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## Roczniki Geomatyki

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### Modelowanie powierzchni statystycznej przedstawiającej gęstość zaludnienia w Polsce przy pomocy metody dozymetrycznej

Autorzy Bielecka, E.  Kuczyk, A.  Witkowska, E.
Treść / Zawartość http://rg.ptip.org.pl/index.php/rg/issue/archive
Warianty tytułu
 EN Modeling statistical surface of population density in Poland using dasymetric mapping
Języki publikacji PL
Abstrakty
 EN Population mapping, in general, has two purposes: firstly, to cartographically portray the extent and density of population across an area of interest, and secondly, to derive a quantitative estimation of population density for use in subsequent spatial analytical modeling tasks. A cartographic portrayal of population traditionally has the form of a choropleth map. This kind of mapping is very simple, but despite its simplicity, choropleths maps have limited utility for detailed spatial analysis of population data, especially where human populations are concentrated in relatively small numbers of villages, towns and cities. One way to avoid this limitation is to transform the administrative units into smaller and more relevant map units through the process known as dasymetric mapping. The dasymetric technique maps a quantitative variable according to boundaries derived from the character of the data distribution. It is a form of an areal interpolation that uses ancillary data to transform population data from one set of spatial units to another. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite derived ancillary land cover data to map population densities using dasymetric mapping. The three dasymetric methods presented, revealed the interregional variation in population density more realistically, in particular, among urban and rural areas. The methods were tested for Mazovia Region. The binary method, the simplest, is easy to implement in GIS and gives a better view of population distribution over a given area than conventional choropleth maps (fig. 1). The only drawback is the delimitation of uninhabited areas. The areal weighting aggregation method uses land cover data as limiting variable and a typology of communes as a correlation variable. We a priori assign the percentage of people attributed to each land cover type and groups of communes. Subjectivity of these decisions is considered the drawback of the method. The results are detailed enough and portray population density very realistic (fig.2). The areal weighting correlation method presents a new way of calculating weighting coefficients. This is based on the method proposed by Gallego and Peedell (2001), but is adapted to Polish conditions by grouping land cover classes, stratifying communes and computing coefficients (tab.1). This dasymetric mapping method is based on the assumption that the ratio between the population density of two land cover categories is the same for any given commune. This method, on contrary to previous ones, does not preserve pycnophylactic property of statistical data, so it is necessary to evaluate the results. Relative errors were computed for evaluating the modified areal weighting method. The analyse of a comparison between attributed population and population data known from statistical measurements indicate that the population value attributed to most of the communes is approximately in agrement with the statistical data (fig.4). The coefficients seem to be too high for a few urban communes and too low for some rural areas. The areal weighting correlation method provides realistic view of population distribution in the Mazovia Region (fig 3). The dasymetric population map was visualized according to choropleth map rules in such a way that it focuses on the relationship between settlement and the natural environment. The information generated from a dasymetric population density map could provide useful assistance to district administrations, especially those responsible for regional or city development and land management.
Słowa kluczowe
 PL metoda dazymentryczna   kartogram   interpolacja powierzchniowa   dane statystyczne   gęstość zaludnienia EN dasymetric method   choropleth map   areal interpolation   census data   population density
Wydawca Polskie Towarzystwo Informacji Przestrzennej
Wydawnictwo "Wieś Jutra" Sp. z o.o.
Czasopismo Roczniki Geomatyki
Rocznik 2005
Tom T. 3, z. 2
Strony 10--16
Opis fizyczny Bibliogr. 14 poz.
Twórcy
 autor Bielecka, E. Instytut Geodezji i Kartografii, elzbieta.bielecka@igik.edu.pl autor Kuczyk, A. Instytut Geodezji i Kartografii autor Witkowska, E. Instytut Geodezji i Kartografii
Bibliografia
1. Bielecka E., 2005: A Dasymetric population density map of Poland. Materialy XXII Międzynarodowego Kongresu Kartograficznego, 11-16 lipca A Coruna, Hiszpania.
2. Bielecka E., Ciolkosz A. 2005: CORINE Land Cover. Biblioteka Monitoringu Srodowiska.
3. Eicher C. L., and C. A. Brewer., 2001: Dasymetric mapping and areal interpolation: implementation and evaluation. Cartography and Geographic Information Science 28 (2): 125-138.
4. Gallego J., Peedell S., 2001: Using CORINE Land cover to map population density. Towards agrienvironmental indicators. EEA Topic report 6/2001:94-105.
5. Golen J., Ostrowski W., 1994: Metoda dazymetryczna - rys historyczny. Polski Przegląd Kartograficzny26(1):3-16.
6. Golen J., Ostrowski W., 1996: Z problematyki dazymetrycznych map zaludnienia. Polski Przegląd Karto- graficzny 28(2):79-85.
7. GUS, 2005: Powierzchnia i ludność w przekroju terytorialnym w 2000 r. Informacje i Opracowania Statystyczne, Warszawa.
8. Langford M., Maguire D.J., Unwin D.J. 1991: The areal interpolation problem: estimating population using remote sensing in a GIS framework. [W:] Handling Geographical Information, Essex UK, Longman Scieb- tific& technical, pp: 55-77.
9. Langford M., Unwin D. J., 1994: Generating and mapping population density surface within a geographical information system. The Cartographic Journal 31:21-26.
10. Mennis J., 2002: Using geographic information systems to create and analyse statistical surface of population and risk for environmental justice analysis. Social Science Quarterly, 83(1).
11. Mennis J., 2003: Generating surface models of population using dasymetric mapping. The Professional Geographer 55(1):31-42.
12. Ratajski L., 1989: Metodyka kartografii społeczno-gospodarczej. Wyd.2. PPWK, Warszawa.
13. Robinson A., Sale R., Morrison J., 1988: Podstawy kartografii. PWN, Warszawa.
14. Tobler W., 1979: Smooth pycnophylactic interpolation for geographic regions. Journal of the American Statistical Association 74: 519-530.
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