Carl von Clausewitz w 220 rocznicę urodzin
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Carl von Clausewitz after 220 Years Passed after His Birthday
Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) was bom on 1 June 1780. He was the son of Frederick Clausewitz, a tax- collector from a little town Burg near Magdeburg. He started his military career in the summer of 1792 when he joined the 34th Prince Ferdinand Regiment stationed in Ruppin. He gained his first war experience in 1793 participating in the siege of Mainz during the war with revolutionary France. He included his valuable remarks from that experience in his treatise „On War”. When Prussia resigned from antirevolutionary coalition in 1795 Clausewitz returned to service in Neuruppin. During his service in that period he was involved in studying publications relating to the art of war, history and philosophy. That period was a kind of preambule in the general’s future intellectual development. In 1801 Clausewitz met Gen. Gerard Schamhorst. Due to him he entered the War School from which he graduated with a distinction. In 1803 Clausewitz started his service in Berlin as Prince August’s adjutant. There he met his future wife - Maria von Bruhl. During Napoleonic Wars Clausewitz fought in battles of Auerstadt and Prentzlau. In the last-mentioned one he was taken prisoner. During his imprisonment he published several articles in „Minerva”. There he criticised the inefficiency of Prussian actions and commanders’ poor preparation during the fights against French revolutionary army. After signing the peace treaty in Tylża he travelled across France. After having been released from internment he arrived in Berlin and restored relations he with Schamhorst. In March 1812 he refused obedience to the King of Prussia and joined Russian service. In this army’s units he participated in fierce retreat fights at the turn of August and September 1812 and together with Schanhorst he was involved in constructing the Russian plan of anti-French campaign. When the war with France finished Clausewitz returned to the Prussian army. In his homeland he took the position of the Chief-of-Field Marshall Gneisanau’s Staff. In 1818 he was transferred to Berlin where he worked as administration director in the War School. At that time he started works on his treatise „On War”. In 1830 he was appointed the second artillery inspector in Wrocław. He died of cholera in 1831 and was buried there. During his short life, he lived 51 years, Clasewitz published several treaties and dissertations that made him immortal. His main work „On War” was published after his death. Later it was reprinted many times and even nowadays it is one of the key treatises on the theory of war.