Studies on the formation and disintegration of grounded ice hummocks in sheltered areas of the southern Baltic coast
Certain ice-related processes and phenomena associated with formation and disintegration of grounded ice hummocks in sheltered areas are discussed. The descriptions and discussion are based on the author's research carried out over many years in the southern Baltic coastal lagoons. The first part of the paper focuses on the hummocking process which may be invoked to explain the formation of high (up to 10 m above the water level) hummocks. Conditions necessary for hummocking are described and the areas and seasons during which hummocks occur are indicated. In the second part of the paper, the rate at which the hummock height is being reduced during: 1. windless weather with below-zero air temperature, and 2. windy weather (strong wave action) and above-zero air temperature, is discussed. The formation of the so-called ice depression around a hummock is described as well. In the concluding part, attention is being paid to destructive effects of ice in the area affected by hummocking
Bibliogr. 14 poz., fot., tab., wykr.