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Riverbed armoring and sediment exchange process in a sand–gravel bed reach after the Three Gorges Project operation

Identyfikatory
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Upstream damming greatly altered the fow and sediment regime entering downstream reaches in the Middle Yangtze River, and the bed material in a sand–gravel bed reach coarsened continuously, which had a signifcant infuence on the sediment transport and bed evolution. In order to study the riverbed armoring, the sediment exchange process (SEP) among bed material, bed load and suspended load in a sand–gravel bed river is frstly clarifed, and then, the three-state transition probability model (Markov chain) is proposed in this study, with the hiding-exposure efect of non-uniform sediment being considered. Finally, the equilibrium equation of sediment quantity in an active layer is presented to calculate the grain size distribution of bed material. In this model, the infuences of fow and sediment conditions, riverbed erosion and deposition on the SEP are discussed. The results show that the composition of surface bed material at the Zhicheng station became obviously coarse, and the median grain size (d50) of surface bed material increased from 0.230 to 0.424 mm in 2003–2017, with an upward increasing trend. The proposed probabilistic model was validated against feld measurements of bed material, and calculated results show reasonable agreement with the measured data at Zhicheng. Accordingly, the probabilistic model can be used to predict the riverbed armoring and to investigate the non-equilibrium transport of non-uniform sediment in a sand–gravel bed river.
Czasopismo
Rocznik
Strony
243--252
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 36 poz.
Twórcy
autor
  • State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
autor
  • State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
autor
  • State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
  • State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
Bibliografia
  • 1. Armanini A (1995) Non-uniform sediment transport: dynamics of the active layer. J Hydraul Res 33(5):611–622. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221689509498560
  • 2. Bialik RJ, Nikora VI, Karpiński M, Rowiński PM (2015) Diffusion of bedload particles in open-channel flows: distribution of travel times and second-order statistics of particle trajectories. Environ Fluid Mech 15(6):1281–1292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10652-015-9420-5
  • 3. Bose SK, Dey S (2013) Sediment entrainment probability and threshold of sediment suspension: exponential-based approach. J Hydraul Eng 139(10):1099–1106. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000763
  • 4. Cheng NS, Chiew YM (1999) Analysis of initiation of sediment suspension from bed load. J Hydraul Eng 125(8):855–861. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1999)125:8(855)
  • 5. Christina TM, Lai KC (2014) Three-state continuous-time Markov Chain Model for mixed-size sediment particle transport. J Hydraul Eng 140(9):04014047. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000897
  • 6. Christina TM, Yang FN (2013) Modeling bed-load transport by a three-state continuous-time Markov Chain Model. J Hydraul Eng 139(12):1265–1276. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000764
  • 7. Church M, Haschenburger JK (2017) What is the “active layer”? Water Resour Res 53(1):5–10. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016WR019675
  • 8. Clayton JA, Pitlick J (2008) Persistence of the surface texture of a gravel-bed river during a large flood. Earth Surf Proc Land 33(5):661–673. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1567
  • 9. CWRC (Changjiang Water Resources Commission) (2018) Analysis of channel degradation downstream of the Three Gorges Dam. Scientific Report of CWRC, Wuhan (in Chinese)
  • 10. Elhaheem M, Papanicolaou T, Tsakiris AG (2017) A probabilistic model for sediment entrainment: the role of bed irregularity. Int J Sedim Res 32(1):137–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2016.11.001
  • 11. Ettema R (1984) Sampling armor-layer sediments. J Hydraul Eng 110(7):992–996. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1984)110:7(992)
  • 12. Gessler J (1965) The beginning of bed-load movement of mixtures investigated as natural armoring in channels. Translation T-5, W. M. Keck Laboratory of Hydraulics and Water Resources, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA
  • 13. Guerit L, Barrier L, Liu Y, Narteau C, Lajeunesse E, Gayer E (2018) Uniform grain-size distribution in the active layer of a shallow, gravel-bedded, braided river (the Urumqi River, China) and implications for paleo-hydrology. Earth Surf Dyn 6(4):1011–1021. https://doi.org/10.5194/esurf-6-1011-2018
  • 14. Han QW (2018) The frontier research achievements on stochastic theory of sediment transport. J Hydraul Eng 49(9):1040–1054 (in Chinese)
  • 15. Han QW, He MM (1999) Study on state probabilities and the ratio of bed load to suspended load. J Hydraul Eng 10:7–16 (in Chinese)
  • 16. Kuai KZ, Tsai CW (2016) Discrete-time Markov chain model for transport of mixed-size sediment particles under unsteady flow conditions. J Hydrol Eng 21(11):04016039(1–12). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001392
  • 17. Li JD, Sun J, Lin BL (2018) Bed-load transport rate based on the entrainment probabilities of sediment grains by rolling and lifting. Int J Sedim Res 33(1):126–136. https://doi.org/10.1061/j.ijsrc.2017.12.005
  • 18. Li LL, Zhang GG, Zhang JJ (2019) Formula of bed-load transport based on the total threshold probability. Environ Fluid Mech 19(2):569–581. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10652-018-9638-0
  • 19. Lisle TE (1995) Particle size variations between bed load and bed material in natural gravel bed channels. Water Resour Res 31(4):1107–1118. https://doi.org/10.1029/94WR02526
  • 20. Little WC, Mayer PG (1972) The role of sediment gradation on channel armoring. School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta
  • 21. Peirce S, Ashmore P, Leduc P (2019) Evolution of grain size distributions and bed mobility during hydrographs in gravel-bed braided rivers. Earth Surf Proc Land 44(1):304–316. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4511
  • 22. Powell DM, Reid I, Laronne JB (2001) Evolution of bed load grain size distribution with increasing flow strength and the effect of flow duration on the caliber of bed load sediment yield in ephemeral gravel bed rivers. Water Resour Res 37(5):1463–1474. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900342
  • 23. Shen HW, Lu JY (1983) Development and prediction of bed armoring. J Hydraul Eng 109(HY4):611–629. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1983)109:4(611)
  • 24. Singh A, Guala M, Lanzoni S, Foufoula-Georgiou E (2012) Bedform effect on the reorganization of surface and subsurface grain size distribution in gravel bedded channels. Acta Geophys 60(6):1607–1638. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11600-012-0075-z
  • 25. Sun ZL, Donahue J (2000) Statistically derived bed-load formula for any fraction of nonuniform sediment. J Hydraul Eng 126(2):105–111. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2000)126:2(105)
  • 26. Sun ZL, Sun ZF (2000) Experiment and prediction of an armoring layer. J Hydroelectr Eng 4:40–48 (in Chinese)
  • 27. Sziło J, Bialik RJ (2018) Grain size distribution of bedload transport in a glaciated catchment (Baranowski Glacier, King George Island, Western Antarctica). Water 10(4):360. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040360
  • 28. Wu FC, Chou YJ (2003) Rolling and lifting probabilities for sediment entrainment. J Hydraul Eng 129(2):110–119. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2003)129:2(110)
  • 29. Wu FC, Yang KH (2004) Entrainment probabilities of mixed-size sediment incorporating near-bed coherent flow structures. J Hydraul Eng 130(12):1187–1197. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2004)130:12(1187)
  • 30. Xia JQ, Deng SS, Lu JY, Xu QX, Zong QL, Tan GM (2016) Dynamic channel adjustments in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River. Sci Rep Rep. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep22802
  • 31. Xia JQ, Deng SS, Zhou MR, Lu JY, Xu QX (2017) Geomorphic response of the Jingjiang Reach to the Three Gorges Project operation. Earth Surf Proc Land 42(6):866–876. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4043
  • 32. Xu QX, Zhang XF, Tan GM (1999) Multi-step prediction modeling on riverbeds scouring and armoring. Adv Water Sci 10(1):42–47. https://doi.org/10.14042/j.cnki.32.1309.1999.01.008(in Chinese)
  • 33. Yang FG, Liu XN, Cao SY, Huang E (2010) Bed load transport rates during scouring and armoring processes. J Mt Sci 7(3):215–225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-010-2013-3
  • 34. Yu WC, Lu JY (2008) Bank erosion and protection in the Yangtze River. China Water and Power Press, Beijing (in Chinese)
  • 35. Zhang W, Yang YP, Zhang MJ, Li YT, Zhu LL, You XY, Wang D, Xu JF (2017) Mechanisms of suspended sediment restoration and bed level compensation in downstream reaches of the Three Gorges Projects (TGP). J Geogr Sci 27(4):463–480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-017-1387-3
  • 36. Zhou MR, Xia JQ, Deng SS, Lin FF (2018) Channel adjustments in a gravel-sand bed reach downstream of the Three Gorges Dam. Glob Planet Change 170:213–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.08.014
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.baztech-ede71cd1-e872-4183-b5d7-0df8a6544680
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