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1
Content available Wartość współczesnej konsumpcji
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EN
On the centenary of the Professor Maximilian Pohorille birth, the author reminds the achievements of Professor in this topic research. Shows new trends and related economic and social problems, that have emerged in the area of changes in the actual value of consumption, by changing the same consumption content and functions
PL
Z okazji stulecia urodzin Profesora Maksymiliana Pohorillego, autor wspomina dorobek Profesora w tym temacie badawczym. Pokazuje nowe trendy i związane z nimi problemy ekonomiczne i społeczne w rzeczywistej wartości konsumpcji, zmieniające treść i funkcje samej konsumpcji.
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Młodzież to szczególna grupa społeczna – kto już do niej nie należy wspomina ją z nostalgią, kto natomiast jest młody przechodzi przez okres pełen niepewności. Co jednak oznacza bycie młodym? Do jakich ram czasowych odnosi się to pojęcie? Artykuł ukazuje rytuały przejścia charakterystyczne dla młodych oraz zwraca uwagę na ich znaczenie w postmodernizmie. Omawiane zachowania znajdują swoje odbicie w powieściach takich autorów, jak Pier Vittorio Tondelli, Giuseppe Culicchia czy Isabella Santacroce. Szczególną uwagę poświęca się zagadnieniu konsumpcji wokół ciała, które jest znaczącym elementem kultury młodzieżowej. Widoczny staje się nacisk, jaki kładzie ponowoczesność na tożsamość młodych ludzi poprzez oddziaływanie w zakresie ubioru oraz dopasowania wyglądu do wymagań społeczeństwa konsumpcyjnego. Pełen sprzeczności, zmieniający się bagaż kulturowy młodych staje się sygnałem do podjęcia refleksji nad zmianami w społeczeństwie.
EN
The aim of the article was to identify differences in the consumption structure in households in the EU countries in 2010. Ward's method was used to identify the types of the EU countries with different structures of consumption in households and to present the diversification. The research problem in question was analysed on the basis of the data from Eurostat and the International Statistics Yearbook, published annually by the Central Statistical Office. As a result of the research with Ward's method eight types of the EU countries with different consumption structures in households were distinguished.
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The paper considers the development of the pig market in Poland. The article presents pork production and consumption in households. The analysis covered production costs, stock structure and pig exports in EU countries. Tabular, graph and descriptive method were used in the analysis of data. The paper use secondary data which source was meat market and MSO. The research shows that Poland occupies in the production of swine fifth position after Germany, Denmark, France and Spain. In Poland, in recent years, there has been a drop in the pig population, which were mainly the result of growing competition on international markets and the spread of ASF.
EN
The turn of the century was full of dynamic and multi-dimensional changes in the global economy. The most spectacular phenomena may include financial crises. They exerted influence not only on the economy, in which they appeared, but as a result of deepening of globalization, spread "infecting" others. The purpose of this article was an attempt to find similarities in the dynamics of changes in production and global demand that characterized the economy of the selected European Union countries. The starting point was to show the dynamics of gross domestic product (GDP) in selected countries and to find similarities between them. In the next section, attention was focused on the changes in the two components of aggregate demand: consumption and investment, particularly on their correlation with the rate of change of GDP. For analysis and comparisons, the following economies were selected: the economy of the European Union (represented by the euro zone) and the economy of Central and Eastern Europe.
EN
The project will be tested State Uruguay. The country is characterized by political stability, economic attractiveness of tax-free zones for investors, and also has a good infrastructure, communication network, as well as one of the best education systems in their continent. The aim of the study is to verify whether the selected factors affect the volume of consumption (per unit) in Uruguay. Selected factors are investment (per capita), imports (per capita), exports (per capita), government spending (per capita) and the level of consumer prices. Individual data are annual data, and analysis period in the years 1950-2009. Audit of Granger causality indicates that the inclusion of the individual regression equations delayed variables can better explain and predict the evolution of the size of consumption in Uruguay.
EN
The research conducted relates to university students’ leisure practices in urban settings. A three-dimensional framework to picture and analyse students’ leisure, focusing on its temporal, economic and spatial dimensions, is proposed. The analysis is based on empirical evidence from two European cities, namely Lodz, Poland and Turin, Italy. First, the findings show that students’ leisure consumption goes beyond visiting music and disco clubs, and it is oriented towards meeting at home, visiting pubs and cafés, and also shopping for non-daily products. Secondly, the geographies of the majority of students’ leisure activities do not spatially overlap with the places of their education and accommodation. Thirdly, the data obtained on students’ leisure consumption in Lodz and Turin reveal many similarities, despite the contextual differences between the two cities.
9
Content available Minimalism in consumption
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EN
One of the trends in consumer behaviour that has been gradually gaining strength since the beginning of the 21st century is minimalism, also defined as anti-consumerism, voluntary simplicity and deconsumption. These notions are not identical, although, according to research, the conceptual scope is very approximate. Minimalism means deliberately limiting consumption to the rational sizes that result from the natural, individual, physical and mental characteristics of consumers, while emphasising responsible decision-making in this area. The most common expression of processes related to minimalism is mainly the limitations in quantitative and structural consumption. The aim of the article is to present the state of knowledge about minimalism in consumption on the basis of the analysis of the Polish literature on the subject and the results of scientific research. In the case of consumption, minimalism is compared with other concepts and described in terms of the various research fields of consumption. In the case of trends in consumer behaviour, the term is contrasted with deconsumption and voluntary simplicity. It is indicated as part of a lifestyle of sustainable consumption, and occurs when discussing food wastage as well as fashion. It should be noted that the given issues are related to each other, and their separation/separate treatment results from the adaptation of individual principles and rules by different groups of consumers depending on their own needs.
EN
In 2015 the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was won by Angus Deaton. He was awarded for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare. In this paper we have presented the model of consumption co-authored by Deaton (AID model) in the context of postulated rationality of consumers. Also, Deaton’s research over long-run consumption, global poverty and connected phenomena was shortly discussed. Deaton’s merits in moving the spotlight from aggregated data to individual data was stressed. Additionally, the paper presents some biographical information.
PL
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie wpływu transformacji systemowej na sytuację materialną polskich gospodarstw domowych i ich konsumpcję. Autor omawia także zmiany zachodzące w warunkach mieszkaniowych i w wyposażeniu tych gospodarstw w dobra trwałego użytku.
EN
Transformations taking place in the Polish economy over the last fifteen years, including transition from the economy centrally manager to the market one gave rise to significant changes in the existence of households. The transition process from the market economy seriously affected Polish households. The marketisation of economy and its privatisation led to fundamental changes in two economic dimensions of the society's existence - in the sphere of work and that of consumption. The results of systemic transformation manifested themselves in the impoverishment of households and huge unemployment, which gave rise to an increase in the level of their consumption and limited the opportunities and level of satisfying the needs of Polish households. The author of the article presents the influence of the systemic transformation on the financial situation of Polish households and their consumption. Furthermore, he discusses changes appearing in housing conditions and those in providing these households with long-lasting goods.
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The paper examines the relationship between the socioeconomic status and age of savers and saving rates. The analysis is based on the results of two empirical studies carried out in 2004 and 2006 by direct interview method on random samples of 1,305 and 1,320 households respectively. The results of the studies show that the socioeconomic status of savers is a major factor that influences private saving rates. Rószkiewicz has discovered two conflicting trends. In one trend, households with a relatively low socioeconomic status tend to become increasingly big spenders with age. The trend is the stronger the lower is the status of the household head. In another trend, households with a relatively high social status tend to limit consumption with time. This trend increases with the socioeconomic status of the household head.
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The author deals with the concept of household wealth and discusses empirical measures of wealth used in consumption functions in relation to the concept of wealth resulting from the theory of consumer choice. To find a middle ground between different measures of household wealth and empirical data, the author proposes a method for building several time series of net assets in the context of the wealth concept derived from the theory of consumer choice. The measure of household wealth constructed on the basis of the proposed method served as a starting point for constructing narrower measures of household wealth. The widest measure of wealth involved private sector net assets, which is the most adequate approach to explaining private consumption, Zachłod-Jelec says. The author uses charts to show the constructed measures of wealth and net asset values published by the Central Statistical Office (GUS). There is also a graphic analysis of the constructed measures of household wealth and consumption based on GUS data. A preliminary analysis of the constructed measures of household/private sector wealth and consumption – in terms of their use in the structural model of the Polish economy – shows that these measures adequately reflect household consumption, Zachłod-Jelec says. She concludes that the ultimate evaluation of the different measures of household wealth should be based on estimating the consumption function with the use of an appropriate time series.
EN
The article analyzes the implications of consumerism and rampant spending in the context of the pension system reform designed to stimulate saving among households. The author used the results of an empirical study carried out by direct interview on a random sample of 1,305 households at the end of 2004 (with the “no-data” indicator under 13 percent). The results obtained in the survey confirm the Keynesian view that the saving preferences of households and their economic security policies depend on income. Households with relatively higher incomes more often declare possession of spare funds and the possibility of saving. However, the survey also confirmed the accuracy of a view in economic psychology involving unrestrained spending among some groups of society. The study shows that households with incomes sufficient to permit saving generally fall into two categories with different consumption preferences. Households prone to saving and with a higher socioeconomic status-mostly newly established families and those at an advanced stage of family life-usually display a preference for deferred gratification and extended consumption, with a saving rate proportional to income. Such households tend to behave in accordance with the Life-Cycle Hypothesis, with the income factor as the main determinant of the level of saving. The remaining households display a preference for immediate consumption and their saving rate is out of proportion with income. These households generally show no restraint in the management of their financial resources and their behaviors are out of step with the economic theory of saving. They act according to the Behavioral Life-Cycle Hypothesis under which one’s spending and saving preferences are dominated by emotional factors.
PL
Polski rynek rolno - żywnościowy podlega dynamicznym zmianom po 1989 roku, a zwłaszcza po akcesji Polski do UE. Zmieniła się i nadal się zmienia podaż produktów rolno-żywnościowych pochodzących z krajowego rolnictwa i przemysłu rolno-spożywczego oraz z importu. Popyt polskiego konsumenta na żywność także ulega zmianom. Zaobserwować można korzystne zmiany w polskej diecie, np. rośnie spożycie tłuszczów roślinnych. W niewielkim stopniu zmienił się poziom spożycia przetworów zbożowych, warzyw, mięsa, cukru. Wynika to zarówno z tradycji konsumpcji danych rodzajów żywności, jak i ograniczeń budżetów domowych, o czym świadczy względnie niskie spożycie mięsa i przetworów. Widoczny jest już pewny, chociaż ciągle nieznaczny, wpływ kryzysu gospodarczego na ograniczenie konsumpcji żywności. Kryzys gospodarczy w połączeniu z obserwowanym (w 2009 roku) wzrostem cen żywności może zagrażać bezpieczeństwu żywnościowemu, jakości i zdrowotności produktów żywnościowych (food quality, food safety). Niestety daje się zauważyc spadek konkurencyjności polskiej żywności w eksporcie, co jest uwarunkowane częściowo wzrostem jej cen oraz kryzysem gospodarczym, zwłaszcza w najbogatszych państwach unijnych.
EN
The Polish agricultural-food market are subject to very dynamic changes after 1989 year especially when Poland has accessed to the European Union. From one side, the supply of agricultural – food products has been changed and still has been changing( both produced by the Polish agriculture and agriculture-food industry and from imports). On the other side, the Polish consumer food demand has been changing too. One may notice positive changes in the Polish diet (for example the growing share of vegetable oil consumption). Despite these changes, the consumption of cereal preserves, vegetables, meat, sugar has been slightly changed. It is caused by both the tradition of consumption of certain food kinds and consumer budget constraint, for example the relatively low consumption of meat and meat preserves shows it. One may notice some although still insignificant impact of economic crisis on reduction of food consumption. The economic crises together with the observed (in 2009 year) food price increase in Poland may threaten food safety, food health & quality of consumed food products. Unfortunately, the Polish food exports has become less competitive. It is partially caused by food price increase in Poland and economic crisis especially in the richest countries in the European Union.
EN
In the following article the author considers the meaning of the cathegories of exclusivity, fashion, trend and beauty in the face of fast fashion and consumption. The first part concentrates on the explanation of main concepts and the status of trend ("everything can be fashionable"), "the issue of buying". Afterwards the author analyses the idea of exclusivity and its further connections with aesthetics (considering the popularity of "ugly fashion"). In the light of these circumstances it will be necessary to reassess our picture of obsolescent exclusivity, it will be also important to appreciate the role of sustainable ways of "consuming" fashion.
PL
Trwająca od początku lat dziewięćdziesiątych spadkowa tendencja spożycia mleka uległa pewnemu pogłębieniu w pierwszych latach po integracji. Wpływ na to mają w znaczącym stopniu przemiany strukturalne zachodzące w produkcji mleka. Zmniejszenie o połowę w ciągu 10 lat (1996-2005) liczby gospodarstw hodujących krowy spowodowało, że spożycie mleka maleje przede wszystkim w rodzinach rolniczych. Zmniejsza się więc różnica między poziomem spożycia mleka i jego przetworów przez ludność rolniczą i miejską. Jeszcze przez co najmniej kilka lat konsekwencje restrukturyzacji produkcji mleka będą niwelować wzrost spożycia z tytułu rosnącej zamożności polskich konsumentów.
EN
The ongoing since the 90's downward trend in milk consumption has strengthened in the first years after the integration with EU. This process is influenced by structural changes in dairy sector. The reduction in the number of dairy farms by a half within 10 years caused, that milk consumption is declining mostly in the families of farmers. The gap between consumption of milk and dairy products in rural and urban households population is narrowing. The consequences of restructuring of milk production will obliterate, at least for next several years, the effects of raising consumption due to increasing Polish consumers' incomes.
EN
The goal of the article is to analyse consumption as an active element of the economic process. The considerations aim to show that consumption not so much concludes but rather initiates the economic cycle. Consumption determines the situation of individuals by influencing their work performance, its rate and intellectual efficiency. The satisfaction of needs, collection and allocation of consumption resources leads to specific effects (in this indirect effect of consumption). The considerations highlight that the development of productive forces is not a step process. Rather, it should be smooth and spread over time.
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Content available Koszty energii w rolnictwie polskim
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EN
The consumption of twelve energy carriers covered by the analysis in 2000-2011 was estimated with the use of a method ensuring comparability of data on energy input in the analysed period. In 2011, this consumption was by 4.2% lower than in 2000. The consumption of liquid fuels decreased by 10.9%, but the consumption of diesel oil increased by 13.4%. Thermal energy consumption was also lower by 10.0%. But, the consumption of solid fuels increased by 5.3 %, gas fuels by 62.5 % and electricity - by 2.0%. In 2011 the prices for purchasing the analysed energy carriers increased by 12.2 to 193.4%. The price of diesel oil increase by 92.6%. In 2011 the energy costs in agriculture in current prices were by 94.5% higher than in 2000. The energy costs per 100 ha of agricultural land in 2000-2011 increased by over twofold (by 125%), and as regards the surface of arable land - by 152%. The structure of energy costs incurred in agriculture is predominated by diesel oils, whose share in 2000-2011 ranged from 67.9% to 81.5%.
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Content available Cnota oszczędności a etos konsumpcji
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The paper offers an interpretation of frugality as a classic virtue and concentrates on its conflict with widely promoted postulate to consume as much as possible. It is argued that frugality is not a superfluous and anachronistic norm. On the contrary, frugality is a richly relevant standard and important component of sustainable development.
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