Analiza zmienności czasowej rozkładu temperatury powietrza w Polsce z zastosowaniem metod GIS
Wybrane pełne teksty z tego czasopisma
An analysis of temporal distribution of airtemperature in Poland with the use of GIS
The methods for analysing of temporal variability of air temperature are presented in the paper. Special attention is paid to the application of GIS tools. Being a leading and so-called continuous climatic element, air temperature is the best known climatic parameter and therefore makes a good base for various theoretical and practical studies. It concerns temporal analyses as well as spatial issues. In the recent years spatial analyses using GIS techniques are fairly frequent. However, there is the lack of studies devoted to temporal analyses of this particular climatic element. The paper is an attempt to use average annual and monthly air temperature for the territory of Poland. The data originate from 213 meteorological stations in Poland and in neighbouring areas ansd cover 53 years (1951-2003). The data series studied here are fully homogenous, already checked and verified earlier. Application of GIS methods also requires the use of other layers, so in the study digital terrain model (DTM), hydrographical network as well as administrative information were applied. Elevation plays the most important role in the spatial temperature distribution and determination coefficients even exceed 0.95. In the first phase the traditional, classical characteristics for temporal analysis were applied such as: linear trend, standard deviation, variation coefficient. Spatial distribution of the above mentioned measures is presented on the maps of Poland. The next step is based on the gridded values. They are available for the 10 km resolution and have been created from the air temperature maps formerly constructed by the residual cringing method. Such data enabled detailed temporal air temperature analyses for the territory of Poland as well as for individual regions. Gridded data provided the base for the construction of different diagrams showing absolute and relative temporal variability for particular territories. Digital dimension of all these graphs allows many various calculations indicating the range and intensity of the air temperature variability. The study contains only some examples of the temporal analyses from a large variety of particular cases. They are rather universal, so they can be applied for different climatic elements and for many temporal and spatial scales. That approach can be a good tool for further detailed processing as well as for formulating synthesis. All investigations confirm relatively large warming in the recent years. It concerns the whole Poland with the special regard to the central and western regions. However, due to relatively short period this trend does not allow to formulate further conclusions as to the future long-term tendency. Special attention was paid to the extreme thermal seasons of winter and summer. The results univocally show temperature increase during winter since the last years of 80s of the 20th century and they do not confirm any significant tendency for summer. All these results were received based on traditional (station) data as well as on gridded values. Application of the gridded data is quite important from the practical point and for the perspectives of climate change and variability studies. The obtained results point to the main features of the temporal thermal variability and also indicate a considerable spatial diversity not only in the mountain areas but also on Polish Lowlands. At the same time the examples presented here show that digital maps and diagrams allow for various types of calculating and analysing which may add a prominent practical dimension. The results show that climatologic studies with this kind of methodological approach may have a prior cognitive as well as practical meaning. Applied methods can be also used for other environmental elements.
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