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EN
The article reports on the results from the excavation of the early medieval suburb settlement at Koźlice (season 2007) organized by the Polish Society EUROOPERA in Zgorzelec (co-financed from the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage Operational Programme “Dziedzictwo”) and reviews the results from the excavation season 2006 (published in Polish in Śląskie Sprawozdania Archeologiczne / Silesian Archaeological Reports vol. 50) and excavation season 2007. In 2007 two new trenches were excavated: no. IIIa/07, immediately to the north and east of trench III/06, and sondage trench VI/07, on the margin of the terrace occupied by the suburb settlement. In both areas the topsoil (meadow humus) rested over two deposits corresponding to two phases of the early medieval occupation. The older deposit consisted of several slender layers and a storage(?) pit filled with the same, identified in trenches III/06-IIIa/07. The much thicker younger deposit yielded a significant volume of small finds as well as organic matter which in places intruded on the older anthropogenic level. Small finds from seasons 2006 and 2007 consisted mostly of early medieval pottery, similar to the ceramics discovered inside the stronghold (site 1), datable to the tenth century. A more notable find from the suburb settlement are fragments of at least two roasting dishes made of fired clay. The area excavated so far is too small and the diagnostic value of the small finds too poor to correlate more closely the occupation phases identified in the area of the suburb settlement with the two phases of the stronghold ramparts and two phases of occupation inside the stronghold.
EN
The excavation of the early medieval earthwork at Gniewków undertaken in 2007 by the Institute of Archaeology University of Wrocław was supervised in the field by Assistant Professor K. Jaworski and S. Rodak MA. In view of the ongoing deterioration of the site caused by animals (numerous badger burrows observed in different areas of the linear defensive system) and treasure hunters, the decision was made to undertake archaeological work which would have the nature of a research and a rescue project. The main aim was to recognize the early medieval occupation of the stronghold and its neighbourhood and confirm the previous dating of this defended site. In 2007 eight trenches were laid out, with a combined area of 80 m2. Six of them expanded on older sondage trenches, not all of which, presumably, had been connected to archaeological work (sondage trenches from the research made in 1975, marked as trenches 1-6/1075). New trenches (I-VIII/2007) were set up in the inner area of the earthwork, in its SE area (I, II, III, IV, V and VII/2007) and NW area (VI/2007), whereas trench VIII/2007 was planned on outside, to the north of the stronghold rampart, and covered a fragment of the rampart, a possible moat/ditch and the service settlement of the stronghold. Analysis of the ceramic series secured from this season’s fieldwork allows us to link the site at Gniewków with the nearby strongholds at Dobromierz, Graniczna Górna and Góra Bazaltowa (Mount) in Strzegom. The earthwork’s chronology (9th-10th c.) was determined mainly basing on the ceramic series through comparison with ceramic material from the earthworks in the immediate vicinity of Gniewków. After the investigation season 2007 it was possible to determine the stratigraphic situation of the earthwork, the substantial quantity of ceramic material collected helped us refine its chronology; investigation had been started of the construction design of the earthwork ramparts and the service settlement of the stronghold. The coming season will complete the work in progress and, presumably, bring answers to other questions on the function of the stronghold complex in its region.
EN
The smith’s depot find from Wegscheid am Kamp was discovered by accident, salvaged and handed over to the Lower Austrian Archaeology Service for analysis several years later. The shape and size of the tools found show that blacksmithing was taking place. The assemblage seems to have belonged to a professional blacksmith, who worked either in a permanent workshop or as an itinerant handworker. The numerous tools capable of being used for different purposes indicate the existence of ‘polytechnical’ artisans, who presumably went, with their tool boxes from homestead to homestead, working in the workshops they found there. This view is also indicated by the weapons, such as the blank of a single-edged sword, and above all by the small objects, such as the follis of Emperor Galerius Maximian (293 – 311 A. D.) and the ring fibula, which were probably carried as recycling material in a leather bag, from which the broken belt buckle and the loop of the strap remain. These last two objects date the hoard to the 6th cent.
EN
Human cremation burials at the Early Medieval Prussian hillfort were found in a trench dug in the open hillfort interior, within the borders of a stone pavement interpreted as a household foundation. Human and animal bones representing varying degrees of cremation were recorded in 12 concentrations and in the form of a few dozen scattered isolated finds interpreted presently as relics of a custom calling for the relics of ancestors to be kept within the borders of functioning Early Medieval settlements. The assemblages contained, apart from the 'main' burials, partial burials of cremated skulls. The existence of a head cult in the Balt communities was proposed based on a comparative study of this archaeological material and Early Medieval written sources. In human consciousness, the head may be considered as representing the entire individual, the seat of the spirit and of all virtues. Head worship has been observed among many prehistoric communities. Collected data propounds the idea that the head cult was one of the important elements of Balt spiritual culture and has yet to be properly reflected in relevant studies. The archaeological material reflects different aspects of the head cult: (a) heads used according to the 'pars pro toto' principle in the cremation ritual; (b) heads of those disobeying tribal council decision, displayed as a 'warning'; (c) trophy heads bestowing glory on a warrior or dedicated to the Deivas. They could have also served apotropaic function, which developed in time into specific curative properties. 4 Figures.
EN
To explain chronology and origins of cemeteries of graves in stone settings examination of complementary issues are needed: the provenience of grave furnishings and their usefulness in dating burial groups; the mutual spatial relationship of the two principal variants of Northern Masovia non-church burial grounds, i.e. with and without graves in stone settings; the chronological and settlement context relation of cemeteries with graves in stone settings from two zones of extensive occurrence, in northern Masovia and in Podlaquia. It is also essential to take into account the political events in the middle of the 11th century that have been recorded in the written sources. The grave furnishings of Northern Masovia are of generally Western Slavic character, but some objects present a foreign provenience (military paraphernalia, as well as luxury items, ornaments, clay rattles etc.) from Rus', Scandinavia and Balt cultures. Cemeteries with graves in stone settings started in both northern Masovia and Podlaquia simultaneously about the middle of the 11th century, being indirectly the effect of the new political order on the Vistula and Bug. The political changes were instigated by the allied princes of Poland and Rus', following their defeat of a common enemy in the person of the self-proclaimed ruler of Masovia, Mieclaw. Podlaquia passed then into the hands of the Kiev Rus' state and northern Masovia was returned to the Piast rulers. Varegian Rus' warriors from the east played an active role in these events. They brought the idea of graves in stone settings to the Old Masovia region.
EN
Great Moravian religious architecture is now a reality proved by a multitude of archaeological finds. Thanks to the latest research in the territory of Slovakia, we can rely not only on archaeological finds, but also on some standing buildings with the greatest probability belonging to this period. It is clear from the information available at present that Great Moravian religious architecture was heterogeneous and derived from various Christianizing centres. The latest exact analyses show that after the break-up of Great Moravia as a state, its fragmented remnants survived in the form of family domains and new religious buildings were erected in the course of the 10th century, something considered impossible until recently. The author devotes attention to possible expressions of the tradition of the Great Moravian churches as models for the construction of new churches in the initial stage of the young Kingdom of Hungary. He points to the results of the latest research and analyses the possible typological and design features, which may fix the Great Moravian architectural tradition in this period.
ARS
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2010
|
tom 43
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nr 1
3-23
EN
The article focuses on a group of prominent sacral spaces of the early medieval Croatian state (e.g. in Crkvina in Biskupija, Zazvic or Cetina) displaying some characteristics of the contemporary Carolingian architecture, including one of the most innovative and impressive features of medieval architecture in general, the westwork. It argues for a broader perspective, including cultural anthropology and linguistics into consideration, i.e. that the tower-like structure - the westwork - has connections to superstructures of contemporary early Slavic houses, and that the westwork is 'anti-renovation', 'anti-Carolingian', thus opening new ways for the artistic development of original medieval forms.
EN
The aim of this article is to set the questions of terminology and typology of ranged weapons in early medieval period in the area of today‘s Slovakia. The paper deals with basic parts of bow and theirs interpretation value in archaeological sources, proposes terminology used for their description, based also on new international researches about this problematics. The typology of arrowheads based on multilevel morphological description is also presented. Its result is alphanumerical code, that can be used on every specimen from the analysed period and it results in chronological analysis focused on representation of types in chronological periods from the end of 7th to beginning of 11th century.
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