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International declarations have affirmed that health is a universal right. In order for people to exercise their right to health, their social and cultural contexts need to be acknowledged. However, due to a number of barriers encountered at different levels of society and geographically this right is not yet fully exercised by a considerable number of women in Latin America.During the last decade progress has been made in the development of public health policies and programs that integrate and recognize the differences in culture that should be considered when addressing indigenous women's health issues.However, a biomedical health model, which discounts cultural influences, prevails globally over a more integrated approach. This leads to a lack of access and use of quality reproductive health services and care among indigenous people and is one of several important factors contributing to high levels of maternal mortality and poor reproductive health among indigenous women.It is important to ensure that an intercultural approach is included in health policies, programs and services. An intercultural strategy fosters dialogue and respect among women, men, and decision-makers and can contribute to the realization of reproductive health rights and improvement of health outcomes.The debate continues on how to accelerate progress in public policies, health programs and health services. An intercultural approach to assure the health of indigenous women should be a key part of this discussion. Specific efforts are critical for obtaining better health outcomes for indigenous women and other vulnerable populations, if not progress will stagnate in the middle of the 21st century, jeopardizing the attainment of the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs).
Summary The effects of oleuropein on the processes of osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human bone marrow have been studied. We report that oleuropein, a polyphenol abundant in olive tree products, reduces the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), inhibits adipocyte differentiation, and enhances differentiation into osteoblast. Introduction Age-related bone loss is associated with osteoblast insufficiency during continuous bone remodeling. It has been suggested that the formation of osteoblasts in bone marrow is closely associated with adipogenesis, and age-related changes in this relationship could be responsible for the progressive adiposity of bone marrow which occurs with osteoporosis. In addition, the consumption of oleuropein, a major polyphenol in olive leaves and olive oil, has been associated with a reduction in bone loss. Methods We have analyzed the effects of oleuropein—at concentrations between 10−6 and 10−4 M—on the processes of osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis in MSCs from human bone marrow. Results The results show an increase in osteoblast differentiation and a decrease in adipocyte differentiation when there is oleuropein in the culture media. The gene expression of osteoblastogenesis markers, RUNXII, osterix, collagen type I, osteocalcin, or alkaline phosphatase (ALP), was higher in osteoblast-induced oleuropein-treated cells. Also, the ALP activity and extracellular matrix mineralization were higher when oleuropein was present in the media. Oleuropein in MSCs induced adipocytes to produce a decrease in the expression of the genes involved in adipogenesis, the PPARγ, lipoprotein lipase, or fatty acid-binding protein 4, and minor fat accumulation. Conclusion Our data suggest that oleuropein, highly abundant in olive tree products included in the traditional Mediterranean diet, could prevent age-related bone loss and osteoporosis.
Neospora caninum was found in fetal tissues of 34 of 688 cases of bovine abortion submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory System during the period from May 1994 to November 1996. The aborted fetuses ranged in gestational age from 3 to 8 months. Microscopic lesions consisted primarily of encephalitis and myocarditis. A labeled (strept) avidin–biotin staining procedure using anti-N. caninum polyclonal rabbit serum revealed N. caninum organisms within the fetal brain (27 of 27), heart (10 of 13), placenta (5 of 6), kidney (2 of 2), liver (1 of 4) and skeletal muscle (1 of 1).
Late Holocene environmental changes on the southeastern Brazilian coast were assessed using a high-resolution paleoproductivity proxy record from a sediment core collected at 14m water depth in the Pântano do Sul Inlet. Mollusk shells from the core were AMS dated, and sediment grain size, concentrations of organic carbon and total nitrogen, and δ13C and δ15N values were determined to investigate changes in paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic conditions over the depositional period. Most of the parameters showed strong fluctuations in the depth interval corresponding to the Little Ice Age, between 1560 and 1700AD, that were marked by first an increase and then a decrease of input of terrigenous sediments to the inlet. Proxies also indicate that sedimentary conditions were more stable, before and after this period. The strong sedimentary changes observed in the Pântano do Sul Inlet may be related to climatic changes reported elsewhere in South America during 1550 and 1800AD and to severe storm events associated with the enhanced cold fronts that occurred in the southern littoral region during this period.
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