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Geofizyka otworowa w dobie poszukiwań gazu w łupkach : przegląd metod pomiarowych

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Well logging in the world of shale gas plays : review of the logging methods
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The purpose of this article is to review the possibilities of using well logging in the exploration and completion of the shale gas plays. This presentation is addressed to a broad geological community. The article is divided in two parts, the first is focused on the borehole logging tools and methods, while the second describes the construction of petrophysical models and considers some specific aspects of well logging application in the shale gas plays. For the more inquiring readers a comprehensive list of literature is presented. Well logging is the way to acquire an important geological information from the boreholes, parallel to the core data analysis. Laboratory core analysis gives most reliable and comprehensive description of rock parameters, like mineral and chemical composition, kerogen content and its maturity, porosity, the pore space structure, density, permeability etc. However, this kind of analysis is time consuming and expensive. On the other hand, well logs give less accurate and usually not directly measureable values, which must be interpreted to achieve the requested parameters. These measurements are made continuously in natural rock conditions and the results can be obtained very quickly. Proper calibration methods are necessary to link the logging data and the detailed laboratory core analyses. A wide range of well logging tools is described briefly in the paper, and the electrical, nuclear, NMR, and sonic methods are presented in more detail. Special attention is paid to the great technological progress in well logging during the last two decades. This progress allows to cope with the increasing difficulties in the reservoir evaluation. Complicated geometry of the directional borehole, thin beds, shaly-sand lithologies, low porosities, and the specific the pore space distributions are the main challenges in the shale gas plays.
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Bibliogr. 40 poz., rys., wykr.
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