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The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of vitamin E administered intraperitoneally on the prevention of peritoneal adhesion formation in rats on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic assessment of the adhesions.Material and methods. Experimental studies were performed on 50 Sprague-Dawley male rats, which were randomly divided into 5 groups, 10 rats in a group. Experimental group I (EI) included 10 rats which had peritoneal adhesions provoked by scraping of the wall of cecum and parietal peritoneum followed by intraperitoneal administration of vitamin E in the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Experimental group II (EII) included 10 rats which had peritoneal adhesions provoked by surgery, without administration of vitamin E. Control Group I (CI) included 10 rats which had the abdominal cavity opened without provoking peritoneal adhesions, and vitamin E was administered. Control Group II (CII) included 10 rats which had peritoneal adhesions provoked by surgery, and then lipid based solution was administered intraperitoneally. Control Group III (CIII) included 10 rats which had the abdominal cavity only opened and closed.Groups EI, CI and CII were the subject of the drugs intraperitoneal re-injection in first, second and third day after surgery. The animals were killed during the 8th postoperative day. Macroscopic examination of peritoneal adhesions using the classification reported by Nair was performed and samples for microscopic examination were excised.Results. In group EI peritoneal adhesions were formed in 60% rats (40% weak and 20% solid). In group EII peritoneal adhesions were found in all animals (30% weak and 70% solid). Reduction of the inflammatory response and less severe fibrosis were observed in animals with intraperitoneal administration of vitamin E.Conclusion. In the study, vitamin E administered intraperitoneally to rats decreased the intensity and extensiveness of peritoneal adhesions, which was confirmed by macroscopic and microscopic examinations.
The sources of vitamin E in the diet are oils, margarines, seeds, nuts and cereal grains. Industrialized sunflower whole grain cookies were treated with gamma irradiation and evaluated for changes in vitamin E content and sensory properties. Radiation doses were 0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy, the dose rate was 3.5 kGy/h. Irradiation at 1 and 3 kGy resulted in no changes in vitamin E content measured as α-tocopherol equivalents by a colorimetric measurement based method. A sensory panel composed of 22 trained members found that irradiation even at 1 kGy induced certain small, but statistically significant differences in sensory characteristics for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes. From the obtained results, it is possible to conclude that there was a notorious stability of the vitamin content of the product submitted to γ-irradiation at the assayed doses. Meanwhile, irradiation at room temperature of this ready to eat food item caused small but statistically significant effects on sensory (marketing) attributes.
Ophthalmic drug delivery is an important area of research that aims to improve the efficacy and convenience of treatment for various eye conditions. There are multiple ways in which drugs can be delivered to the eye, including eye drops, ointments, gels, and inserts. The most prevalent way of administering medication to the eye is through eye drops. They are easy to use and can be self-administered by patients. Nonetheless, eye drops have the disadvantage of being prone to removal by tears, which may result in insufficient drug absorption and reduced effectiveness. Irregular use of active substances can exacerbate the disease, resulting in prolonged treatment with questionable efficacy. Soft contact lenses that serve as ophthalmic drug delivery systems (DDS) can become a viable substitute for traditional treatments. These polymeric lenses can be embedded with various active compounds, some of which are not readily soluble in water or physiological fluids. One such drug is Cyclosporine A (CyA), an immunosuppressant with a high molecular weight and hydrophobic properties, chronically used to treat dry eye syndrome (DES). The article discusses the development of a method for modifying Hilafilcon B contact lenses obtained from drugstores with Cyclosporine A (CyA). The drug was administered to the lenses using an immersion technique, and the process parameters were monitored to control drug release efficiency and profile. The drug release was measured in an Artificial Lacrimal Fluid (ALF) buffer, mimicking tear fluid with a pH of 7.9. The stability of CyA in this buffer was assessed. For the parameters used, the best drug application and release profile was achieved by immersing the contact lenses for 24 hours at 25°C in a CyA solution containing 20 μg/ml of the active substance and adding 5 mg/ml of Vitamin E.
The aim of the study was to observe the effect of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E supplementation on the course of the regeneration process of the longissimus lumborum muscle after bupivacaine-induced myonecrosis as well as to determine the correlation between the level of those substances in plasma and their levels in damaged and non-damaged muscular tissue in pigs. The obtained results indicate that the course of regeneration of a damaged muscle is affected to a higher extent by coenzyme Q10 than by vitamin E. The administration of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E has a significant impact on the increase in the level of those substances in damaged muscles and plasma of animals.
To study the effects of parental gamma-irradiation (4 Gy) of NMRI (Naval Medical Research Institute) mice on the numerical chromosome abnormalities in subsequent preimplantation embryos in the presence of vitamin E (200 IU/kg), super-ovulated irradiated females were mated with irradiated males at weekly intervals in successive 6 weekly periods. About 68 h post coitus, 8-cell embryos were fixed on slides using standard methods in order to screen for abnormalities in chromosome number. In embryos generated by irradiated mice, the frequency of aneuploids dramatically increased compared to control unirradiated groups (p < 0.001), while no significant difference were observed within irradiated groups mated at weekly interval. Administration of vitamin E significantly decreased chromosomal aberrations in all groups (p < 0.05). Data indicate that gamma-irradiation affects spermatogenesis and oogenesis and causes DNA alterations that may lead to chromosome abnormalities in subsequent embryos. Vitamin E effectively reduced the frequency of abnormalities. The way vitamin E reduces genotoxic effects of radiation might be via radical scavenging or antioxidative mechanism.
The liver as a vital body organ is adversely affected by hazardous chemicals and drugs. Paracetamol widely used as analgesic and antipyretic drug produces severe hepatotoxicity at high doses. Present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of Polygonum perfoliatum L. used on folklore basis. Aqueous methanolic extract of the plant was prepared. Preliminary phytochemical and HPLC analyses were carried out to identify and quantify chemical constituents respectively. For hepatoprotective activity, Wistar rats were divided into six groups as normal control, standard (silymarin) control, negative control and extract treated groups i.e., 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day per oral. Paracetamol was administered orally, following seven days of previously stated therapy. Biochemical parameters of hepatotoxicity such as serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin were measured in all groups. Histopathological evaluation of liver was also carried out. Benzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, m-coumaric acid, quercetin and vitamin E were detected in the plant extract through HPLC. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg/day therapy was more pronounced than 125 and 250 mg/kg dose. However, the effect of plant extract was less pronounced than standard silymarin therapy. It can be concluded that the plant extract possessed significant hepatoprotective activity that may be attributed to quercetin, benzoic acid, gallic acid and vitamin E present in it.
Long-term exposure to cadmium (Cd) leads to the development of a number of conditions associated with liver and kidney damage, reproductive and cardiovascular disorders, in addition to visual impairment, blindness and hearing loss, among others. Cadmium has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The toxicity of Cd is related to its pro-oxidant properties and the associated increase in oxidative stress. Antioxidant ingredients may be helpful in preventing the adverse effects of Cd. The effect of well-known antioxidant vitamins (E, C, A and β-carotene) in the prevention of Cd-induced toxicity is presented in this study. Numerous studies in animal models have shown that the effects of vitamins: E, C, A, and β-carotene were effective in reducing Cd concentrations in organs and tissues and reduced Cd-induced changes in liver, kidney, and reproductive, circulatory, nervous, immune, and respiratory systems. In contrast, the limited number of human studies does not allow to accurately determine the role of these nutrients in reducing Cd-induced toxicity, indicating the need for further studies clarifying the role of antioxidant vitamins in reducing Cd-induced toxicity. However, it seems reasonable to promote the consumption of natural food products that are sources of antioxidant vitamins in groups of people with occupational and environmental exposure to Cd.
Chromium (Cr) is a very common element. It occurs in 2 oxidation states, Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Although Cr(III) is not considered an element essential for mammals, it raises lots of controversy due to its role in the body. While Cr(III) action should be considered an effect of pharmacological action, Cr(VI) is included in the first group of carcinogens for humans. Moreover, it induces numerous pathological changes in the respiratory, urinary, reproductive and digestive systems. In addition, Cr(VI) is used in many industry branches, causing millions of workers all over the world to be exposed to Cr(VI) compounds. A considerable number of the occupationally exposed individuals are in favor of a deep analysis of the mechanisms of Cr(VI) action and a search for a way to reduce its negative impact on the human body. Numerous reactive oxygen species inducing oxidative stress and causing various damage are produced during Cr(VI) reduction in the cells. A good balance between antioxidants and pro-oxidants can reduce Cr(VI)-induced damage. The influence of vitamins and microelements on the adverse Cr(VI) effects has no systematic research results summary. Therefore, this work focuses on the role of dietary antioxidants such as vitamins and microelements in the prevention of Cr(VI) adverse health effects. Numerous studies have revealed a protective influence of vitamins (mainly vitamins E and C) as well as microelements (especially selenium) on the reduction of Cr(VI)-induced adverse changes. A potential protective effect of these ingredients may be useful in occupational groups that are particularly exposed to Cr(VI). However, more research in this area is required.
There are numerous reports on the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in various cellular systems. The article presents the results of in vitro studies aimed at identifying changes in activity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and protective antioxidant role of vitamin E during the exposure of blood platelets to EMR (electromagnetic radiation) generated by LCD monitors.
Istnieje wiele doniesień dotyczacych wpływu promieniowania elektromagnetycznego (EMR) na różne systemy komórkowe. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań in vitro mających na celu określenie zmian aktywności dysmutazy ponadtlenkowej (SOD) i antyoksydacyjnej roli witaminy E podczas ekspozycji płytek krwi na EMR (promieniowanie elektromagnetyczne) generowane przez monitory LCD.
Content available remote Antioxidant status in erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis children.
Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis children were studied in order to estimate the severity of their deficiency. Our results point to increased susceptibility of erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis subjects to oxidative injury and indicate that the antioxidant status of patients should be carefully monitored.
Hypertension is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Renal ROS production and their effects on renal function have never been investigated in mineralocorticoid hypertensive rats. In this study we hypothesized that increased ROS production in kidneys from deoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt rats contributes to adverse renal morphological changes and impaired renal function in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. We also determined whether ROS-induced renal injury was dependent on blood pressure. DOCA-salt hypertensive rats exhibited a marked increase in blood pressure, renal ROS production, glomerular and tubular lesions, and microalbuminuria compared to sham rats. Treatment of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats with apocynin for 28 days resulted in attenuation of systolic blood pressure and improvement of renal morphology. Renal superoxide level in DOCA-salt rats was 215% of sham-operated rats and it was significantly decreased to 140% with apocynin treatment. Urinary protein level was decreased from 27 ± 3 mg/day in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats to 9 ± 2 mg/day. 28 days of Vitamin E treatment also reduced renal injury in regard to urinary protein level and renal morphology but had no effect on blood pressure in DOCA-salt rats. Increased urinary 8-isoprostane, a marker for oxidative stress, in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats (55 ± 8 ng/day) was diminished by vitamin E treatment (24 ± 6 ng/day). These data suggest that renal injury characteristic of mineralocorticoid hypertension is associated with oxidative stress and is partly independent of blood pressure.
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