Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
Tytuł artykułu

Land Access and Food Security for Forest Dwellers: An Economic Analysis for India

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Dostęp do ziemi i bezpieczeństwo żywieniowe dla mieszkańców obszarów leśnych: przykład Indii
Języki publikacji
For an economy to grow sustainably, the developmental needs of the poor have to be addressed, alongside concerns for conservation of resources. In spite of the high economic growth experienced in India in recent decades, driven chiefly by growth in the secondary and tertiary sectors, poverty persists amongst tribal communities. Analysis of survey based data reveals the continued significance of access to land and forest resources in impact-ing livelihoods and food security for forest dwelling communities, comprising mostly of tribals. Access to land and credit emerge as critical for the majority, with substantial dependence on forest products for the poorest among the poor households. The paper adds to the empirical literature on the debate on relevance of small holder agriculture and access to natural resources for poverty alleviation. It also provides an economic context for a recently enacted legislation that seeks to restore tenurial security to forest dwelling tribal communities.
Aby ekonomia rozwijała się w sposób zrównoważony, należy zapewnić możliwość spełniania potrzeb rozwojowych przez biednych, a zarazem dbać o ochronę surowców. Mimo wysokiego poziomu rozwoju ekonomicznego, obserwowanego w ciągu ostatnich kilku dekad w Indiach, napędzanego był przez drugo- i trzeciorzędne sektory, bieda nadal stanowi problem dla wielu plemion. Badania pokazują, że dla społeczności zamieszkujących obszary leśne nadal ogromne znaczenie, w aspekcie poziomu życia i bezpieczeństwa żywieniowego, odgrywają dostęp do ziemi i zasobów leśnych. Artykuł podnosi kwestię zasadności funkcjonowania małych gospodarstw rolniczych i dostępu do surowców naturalnych w kontekście walki z ubóstwem. Przeprowadzono także analizę ekonomiczną niedawno uchwalonego prawa, którego celem jest zapewnienie bezpieczeństwa dla społeczności zamieszkujących obszary leśne.
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 40 poz., fig., tab.
  • Faculty Ford Foundation Chair in Environmental Economics, Environmental and Resource Economics Unit, Institute of Economic Growth, University of Delhi Enclave, Delhi 110007, India
  • 1. AGARWAL A., YADAMA G.N., 1997, How do local institutions mediate market and population pressures on resources? Forest Panchayats in Kumaon, India, in: Development and Change, 28, p. 435- 465.
  • 2. BALAND J.M., PLATTEAU J.P., Economics of Common Property Management Regimes, in: Handbook of Environmental Economics, Volume1 eds. Mäler K.G., Vincent J.R., Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 2003.
  • 3. BALAND J.M., PLATTEAU J.P., Halting Degradation of Natural Resources: Is There a Role for Rural Communities? Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1996.
  • 4. BIGGS S., JUSTICE S., LEWIS D., 2011, Patterns of rural mechanisation, energy and employment in South Asia: reopening the debate, in: Economic and Political Weekly 46 (09) February 26/ March 04, p. 78-82
  • 5. BROMLEY D. W., Making the commons work: Theory, practice, and policy, ICS Press, San Francisco, 1992.
  • 6. BROMLEY D. W., 2005, The diminishing assets of the poor: Immiserization in Sub-Saharan Africa, omley/pdfs/NORWAYPAPER.pdf (7.07.2011).
  • 7. BROMLEY D. W., 2008, Formalising property relations in the developing world: the wrong prescription for the wrong malady, in: Land Use Policy, 26, p. 20-27.
  • 8. CHOPRA K., DASGUPTA P., 2008, Model for assessing economic and ecosystem services contribution of forests, in: International Forestry Review, 10 (2), p.376-386.
  • 9. DASGUPTA P., Poverty and the Environmental Resource Base, in: An Enquiry into Well Being and Destitution, chapter 10, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1993.
  • 10. DASGUPTA P., THORAT S., 2009. Will India’s Attainment of MDGs be an Inclusive Process?, in: Working Paper, vol. III, no. 02, Indian Institute of Dalit Studies, New Delhi.
  • 11. EIGHT REPORT, A Special Report on Most Vulnerable Social Groups and Their Access to Food, Commissioners of the Supreme Court of India, August, New Delhi 2008.
  • 12. ERIKSEN S., SILVA J.A., 2009, The vulnerability context of a savanna area in Mozambique: household drought coping strategies and responses to economic change, in: Environ-mental Science & Policy, 12(1), p. 33-52.
  • 13. FEDER G., ONCHAN T., 1987, Land owner-ship security and farm investment in Thailand, in: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 69(2), p. 311-320.
  • 14. FRA, The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, asp?sublinkid=655&langid=1 (15.7.2012)
  • 15. GADGIL M., 2007, Empowering Gram Sabhas to Manage Biodiversity: The Science Agenda, in: Economic and Political Weekly, 42(22), June 02/June 08.
  • 16. GOI 2002-2007, Food and Nutrition Security, Tenth Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi, (3.2.2013).
  • 17. GOI 2007-2012, Eleventh Five Year Plan Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi, plans/planrel/fiveyr/welcome.html (3.2.2012).
  • 18. GRANGOLATI M., DASGUPTA M.S., BREDENKAMP C., LEE Y., India’s under-nourished children: a call for reform and ac-tion in Health Nutrition, and Population (HNP), Discussion paper, World Bank, Wash-ington D.C. 2005.
  • 19. IFAD, Rural Poverty Report: New Realities, New Challenges: New opportunities for tomorrow’s generation, International Fund for Agri-cultural Development, Rome 2011.
  • 20. IFPRI, Global Hunger Index The Challenge of Hunger: Focus on the Crisis of Child Undernutrition, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C. 2010.
  • 21. IIPS Macro International, National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005–06, Volume I, International Institute for Population Sciences Mumbai, India 2007.
  • 22. IPCC, Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cam-bridge 2007.
  • 23. MEA, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Our Human Planet, Summary for Decision-Makers, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Island Press, Washington, D.C. 2005.
  • 24. MUKHOPADHYAY I., Identifying Livelihoods in Rural India, in: The Changing Identity of Rural India: A Socio-Historic Analysis, eds. Basile E., Mukhopadhyay I., Anthem Press, First Indian Edition, 2009, p. 15-30
  • 25. NFSA, The National Food Security Bill, Draft, September 2011, dfpd_html/Draft_National_Food_Security_Bill.pdf (3.02. 2012).
  • 26. OSHBAR H., TWYMAN C., ADGER N.W., Thomas D.S.G., 2010, Evaluating successful livelihood adaptation to climate variability and change in Southern Africa, in: Ecology and Society, 15(2).
  • 27. OSTROM E., Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1990.
  • 28. OSTROM E., The puzzle of counterproductive property rights reforms: a conceptual analysis, in: Access to Land, Rural Poverty and Public Action, eds. De Janvry A., Gordillo G., Platteau J.P., Sadoulet E., Oxford University Press, New York, 2001.
  • 29. OSTROM E., Understanding Institutional Diversity, Princeton University Press, Oxfordshire 2005.
  • 30. PATHAK P.K., SINGHA., 2011, Trends in Malnutrition among children in India: Growing inequalities among different economic groups, in: Social Science and Medicine, Aug 73(4), p. 576-85.
  • 31. RAMNATH M., 2008, Surviving the Forest Rights Act: Between Scylla and Charybdis, in: Economic and Political Weekly, 43(09), March 01/March 07.
  • 32. RANGARAJAN M., 2005, Fire in the Forest, in: Economic and Political Weekly, 40(47), November 19/November 25.
  • 33. RAO C.H.H., Growth in Rural Non-farm Sector: Some Lessons from Asian Experience, in: Rural Transformation in India: The Role of Non-farm Sector eds. Nayyar R., Sharma A.N., 29-34, Institute for Human Development, New Delhi, 2005.
  • 34. RAVILLION M., DATT G., 1996, How Important to India's Poor Is the Sectoral Composition of Economic Growth?, in: World Bank Economic Review, 10(1), p. 1-25.
  • 35. RAVILLION M., CHEN S., SANGRAULA P., 2007, New evidence on the urbanization of global poverty, in: Population and Development Review, 33(4), p.667-701.
  • 36. SAXENA COMMITTEE REPORT, Draft Report on BPL survey, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, July 2009.
  • 37. SEN K., GANG I.N., MYEONG-SU Y., 2002, Caste, Ethnicity and Poverty in Rural India, in: IZA Discussion Papers, 629, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • 38. UN, The Millennium Development Goals Report 2006, United Nations, New York 2006.
  • 39. WDR, Equity and Development, World Development Report, World Bank, Washington D.C. 2006.
  • 40. WDR, 2008, Agriculture for Development, World Development Report, World Bank, Washington D.C. 2008.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.