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The photo-cycle dynamics of the H44R mutant of the BLUF domain of the transcriptional anti-repressor protein AppA (AppA-H44R) from the non-sulfur anoxyphototropic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is studied in order to gain information on the involvement of His44 in the photo-cyclic mechanism of the AppA BLUF domain and to add information to the involved processes. The amino acid residue histidine at position 44 is replaced by arginine. A 12nm red-shifted signalling state is formed upon blue-light excitation, while in wild-type AppA (AppA-wt) the red-shift is 16nm. The recovery to the receptor dark state is approximately a factor of 2.5 faster (τ rec ≈6.5min) than the recovery of the wild-type counterpart. Extended light exposure of the mutant causes photo-degradation of flavin (mainly free flavin conversion to lumichrome and re-equilibration between free and non-covalently bound flavin) and protein aggregation (showing up as light scattering). No photo-degradation was observed for AppA-wt. The quantum efficiency of signalling-state formation determined by intensity dependent absorption measurements is found to be ϕ s ≈0.3 (for AppA-wt: ϕ s ≈0.24). A two-component single-exponential fluorescence relaxation was observed, which is interpreted as fast fluorescence quenching to an equilibrium value by photo-induced electron transfer followed by slower fluorescence decay due to charge recombination. Based on the experimental findings, an extended photo-cycle model for BLUF domains is proposed.
Roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-d-riboflavin) and riboflavin in aqueous and organic solvents are studied by optical absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence decay kinetics. Solvent polarity dependent absorption shifts are observed. The fluorescence quantum yields are solvent dependent. For roseoflavin the fluorescence decay shows a bi-exponential dependence (ps to sub-ps time constant, and 100ps to a few ns time constant). The roseoflavin photo-dynamics is explained in terms of fast intra-molecular charge transfer (diabatic electron transfer) from the dimethylamino electron donor group to the pteridin carbonyl electron acceptor followed by intra-molecular charge recombination. The fast fluorescence component is due to direct locally-excited-state emission, and the slow fluorescence component is due to delayed locally-excited-state emission and charge transfer state emission. The fluorescence decay of riboflavin is mono-exponential. The S 1 -state potential energy surface is determined by vibronic relaxation and solvation dynamics due to excited-state dipole moment changes (adiabatic optical electron transfer).
The wild-type BLUF protein Slr1694 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (BLUF=blue-light sensor using FAD) has flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD) as natural cofactor. This light sensor causes positive phototaxis of the marine cyanobacterium. In this study the FAD cofactor of the wild-type Slr1694 was replaced by roseoflavin (RoF) and the roseoflavin derivatives RoFMN and RoFAD during heterologous expression in a riboflavin auxotrophic E. coli strain. An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of the cofactor-exchanged-Slr1694 (RoSlr) was carried out both under dark conditions and under illuminated conditions. The behaviour of RoF embedded in RoSlr in aqueous solution at pH 8 is compared with the behaviour of RoF in aqueous solution. The fluorescence of RoF and RoSlr is quenched by photo-induced twisted intra-molecular charge transfer at room temperature with stronger effect for RoF. The fluorescence quenching is diminished at liquid nitrogen temperature. Light exposure of RoSlr causes irreversible conversion of the protein embedded roseoflavins to 8-methylamino-flavins, 8-dimethylamino-lumichrome and 8-methylamino-lumichrome.
The wild-type phototropin protein phot from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the blue-light photoreceptor domains LOV1 and LOV2 has flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as cofactor. For the LOV1-His domain from phot of C. reinhardtii studied here, the FMN chromophore was replaced by roseoflavin monophosphate (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-FMN, RoFMN) during heterologous expression in a riboflavin auxotropic Escherichia coli strain. An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of the cofactor exchanged-LOV1-His (RoLOV1) domain was carried out in aqueous pH 8 phosphate buffer.The fluorescence of RoLOV1 is quenched by photo-induced charge transfer at room temperature. The photo-cyclic dynamics of RoLOV1 was observed by blue-light induced hypochromic and bathochromic absorption changes which recover on a minute timescale in the dark. Photo-excited RoFMN is thought to cause reversible protein and cofactor structural changes. Prolonged intense blue-light exposure caused photo-degradation of RoFMN in RoLOV1 to fully reduced flavin and lumichrome derivatives. Photo-cycle schemes of RoLOV1 and LOV1 are presented, and the photo-degradation dynamics of RoLOV1 is discussed.
An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-riboflavin, RoF) in aqueous solutions was carried out. The studies were concentrated on roseoflavin in pH 8 phosphate buffer. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence excitation spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. The fluorescence of RoF is quenched by photo-induced intra-molecular charge-transfer at room temperature. The photo-degradation of RoF in un-buffered water, in Tris–HCl buffer, and in phosphate buffer was studied. Phosphate buffer and to a smaller extent Tris buffer catalyse the RoF photo-degradation. Photo-excitation of the primary photoproduct, 8-methylamino-riboflavin (8-MNH-RF), enhanced the RoF degradation by triplet 8-MNH-RF – singlet RoF excitation transfer with subsequent triplet-state RoF degradation.
The BLUF protein Slr1694 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Slr1694 expressed from E. coli which non-covalently binds FAD, FMN, and riboflavin (called Slr1694 I ), and reconstituted Slr1694 which dominantly contains FAD (called Slr1694 II ) are investigated. The receptor conformation of Slr1694 (dark adapted form Slr1694 r ) is transformed to the putative signalling state (light adapted form Slr1694 s ) with red-shifted absorption and decreased fluorescence efficiency by blue-light excitation. In the dark at 22°C, the signalling state recovers back to the initial receptor state with a time constants of about 14.2s for Slr1694 I and 17s for Slr1694 II . Quantum yields of signalling state formation of approximately 0.63±0.07 for both Slr1694 I and Slr1694 II were determined by transient transmission measurements and intensity dependent steady-state transmission measurements. Extended blue-light excitation causes some bound flavin conversion to the hydroquinone form and some photo-degradation, both with low quantum efficiency. The flavin-hydroquinone re-oxidizes slowly back (time constant 5–9min) to the initial flavoquinone form in the dark. A photo-cycle dynamics scheme is presented.
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Zusammenfassung Seit dem Jahr 2004 gelten in Deutschland Mindestmengenregelungen zu bestimmten medizinischen Behandlungen. Innerhalb der letzten 9 Jahre hat sich der Katalog der Prozeduren, der vom Gemeinsamen Bundesausschuss festgelegt wird, kontinuierlich verändert und besteht zurzeit aus 8 Prozeduren. In der vorliegenden Arbeit sollen Entscheidungsgrundlagen für die Aufnahme in den Katalog und die Festlegung von Mindestmengen beleuchtet werden. 2012 wurde hierzu ein Overview systematischer Übersichtsarbeiten erstellt, der den Zusammenhang zwischen der Mengenkomponente und dem medizinischen Outcome betrachtet. Die darin ermittelte Evidenzlage wird den aktuellen Regelungen des Gemeinsamen Bundesausschusses gegenüber gestellt.
The flavin dye 8-amino-8-demethyl-d-riboflavin (AF) in the solvents water, DMSO, methanol, and chloroform/DMSO was studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The first absorption band is red-shifted compared to riboflavin, and blue-shifted compared to roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-D-riboflavin). The fluorescence quantum yield of AF in the studied solvents varies between 20% and 50%. The fluorescence lifetimes were found to be in the 2–5ns range. AF is well soluble in DMSO, weakly soluble in water and methanol, and practically insoluble in chloroform. The limited solubility causes AF aggregation, which was seen in differences between measured absorption spectra and fluorescence excitation spectra. Light scattering in the dye absorption region is discussed and approximate absorption cross-section spectra are determined from the combined measurement of transmission and fluorescence excitation spectra. The photo-stability of AF was studied by prolonged light exposure. The photo-degradation routes of AF are discussed.
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