaccumulation coefficient varied from 32 to 642, and of lead from 30 to 1,273. Contents of the studied elements, both in biotic and abiotic part of the studied ecosystems, point at anthropogenic enrichment. However, the results obtained for the Sevastopol, Kozacha, and Striletska Bays point to a danger of their excessive bioaccumulation and a potential risk to the life of aquatic organisms as well as seafood consumers.
PL
Od wielu lat w rejonie Sewastopola ma miejsce nasilona antropopresja wynikająca ze strategicznej jego roli jako głównego miasta w regionie oraz portu, w którym przez wiele lat stacjonowała rosyjska lub radziecka flota czarnomorska. Ważnymi źródłami zanieczyszczeń trafiających do Morza Czarnego w rejonie Sewastopola są przemysł zlokalizowany w tym mieście, ścieki komunalne oraz rolnictwo. Prowadzenie badań monitoringowych związanych z zanieczyszczeniem Morza Czarnego w rejonach o różnym poziomie antropopresji jest istotne z punktu widzenia kształtowania polityki ochrony środowiska nie tylko w rejonie badań, ale w całym basenie tego akwenu. Celem pracy była ocena zawartości cynku i ołowiu w wodzie oraz glonach z wybranych zatok Morza Czarnego w okolicach Sewastopola. Próbki wody oraz glonów pobrano w sierpniu 2012 r. z ośmiu zatok Sewastopola (Gałubaja, Kozacha, Kamyshova, Kruhla, Striletska, Pishchana, Pivdenna i Sewastopolska) oraz jedną próbkę z otwartego morza w okolicach Fioletu. Z tych samych miejsc pobrano glony Cystoseira barbata i Ulva rigida. Pobraną wodę konserwowano na miejscu i po przewiezieniu do laboratorium oznaczono w niej zawartość cynku i ołowiu. Pobrane glony wypłukano w wodzie destylowanej, suszono, a następnie homogenizowano i mineralizowano. W mineralizatach oznaczono zawartość cynku metodą ICP-OES, a zawartość ołowiu oznaczono metodą ASA z atomizacją elektrotermiczną. Zawartość cynku w wodzie mieściła się w zakresie od 36,43 do 233,3 µg Zn·dm–3, a ołowiu w zakresie od 1,32 do 38,32 µg Pb·dm–3. Stwierdzono znaczne różnice zawartości badanych pierwiastków w wodzie z poszczególnych zatok. Względne odchylenie standardowe stężenia cynku i ołowiu w badanych próbkach wody wynosiła odpowiednio 69 i 112%. Największe zawartości cynku stwierdzono w wodzie z zatok Striletska, Kozacha i Sewastopolska, a ołowiu w zatokach Kozacha i Kruhla. Najmniejsze ich stężenie stwierdzono w wodzie pobranej na otwartym morzu, a ponadto cynku z zatok Pivdenna i Pishchana, a ołowiu z zatok Gałubaja i Pishchana. Zawartość cynku w glonach wahała się w granicach od zakresie od 6,517 do 30,21 mg·kg–1 s.m. Glony Cystoseira barbata zawierały ponad dwukrotnie więcej cynku w porównaniu z Ulva rigida. Zawartość ołowiu w glonach wahała się w zakresie 0,567 do 7,692 mg Pb · kg–1 s.m. Prawie o połowę więcej ołowiu stwierdzono w Cystoseira barbata w porównaniu z Ulva rigida. Nie stwierdzono statystycznie istotnej korelacji pomiędzy zawartością badanych pierwiastków w wodzie i w biomasie glonów. Wykazano natomiast istotną dodatnią korelację pomiędzy zawartością cynku i ołowiu w obydwu gatunkach glonów. Wartość współczynnika bioakumulacji cynku wahała się w granicach od 32 do 642, a ołowiu od 30 do 1273. Zawartości badanych pierwiastków, zarówno w biotycznej, jak i abiotycznej części badanych ekosystemów wskazują na antropogeniczne wzbogacenie, jednakże wyniki uzyskane w próbkach z zatok Sewastopolska, Kozacha i Striletska wskazują na niebezpieczeństwo nadmiernej ich bioakumulacji i potencjalne zagrożenie życia organizmów wodnych oraz konsumentów owoców morza.
EN
A high level of anthropopressure has been registered in Sevastopol region, connected with its strategic role as the main city in the region, but also due to Russian Black Sea Fleet stationing there for many years. A significant source of the Black Sea contamination in Sevastopol area is the industry located in this city, municipal waste and agriculture. Implementing measures aimed at protection of the Black Sea and the evolution of their results requires monitoring conducted in the regions with various levels of anthropopressure. The work was aimed at the assessment of copper and cadmium content in water and algae in selected bays of the Black Sea in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Samples of water and algae were collected in August 2012 from eight Sevastopol bays (Galubaja, Kozacha, Kamyshova, Kruhla, Strieletska, Pishchana, Pivdenna and Sevastopolska) and from the open sea in the vicinity of Fiolent. Algae (Cystoseira barbata and Ulva rigida) were collected from the same places. Collected water was preserved on the sampling place and brought to the laboratory where its copper and cadmium concentrations were assessed. Collected algae were rinsed in distilled water, dried, then homogenised and mineralised. Copper and cadmium content were determined in the mineralizates using ASA method with electrothermal atomisation. Cadmium concentration in water ranged from 0.13 to 1.74 μg Cd dm -3, and copper from 7.07 to 22.56 μg Cd dm,-3. Considerable differences in the content of the analysed elements were registered in individual bays. The highest content was assessed in Galubaja and Sevastopolska bays, whereas the lowest one in the water collected in the open sea and in Pivdenna bay. Copper concentrations in the analysed algae fluctuated from 3.375 to 14.96 mg Cu kg -1 d.m. No differences were noted in this element content between the algae species. Cadmium content in the algae ranged from 0.133 to 1.133 mg Cd kg-3 d.m. Higher accumulation of cadmium was observed in Cystoseira barbata than in Ulva rigida. The value of copper bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) ranged from 181 to 1201, whereas cadmium from 181 to 5256. The contents of the analysed metals, both in biotic and abiotic elements of the studied ecosystems point to anthropogenic enrichment and the results obtained for Sevastopolska, Galubaja and Kozacha bays indicate a hazardous, excessive bioaccumulation of copper and cadmium and to potential threat to the life of aquatic organisms and seafood consumers.
EN
Trace metals play an important role in functioning of marine and ocean ecosystems. The particular importance of these elements in ecosystems of salt water basins results from their low concentrations in waters of these basins. The content of trace elements in ocean waters is from a few to several dozen times lower than in fresh waters. Such conditions caused that sea organisms developed, by means of evolution, the ability to intensive absorption of trace elements from water in order to meet the physiological demand for them. However, such abilities can cause excessive bioaccumulation of trace elements in ecosystems with elevated their supply, caused by human pressure or enrichment of the water environment from natural sources. The aim of this paper was to assess the nickel and chromium content in water and in algae from selected Black Sea bays near Sevastopol. The samples of water and algae were collected in August 2012 from eight bays in the region of Sevastopol (Galubaja, Kozacha, Kamyshova, Kruhla, Striletska, Pishchana, Pivdenna, the Sevastopolska Bay) as well as one sample from the open sea near Fiolent. Cystoseira barbata and Ulva rigida algae were collected from the same places. The collected water samples were conserved in situ and after being brought to the laboratory their contents of nickel and chromium were determined. The collected algae were rinsed in distilled water, dried, and then homogenized and mineralized. Content of the studied elements was determined in mineralisates by AAS method with electrothermal atomization. It was found that both elements concentrations in water from individual bays were 2–3 times different. The nickel content ranged between 1.74 and 4.14 ·gNi · dm–3, and the chromium content was between 1.56 and 5.97 ·gCr · dm–3. Water from the Striletska Bay contained the highest amount of the studied elements. The nickel content in the studied algae ranged between 1.967 and 12.87 mg · kg–1 d.m., and the chromium content between 0.342 and 7.650 mg · kg–1 d.m. A higher accumulation of these elements was found in Cystoseira barbata than in Ulva rigida. Algae collected in the Sevastopolska Bay contained the highest amount of nickel, and algae from the Pivdenna Bay contained the highest amount of chromium. The content of the studied elements in biomass of the algae was not correlated with their concentration in water. On the other hand, a significant correlation between the nickel content in the algae of both species was found. Values of nickel bioaccumulation coefficients in the studied ecosystems were close to values recorded in environments with high human pressure, whereas in the case of chromium they were very low, much lower than values given in available literature. It was a result of a very high concentration of this element in water, and its moderate content in the algae. Generally, a higher content of the studied elements, both in water and in the algae, was found in all the bays than in samples collected in the open sea. The highest threat of the studied metals was found in the Sevastopolska and Pivdenna Bays.
PL
Metale śladowe odgrywają ważną rolę w funkcjonowaniu ekosystemów morskich i oceanicznych. Szczególne znaczenie tych pierwiastków w ekosystemach zbiorników wód słonych wynika z bardzo małych ich stężeń spotykanym w wodach tych akwenów. Zawartość pierwiastków śladowych w wodach oceanicznych jest od kilku do kilkudziesięciu razy mniejsza niż w wodach słodkich. Takie warunki sprawiły, że organizmy morskie wykształciły na drodze ewolucji zdolność do intensywnego pobierania pierwiastków śladowych z wody w celu zaspokojenia zapotrzebowania fizjologicznego na nie. Takie zdolności mogą jednak powodować nadmierną bioakumulację pierwiastków śladowych w ekosystemach o podwyższonej ich podaży, spowodowanej antropopresją lub wzbogaceniem środowiska wodnego ze źródeł naturalnych. Celem pracy była ocena zawartości niklu i chromu w wodzie oraz glonach z wybranych zatok Morza Czarnego w okolicach Sewastopola. Próbki wody oraz glonów pobrano w sierpniu 2012 r. z ośmiu zatok w rejonie Sewastopola (Gałubaja, Kozacha, Kamyshova, Kruhla, Striletska, Pishchana, Pivdenna, Sewastopolska) oraz jedną próbkę z otwartego morza w okolicach Fioletu. Z tych samych miejsc pobrano glony Cystoseira barbata i Ulva rigida. Pobraną wodę konserwowano na miejscu i po przywiezieniu do laboratorium oznaczono w niej zawartość niklu i chromu. Pobrane glony wypłukano w wodzie destylowanej, suszono, a następnie homogenizowano i mineralizowano. W roztworach oznaczono zawartość badanych pierwiastków metodą ASA z atomizacją elektrotermiczną. Stwierdzono 2–3-krotne różnice stężenia obydwu pierwiastków w wodzie z poszczególnych zatok. Zawartość niklu mieściła się w zakresie od 1,74 do 4,14 ·gNi · dm–3, a chromu w zakresie od 1,56 do 5,97 ·gCr · dm–3. Najwięcej badanych pierwiastków zawierała woda z zatoki Striletska. Zawartość niklu w badanych glonach wahała się w zakresie od 1,967 do 12,87 mg · kg–1 s.m., a chromu od 0,342 do 7,650 mg · kg–1 s.m. Stwierdzono większe nagromadzenie tych pierwiastków w Systoseira barbata niż w Ulva rigida. Najwięcej niklu zawierały glony pobrane w zatoce Sewastopolskiej, a najwięcej chromu zawierały glony z zatoki Pivdenna. Zawartość badanych pierwiastków w biomasie glonów nie była skorelowana z ich stężeniem w wodzie. Stwierdzono natomiast istotną korelację między zawartością niklu w glonach obydwu gatunków. Wartości współczynników bioakumulacji niklu w badanych ekosystemach były zbliżone do notowanych w środowiskach o dużym nasileniu antropopresji, natomiast w przypadku chromu były bardzo małe, dużo mniejsze niż podawane w dostępnej literaturze. Powodem było bardzo duże stężenie tego pierwiastka w wodzie i umiarkowanej jego zawartości w glonach. Generalnie we wszystkich zatokach stwierdzono większą zawartość badanych pierwiastków (zarówno w wodzie, jak i w glonach) niż w próbkach pobranych na otwartym morzu. Największe zagrożenie badanymi metalami stwierdzono w zatokach Sewastopolska i Pivdenna.
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