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Long-term human activity has led to many unfavourable changes in landscape structure. The main negative effect has been a simplification of landscape structure reflecting the removal of stable ecosystems, such as forests, shelterbelts, strips of meadows and so on, which were converted into unstable ecosystems, mainly farmlands. Thanks to these changes, serious threats have been posed to the sustainable development of rural areas. The most hazardous of these involve a deteriorating of water balance, increased surface and ground water pollution, and impoverishment of biodiversity. An agroforestry system can serve as a toolkit which allows counteracting such negative changes in the landscape. This paper presents the main findings emerge from long-term investigations on the above issues carried out by the Institute for the Agricultural and Forest Environment of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Methods of micrometeorological measurements in different scale are presented in this paper. The remote sensing method basing on a system of automatic measurements is the best for carrying continuous measurement in field scale. The mathematical model constructed on the basis of field measurement results is recommended as the very useful for investigation of heat and water balance structure. This model needs only standard meteorological data and information of plant development stage as input data. The model, when satellite infonnation is used, can be applied for practical purposes in agriculture.
W pracy są stosowane metody używane do mikro-meteorologicznych pomiarów w różnej skali. Metoda teledetekcyjna oparta na systemie automatycznych pomiarów jest najlepsza do przeprowadzania pomiarów w skali pola. Matematyczny model skonstruowany na bazie wyników badań pomiarów polowych jest polecany jako bardzo użyteczna metoda do badania struktury bilansu cieplnego i wodnego. Użycie tego modelu jest związane tylko ze znajomością standardowych danych meteorologicznych i informacją dotyczącą fazy rozwoju roślin, które służą jako dane wejściowe. Przy wykorzystaniu informacji satelitarnej model ten może mieć praktyczne zastosowanie w rolnictwie.
The paper presents a review of research on functioning of agricultural landscape, mainly on protection of ecosystem services, carried out by the Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences in Turew in the period of 1970-2009. The paper concentrates on water balance and water pollution control and the protection of biodiversity in an agricultural landscape. The results of the researches show that the best way for maintenance ecosystem services is development of landscape complexity. Introduction of non-productive elements like shelterbelts, strips of meadows, small ponds allows for improvement of water balance, reduction of groundwater pollution even by 90% and enhancement of biodiversity.
Content available Ekosystemy wodne obszarow wiejskich
The multifunctional role of aquatic ecosystems on rural areas was analyzed and described in this paper. Among the most important issues this article discussed the water cycling and energy flow in aquatic ecosystems, their influence onto agricultural landscape biodiversity development and their role as biogeochemical barriers. Finally, the main principles of aquatic ecosystems protection were presented. The structure of heat balance of water ecosystems is similar to shelterbelts. Aquatic ecosystems intensify the process of evaporation and what is more, the smaller area of pond the bigger evaporation. Despite potential looses of water, it was proved that water ecosystems can be used to water (drainage) outtlow retention, and in this way they allow to increase the useful water capacity in the catchment area. Aquatic ecosystems and plants which are at the edge of them play an important role as biogeochemical barriers. They control the migration of non-point agricultural pollution. Moreover, small aquatic ecosystems of country area are mentioned to be the richest as regards the number of flora and fauna species. They influence onto biological diversity and species richness of, not only the water niche, but also the surrounding areas. That is why, they have to be protected. Among the protection guidelines, the principles of flora and fauna as well as water quality and water resources protection and renaturization of degraded ecosystems were described.
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