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Morska mapa elektroniczna z trójwymiarowym zobrazowaniem informacji nawigacyjnej

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Warianty tytułu
Marine electronic chart with 3D presentation of navigational information
Języki publikacji
In the case of electronic navigational charts, many ways of cartographic presentation may be observed at present, which is likely to result from dynamic development of Geographical Information Systems, Standardized by the International Hydrographic Organization charts, featured by predetermined methods of cartographic elaboration, still are basic maps used on seagoing ships. These standards are approved by several international regulations, which served as the the basis for elaboration of Electronic Chart Display and Information System. This system is addressed to the professional group involved in sea or inland navigation. An electronic chart, which is the basic element of the system, more and more often replaces paper maps on the bridges of various seagoing or inland ships. Growth of standardized electronic navigation charts is not as dynamical and spontaneous as that of the maps being an element of land GIS. The reason is longer time needed for elaboration of international standards, in particular connected with new methods of cartographic presentation and technological conditions. However, in marine navigation appear charts, which are parts of non-standardized chart systems (ECS), which adopt , sometimes in advance, new form of cartographic presentation (often in a more enthusiastic than logical way). One of the most often implemented novelties is, without any doubt, 3D presentation of navigational information. Presently, there are many charts offering such solutions, but can we answer the fundamental question: is it necessary? If yes, what should be the range of its application and its presentation form? Application of such type of cartographic presentation is rational, because it allows to make up for the loss of certain information resulting from simplification of real world on traditional maps or adjustment of cartographic presentation to the type of navigation (for example navigation in confined waters). Such a form of presentation, even in the case of complementing basic navigational information, potentially can increase functionality of the system and improve safety of navigation. This paper presents the concept of a marine map with 3D presentation of navigational information and the results of research, which allow to analyze and assess this kind of presentation of navigational information. The main idea of cartographic elaboration of the chart model was designing 3D navigational marks and geographical objects by application of simplified transformation. In most cases it consisted in transformation of basic spatial elements (point, line and polygon) into 3D objects by adding the element of height. For land and water surface objects, used in navigation, more detailed models were designed. The aim of such an approach was to achieve a compromise between compliance with the reality of new cartographic objects and the cognitive aspects of traditional charts. Such elements as sea bottom surface, land objects and navigational mark were studied in a specific way. Much attention was put on bathymetric information, which was presented in the form of a numerical modelof the bottom and contour lines. Mixed method of presentation project was also applied in the project, where objects appropriate for 2D presentation were included. The area of research covered entrance to the port of Swinoujscie. In the studies opinions and suggestions of persons assessing the 3D chart were also taken into consideration. Results of the studies maybe used as guidelines or proposals in determining future standards of digital navigation maps.
Opis fizyczny
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