The agricultural uses of geothermal energy were the centre of attention during the initial stages of geothermal direct applications in Europe, e.g. in Hungary, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Serbia. The focus now seems to be on district heating systems, integrated systems, large balneological/tourist centres, etc. This paper analyses the problems involved in the development of agricultural uses in different regions of Europe and how this sector can be promoted. An analysis of the situation in Europe and in Hungary, Macedonia and Greece, in particular, has revealed different requirements and potentials, different combinations of influencing factors, and the need for different development strategies. It is, however, clear from this analysis that the agricultural uses of geothermal energy are not in collision with modern trends in direct geothermal developments in Europe. On the contrary, they can improve the economic aspects of any district heating or integrated system by offering excellent possibilities for cascade use of the geothermal water and combinations of users with different day/night and seasonal heat requirements.