Seasonal variation in fluoride content in groundwaters of Langtang area, Northcentral Nigeria
Treść / Zawartość
Thirty groundwater samples were collected at the peak of the rainy season and analysed for fluoride and other cations and anions in drinking water sources of Langtang area. For comparative purposes, thirty seven groundwater samples were collected in the dry season. The aim of the study was to determine variation in fluoride content with respect to the seasons. Fluoride in water was determined by the Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) and the cations by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The anion (sulphate) was determined by Multi – Ion Colorimeter, bicarbonate and chloride by titration method. In addition fluorine content in aquifer materials from a borehole section were determined by Fusion method. The two seasons show variation in content of fluoride in groundwater. Fluoride content in groundwater is higher in the dry season ranging from 0.13 – 10.3 mg/ l compared to the 0.06 – 4.60 mg/l values in the rainy season. Content of fluorine (0.01 wt %) in the aquifer materials (sands) is low from depth of 0 to 7.95 m. However, fluorine content increases with depth, from 7.95 to 10.60 m with concentration of 0.04 wt %, 0.05 wt % from 10.60 to 13.25m, and 0.07 wt % from 13.25 to 15.70 m, the content of fluorine however, decreased at depth 15.70 to18.55m with concentration of 0.02 wt % even with fluorite mineral in the aquifer material at this depth. Dilution of fluoride ion as a result of rain input which recharges the aquifer may be the main reason for lower values recorded in the rainy season. Over fifty and sixty percent of waters in both dry and rainy season have fluoride concentration above the WHO upper limit of 1.5 mg/l. Consumption of these elevated values of fluoride in groundwater of the study area, clearly manifests as symptoms of dental fluorosis.
Bibliogr. 25 poz., rys., tab., zdj.
- Department of Geology, University of Jos, P.M.B 2084, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
- 1. Apambire, W.B., Boyle, D.R and Michael, F.A (1997): Geochemistry, Genesis and health implication of fluoride in groundwater in the Upper region of Ghana. Environmental Geology, 33, pp 13-24.
- 2. Banks, O. and Clement, R. (1995): Natural concentration of Major and Trace elements in some Norwegian bedrock groundwater. Geological surveys of Norway, N7002 Trondherm - Norway. Pp 1-4.
- 3. Bardsen, A and Bjorvatin, K.A (1995): Variability of fluoride content of subsurface water reservoirs. Acta Odentol. Scand. 54, pp 343-347.
- 4. Boyle, D.R and Chagnon, M. (1995): An incidence of skeletal fluorosis associated with groundwater of the maritime Carboniferous basin, Gaspe Region, Quebec, Canada. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 17, pp 5-12.
- 5. Chae, G.Y., Seong, T.M., Bernhard, K., Kyoung, K. and Seong-Yong, K.(2007): Fluoride geochemistry in bed rock groundwater of South Korea. Science of the Total Environment, 385, pp 272-283.
- 6. Dibal, H.U., Lekmang, I.C and Lar, U.A (2008): Dental fluorosis from drinking water consumption in Langtang town, plateau state, Nigeria. Continental Journal of Earth Sciences 3, pp77-82.
- 7. Dibal, H.U, Schoeneich, K., Garba, I., Lar, U.A and Bala, E.A (2012): Occurrence of fluoride in the drinking waters of Langtang area, North-central Nigeria. Vol 4, No. 11, pp 1116- 1126.
- 8. Dibal, H. U (2015): Concentration of fluoride and incidence of fluorosis in Northern Nigeria with emphasis on Langtang area. Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation, Department of Geology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
- 9. Dissanayake. C.B. (1991): The Fluoride problem in ground waters of Sri Lanka.Environmental Problems and Health. International Journal and Environmental Studies 19, pp. 195.
- 10. Edmunds W.M and Smedley, P.L (2005): Fluoride in Natural Waters In: Selinus, O et al (Ed) Essential of Medical Geology, Springer. Pp 311 - 336
- 11. Gaciri, S.J and Davies T.C (1993): The occurrence and geochemistry of fluoride in some natural waters of Kenya. Journal of Hydrology. 143, pp395-412.
- 12. Handa, R.K (1975): Geochemistry and genesis of fluoride-containing Groundwater in India, GW, 13, pp 275-281.
- 13. Ibrahim, M., Asimrasheed, M., Sumalatha, M. and Prakash, P. (2011): Effects of fluoride contents in groundwater. A review: Int. Jour. of Pharm. Appl. Vol 2, pp128-134.
- 14. Kortting, S. (1972): Fluorine 9B-90. In Wedepohl, K.H (ed). Handbook of Geochemistry. Springer-Verlag.
- 15. Kundu, N., Panigrahi, M.K, Tripathy S., Munshi S., Powell, M.A and Hart, B.R (2001): Geochemical appraisal of fluoride contamination of groundwater in the Nayagarh District of Orissa, India.
- 16. Li, Z., Tainoshi, Y., Shirashi, K. and Owada, M. (2003): Chemical characteristics of fluoride-bearing biotite of Early Paleozoic Plutonic rocks from the Sor Rondane Mountains, East Antartica. Journal of Geochemistry, 37, pp 145-161.
- 17. Nordstrom, D.K and Jenne, E.A (1977): Fluorite solubility in selected geothermal waters. Geochemical Cosmochima Acta, 41, pp 175-188.
- 18. Piper, A.M (1994): A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. American Geophysical Union Papers, Hydrology. Pp 914-923.
- 19. Ramamohana, R.N.V, Rao, N., Prakash, R.S.K and Schuiling, R.D (1993): Fluoride distribution in water of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Geol.
- 20. Saxena, V.K and Ahmed, S. (2001). Dissolution of fluoride in groundwater: Groundwater-rock interaction study. Env.Geol. 40, pp 1084-1087.
- 21. Subba, R. and Devadas, D. (2003): Fluoride incidence in groundwater in a developing area of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh India, J. Appl. Geochem 5, pp 94-100.
- 22. Valenzuela-Vasquez, L., Ramirez-Hernnandez, J., Yeyes-Lopez, J., Sol-Uribe, A. and Lazaro-Mancilla, O. (2006): The origin of fluoride in groundwater supply to Hermosillo City, Sonora, Mexico. Environ. Geol. 56, pp 1707-1719.
- 23. Wenzel, W.W and Blums, W.E.H (1992): Fluoride specification and mobility in fluoride-contaminated soil and minerals. Soil Sci. 152, pp 357-364.
- 24. Wongdem, J.G, Aderinokun, G.A, Sridhar, M.R and Selkur, S. (2002). Prevalence and distribution pattern of enamel fluorosis in Langtang Town. African Journal of Medical Science Fluoride, 35, pp 120-135.
- 25. WHO (2004): Guidelines for drinking Water quality. 3rd edition, World Health Organization, Geneva.