Single-photon devices in quantum cryptography
Third International Conference on Solid State Crystals. Materials Science and Applications. ICSSC '2002 ; (14.10-18.10.2002 ; Zakopane, Poland)
Modern communication in absolute secrecy requires creation of new intrinsically secure quantum communication channels. It is particularly necessary during the first connection between two parties establishing then in assumed unconditional security the secret cryptographic key which is supposed to be used afterwards during normal information exchanging. This new emerging field of quantum information technology is based on na new type of light sources, in which numbers of emitted photons can be carefully controlled. Especially advantageous are sources of single photons emitted at strictly predetermined moments, so called single-photon devices. Then any possible eavesdropper activity will be followed by some unavoidable disturbance which alerts both communication parties to an event. In the present paper, the Purcell effect associated with enhancement of spontaneous emission coupled to a resonator is explained, methods used to produce streams of antibunched photons are given, mechanisms applied to control carrier injection into quantum dots are shown and some possible designs of single-photon devices are presented and described. These devices are based on taking advantage of both the Purcell effect and the atom-like energy spectrum of quantum dots.
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